• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rib

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Clinical Analysis for the Correlation of Intra-abdominal Organ Injury in the Patients with Rib Fracture

  • Park, Seong-Sik
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.246-250
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    • 2012
  • Background: Although it is rare for the fracture itself to become a life threatening injury in patients suffering from rib fracture, the lives of these patients are occasionally threatened by other associated injuries. Especially, early discovery of patients with rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury is extremely important to the prognosis. This study analyzed the link between rib fracture and intra-abdominal injury to achieve improved treatment. Materials and Methods: Among trauma patients that had visited the hospital emergency room from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective study was conducted on 453 patients suffering from rib fracture due to blunt trauma. Rib fracture was classified according to location (left, right, and bilateral), and according to level (upper rib fracture [1-2nd rib], middle rib fracture [3-8th rib], and lower rib fracture [9-12th rib]). The researched data was statistically compared and analyzed to investigate the correlation between the location, level, and number of rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury. Results: Motor vehicle injury was found to be the most common mechanism of injury with 208 cases (46%). Associated injuries accompanied with rib fracture were generated in 276 cases (61%). Intra-abdominal organ injury was discovered in 97 cases (21%). Liver injury was the most common intra-abdominal injury associated with rib fracture with 39 cases (40%), followed by spleen injury, with 23 cases (23%). Intra-abdominal injury according to level of rib fracture was presented as upper rib fracture in 11 cases (11%), middle rib fracture in 31 cases (32%), and lower rib fracture in 55 cases (57%), thus verifying that intra-abdominal injuries were commonly accompanied in lower rib fractures (p=0.03). In particular, significant increase of intra-abdominal injury was presented in fractures below the 8th rib (p=0.03). The number of intra-abdominal injuries requiring emergency operations was significantly higher in patients with more than 6 rib fractures (p=0.04). Conclusion: Intra-abdominal organ injury is more common in patients with lower rib fracture, especially fractures below the 8th rib. Intra-abdominal organ injuries generated in multiple rib fracture patients with more than 6 fractures significantly higher severity. These cases must be thoroughly inspected and carefully observed as there is possibility of emergency operation.

Shear Capacity of Corrugated rib Shear Connector (파형전단연결재의 전단저항 성능)

  • Ahn, Jin-Hee;Choi, Kyu-Tae;Kim, Sung-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Hyo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.3A
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2008
  • This paper deals with the shear capacity of corrugated rib as the shear connector in composite structures. Corrugated rib is modified as perfobond rib shear connector type to evaluate the shear capacity. A total 12 push-out specimens with stud, perfobond rib, and corrugated rib connector were fabricated. Then, the influences of hole-crossing bars, concrete dowel, depth of corrugated panel and height of rib on the shear capacity were evaluated experimentally. As the results of these tests, the failure mechanisms of corrugated rib and perfobond rib specimens were associated with the bearing failure of the concrete slabs, but the failure of weld zone did not occur. The shear capacity of corrugated rib specimens improved as high to 96% compared to the perfobond rib shear connectors. Also, the hole-crossing bars were effective on the improvement of concrete dowel action, and consequently, shear capacity increased by 48%. It was also proven that the increment of the depth of corrugated panel and the height of rib increased the concrete bearing resistance, therefore increasing the shear capacity.

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A Study on the Analysis and Minimization of Structural Error in Weft Knitting - Using Cotton Yarn - (위편성물의 설계 오차값 분석에 관한 연구 - 면사를 사용하여 -)

  • Kwon, Jin;Kwon, Myoung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze and minimize structural error between sample knitting and actual knitting in weft knitting apparel. Basic stitches used in this study were plain stitch, $0{\times}0$ rib stitch, $1{\times}1$ rib stitch, $2{\times}2$ rib stitch, Milan rib stitch. They were knitted into two different gauges(7 and 12 gauge) and 6 different sample sizes by computer program. The weight, length and width of these 5 basic knitting stitches were measured and their changes according to gauge, stitch and knitting were calculated and analyzed. The results were as follows; The weight of $0{\times}0$ rib stitch was the largest, followed by Milan rib stitch, $2{\times}2$ rib stitch, plain stitch and $1{\times}1$ rib stitch. As the density of stitch per unit area increases, the weight increases. The length of $0{\times}0$ rib stitch was the largest, followed by plain stitch, $2{\times}2$ rib stitch, $1{\times}1$ rib stitch and Milan stitch in both 7 and 12 gauge. As the number of course increases, the length increases accordingly. However, its increase ratio shows higher than that of number of course. It means that the reduction in number of course is needed to get aimed length. The width of Milan rib stitch was the largest, followed by $0{\times}0$ rib stitch, plain stitch, $2{\times}2$ rib stitch, $1{\times}1$ rib stitch in 7 gauge. In 12 gauge, Milan stitch, plain stitch and $0{\times}0$ rib stitch were the highest, followed by $2{\times}2$ rib stitch and $1{\times}1$ rib stitch. It showed that the change in shape of stitch influenced on the width more than the length of stitch.

