• Title/Summary/Keyword: Routing

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A Study on Routing Protocol using C-NODE for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking (Mobile Ad-hoc Networking에서의 C-NODE를 이용한 Routing Protocol에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Bong-Han
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2006
  • This thesis proposes hybrid routing protocol that mix proactive routing protocol and reactive routing protocol used in Ad hoc network. Proposed method is that establish special node offering network service of nods which construct Ad hoc network and do routing different from existing hybrid routing protocol, ZRP. Special node doing these parts is called C-node. Routing using C-node can accompany efficient routing by decreasing path institution time and flooding time than existing routing protocol.

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A Hybrid Routing Protocol Based on Bio-Inspired Methods in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  • Alattas, Khalid A
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2021
  • Networks in Mobile ad hoc contain distribution and do not have a predefined structure which practically means that network modes can play the role of being clients or servers. The routing protocols used in mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are characterized by limited bandwidth, mobility, limited power supply, and routing protocols. Hybrid routing protocols solve the delay problem of reactive routing protocols and the routing overhead of proactive routing protocols. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm is used to solve other real-life problems such as the travelling salesman problem, capacity planning, and the vehicle routing challenge. Bio-inspired methods have probed lethal in helping to solve the problem domains in these networks. Hybrid routing protocols combine the distance vector routing protocol (DVRP) and the link-state routing protocol (LSRP) to solve the routing problem.

A new FPGA routing method by concurrent maze routing (동시 미로 배선 방법에 의한 새로운 FPGA 배선 방법)

  • 최진영;임종석
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.31A no.10
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 1994
  • In this paper, we first propose a new FPGA routing method in which seversal netw are routed concurrently by applying the readitional maze routing method. We then introduce CMRF (concurrent maze Router for FPGA) which can be used for the routing of FpGAs of symmetrical array type by applying our new routing method. Given a set of nets, the proposed routing method performas the maze propagation and backtracing independently for each net and determines the routing paths concurrently by competition among nets. In CMRF, using this routing method, q nets are selected from the nets to be routed and they are routed concurrently, where q is the user given parameter determined by considering the computing environment. This process is repeated until either all the nets are routed or the remaining unrouted nets fail to their maze propagations. The routing of these nets are completed using the rip-up and rerouting technique. We apply our routing method to ten randomly generated test examples in order to check its routing performance. The results show taht as we increase the value of q, the routing completion rate increases for all the examples. Note that when q=1, our method is similar to the conventinal maze routing method. We also compare CMRF with the CGE method which has been proposed by Brown et.al. For the five benchmark examples, CMRF complete the routing with less wire segments in each connection block than the wire segments needed in the CGE method of 100% routing.

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A detailed FPGA routing by 2-D track assignment (이차원 트랙 할당에 의한 FPGA 상세 배선)

  • 이정주;임종석
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics C
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    • v.34C no.10
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    • pp.8-18
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    • 1997
  • In FPGAs, we may use the property of the routing architecture for their routing compared to the routing in the conventional layout style. Especially, the Xilinx XC4000 series FPGAs have very special routing architecture in which the routing problem is equivalent to the two dimensional track assignment problem. In this paper, we propose a new FPgA detailed routing method by developing a two dimensional trackassigment heuristic algorithm. The proposed routing mehtod accept a global routing result as an input and obtain a detailed routing such that the number of necessary wire segments in each connection block is minimized. For all benchmark circuits tested, our routing methd complete routing results. The number of used tracks are also similar to the results by thedirect routing methods.

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An Impact of Addressing Schemes on Routing Scalability

  • Ma, Huaiyuan;Helvik, Bjarne E.;Wittner, Otto J.
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.602-611
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    • 2011
  • The inter-domain routing scalability issue is a major challenge facing the Internet. Recent wide deployments of multihoming and traffic engineering urge for solutions to this issue. So far, tunnel-based proposals and compact routing schemes have been suggested. An implicit assumption in the routing community is that structured address labels are crucial for routing scalability. This paper first systematically examines the properties of identifiers and address labels and their functional differences. It develops a simple Internet routing model and shows that a binary relation T defined on the address label set A determines the cardinality of the compact label set L. Furthermore, it is shown that routing schemes based on flat address labels are not scalable. This implies that routing scalability and routing stability are inherently related and must be considered together when a routing scheme is evaluated. Furthermore, a metric is defined to measure the efficiency of the address label coding. Simulations show that given a 3000-autonomous system (AS) topology, the required length of address labels in compact routing schemes is only 9.12 bits while the required length is 10.64 bits for the Internet protocol (IP) upper bound case. Simulations also show that the ${\alpha}$ values of the compact routing and IP routing schemes are 0.80 and 0.95, respectively, for a 3000-AS topology. This indicates that a compact routing scheme with necessary routing stability is desirable. It is also seen that using provider allocated IP addresses in multihomed stub ASs does not significantly reduce the global routing size of an IP routing system.

Performance Improvement on MPLS On-line Routing Algorithm for Dynamic Unbalanced Traffic Load

  • Sa-Ngiamsak, Wisitsak;Sombatsakulkit, Ekanun;Varakulsiripunth, Ruttikorn
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1846-1850
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a constrained-based routing (CBR) algorithm called, Dynamic Possible Path per Link (D-PPL) routing algorithm, for MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. In MPLS on-line routing, future traffics are unknown and network resource is limited. Therefore many routing algorithms such as Minimum Hop Algorithm (MHA), Widest Shortest Path (WSP), Dynamic Link Weight (DLW), Minimum Interference Routing Algorithm (MIRA), Profiled-Based Routing (PBR), Possible Path per Link (PPL) and Residual bandwidth integrated - Possible Path per Link (R-PPL) are proposed in order to improve network throughput and reduce rejection probability. MIRA is the first algorithm that introduces interference level avoidance between source-destination node pairs by integrating topology information or address of source-destination node pairs into the routing calculation. From its results, MIRA improves lower rejection probability performance. Nevertheless, MIRA suffer from its high routing complexity which could be considered as NP-Complete problem. In PBR, complexity of on-line routing is reduced comparing to those of MIRA, because link weights are off-line calculated by statistical profile of history traffics. However, because of dynamic of traffic nature, PBR maybe unsuitable for MPLS on-line routing. Also, both PPL and R-PPL routing algorithm we formerly proposed, are algorithms that achieve reduction of interference level among source-destination node pairs, rejection probability and routing complexity. Again, those previously proposed algorithms do not take into account the dynamic nature of traffic load. In fact, future traffics are unknown, but, amount of previous traffic over link can be measured. Therefore, this is the motivation of our proposed algorithm, the D-PPL. The D-PPL algorithm is improved based on the R-PPL routing algorithm by integrating traffic-per-link parameters. The parameters are periodically updated and are dynamically changed depended on current incoming traffic. The D-PPL tries to reserve residual bandwidth to service future request by avoid routing through those high traffic-per-link parameters. We have developed extensive MATLAB simulator to evaluate performance of the D-PPL. From simulation results, the D-PPL improves performance of MPLS on-