Evaluation of Rib Geometries of Reinforcing Bars Available in Korea, Japan and USA (국내외 이형철근의 마디 형태 및 부착강도 비교)

  • Soe, Dong-Min;Kim, Ki-Seong;Bong, Won-Young;Yang, Seung-Yul;Hong, Gi-Suop;Choi, Oan-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.278-281
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    • 2006
  • The aims of this study are to investigate rib geometries of reinforcing bars commercially available in Korea, Japan and USA, and evaluate bond performance using beam-end test specimens. Measurement of rib geometries of the bars include nominal area, average distance of rib, height of rib and an angle of rib perpendicular to bar axis. The result of this study show that rib height of Korean reinforcement bars are much less than those of Japan and USA resulting in the lowest value of relative rib area. Average bond strength of Korean D25 deformed bars is known as 9 % less than that of bars produced in USA. Bond strength depends primarily on the relative rib area. Bond strength of the high relative rib area bars produced in USA show 18% higher than that of bars produced in Korea.

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Influence of Construction Combination of Rib Stitch and Milan Stitch on Objective Hand Values of Weft Knit (위편성물에서 Rib stitch와 Milan stitch의 편성결합이 태에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Jin;Kwon, Myoung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate change of mechanical and physical properties, shape behavior and hand value in weft knit when rib stitch and milan stitch are combined. The knit stitches used in this study are plain stitch, half milan rib stitch, milan rib stitch, $2{\times}1$ rib stitch, $2{\times}1$ half milan rib stitch and $2{\times}1$ milan rib stitch. We analyzed physical and mechanical properties(tensile, bending, shear, compression, surface properties, thickness and weight) of the knit stitches and calculated their primary hand value and total hand value through translational formulas using the KES(Kawabata Evaluation System). The results are as follows; In evaluation of mechanical properties and hand values of knit stitches, plain stitch had the highest flexibility and the lowest T.H.V. as women's winter knit wear. Since $2{\times}1$ rib stitch had too high elongation in one direction, although it had the highest T.H.V, it needs to be careful when plain stitch and $2{\times}1$ rib stitch are applied for women's winter knit wear. Since Milan rib stitch and $2{\times}1$ milan rib stitch had high T.H.V. similarly, it is considered that they are suitable for women's winter knit wear. Specially, when Milan stitch is combined with $2{\times}1$ rib stitch, its shape stability and fullness are contained and flexibility is added on it. Therefore, $2{\times}1$ milan rib stitch can be also applied for women's winter knit wear.

A study on the warpage in injection molded part for various rib design (사출성형품의 리브 설계에 따른 휨의 연구)

  • Lee, Min;Lyu, Min-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Die & Mold Engineering
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 2008
  • Warpage, which is one of the molding trouble, acts as possible factor which results in defect in assembly. In this study, a mold was designed to produce specimens with rib parallel to flow direction, specimens with rib perpendicular to flow direction and specimens without rib. This work researched change of warpage according to injection molding condition such as injection pressure, packing pressure, packing time, resin temperature, mold temperature in non-crystalline resins(PC, ABS), crystalline resins(PP, PA66), and 30% glass fiber reinforced-resins(PC, ABS, PP, PA66).Specimens with rib and Crystalline resins show more warpage than specimens without rib and non-crystalline resins, respectively. Glass fiber reinforced-resins and specimens with rib parallel to flow direction show smaller warpage than conventional resins and specimens with rib perpendicular to flow, respectively. Specimens with rib and specimens without rib show reduced warpage as packing time increases. In addition, warpage increase as resin temperature increases. It is found that CAE shows similar tendency with experiment as packing time, resin temperature. when the rib is caused, warpage will reduce and prevent the transformation. product of a irregular form occurs warpage. In the study It'll be basic data that product occurs warpage, preferablity.

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Heat/Mass Transfer and Friction Characteristic in a Square Duct with Various Discrete Ribs -In-Lined Gap Arrangement Ribs- (덕트내 요철의 단락위치 변화에 따른 열/물질전달 및 압력강하 특성 - 정렬 단락배열 요철 -)

  • Lee, Sei-Young;Choi, Chung;Rhee, Dong-Ho;Cho, Hyung-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1640-1649
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    • 2001
  • The present study investigates the effects of various rib arrangements on heat/mass transfer in the cooling passage of gas turbine blades. A complex flow structure occurs in the cooling passage with rib turbulators which promote heat transfer on the wall. It is important to increase not only the heat transfer rates but also the uniformity of heat transfer in the cooling passage. A numerical computation is performed using a commercial code to calculate the flow structures and experiments are conducted to measure heat/mass transfer coefficients using a naphthalene sublimation technique. A square channel (50 mm $\times$ 50 mm) with rectangular ribs (4 mm $\times$ 5 mm) is used fur the stationary duct test. The experiments focus on the effects of rib arrangements and gap positions in the discrete ribs on the heat/mass transfer on the duct wall. The rib angle of attack is 60°and the rib-to-rib pitch is 32 mm, that is 8 times of the rib height. With the inclined rib angle of attack (60°), the parallel rib arrangements make a pair of counter rotating secondary flows in the cross section, but the cross rib arrangements make a single large secondary flow including a small secondary vortex. These secondary flow patterns affect significantly the heat/mass transfer on the ribbed wall. The heat/mass transfer in the parallel arrangements is 1.5 ∼2 times higher than that in the cross arrangements. However, the shifted rib arrangements change little the heat/mass transfer from the inline rib arrangements. The gap position in the discrete rib affects significantly the heat/mass transfer because a strong flow acceleration occurs locally through the gap.

Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

  • Yu, Hyun Jeong;Jeong, Yu Sub;Lee, Dong Hoon;Yim, Kyoung Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.185-188
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    • 2016
  • The $12^{th}$ rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the $10^{th}$ rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left $10^{th}$ rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the $9^{th}$ rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with $9^{th}$ rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided $9^{th}$ and $10^{th}$ intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed $10^{th}$ rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the $9^{th}$ rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left $10^{th}$ rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining $10^{th}$ rib to impinge on the $9^{th}$ intercostal nerves, causing pain.

Static Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Beam with Perfobond Rib Shear Connector (Perfobond rib 전단연결재가 설치된 강.콘크리트 합성보의 정적거동)

  • Ahn, Jin Hee;Chung, Hamin;Kim, Sang Hyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.421-432
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    • 2009
  • In this study, push-out and static loading tests were conducted to evaluate the behavioral characteristics of composite beams with a perfobond rib shear connector. The shear capacity of the perfobond rib was found to be proportional to its concrete strength, which is in turn affected by the increase in the concrete end-bearing strength and concrete dowel action to resist the shear force. The relative slips of the push-out specimen, however, which was used to assess the ductility of the shear connector, increased to some extent, but it no longer increased when it reached the critical concrete strength because of the flexibility of the transverse rebar in the rib hole. The static-loading-test results revealed a crack on the concrete slab in the composite beam with a perfobond rib on the side of the rib hole and transverse rebar for the applied moment and shear force to the rib hole, depending on the static loading. The shear resistance characteristics of the perfobond rib shear connector were found to resist the shear force from the relative slip on the interface of the composite beam. Thus, the sectional effect of the shear connector to the composite beam with a perfobond rib should be considered when designing the composite beam because the behavior of the composite beam can change owing to the shear connector.

Analysis of the Turbulent Heat/Fluid Flow in a Ribbed Channel for Various Rib Shapes (채널 내 주기적으로 배열된 요철 형상이 난류 유동장/온도장에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Choi D. H.;Ryu D. N.;Han Y. S.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2002
  • The heat transfer characteristics of a turbulent flow in a ribbed two-dimensional channel have been investigated numerically. The fully elliptic governing equations, coupled with a four-equation turbulence model, $\kappa-\omega-\bar{t^2}-\epsilon_t$, are solved by a finite volume method of SIMPLE type. Calculations have been carried out for three rib cross-sections : square, triangular, and semicircular, with various rib pitches and Reynolds numbers. The procedure appears to be satisfactory as the results for the square rib compare favorably with available experimental data and earlier calculation. The optimal rib pitch that yields the maximum heat transfer has been identified. It is also found that the square rib is most effective in enhancing the heat transfer. The semicircular rib, on the other hand, incurs the least amount of pressure drop but the improvement in heat transfer is substantially lower.

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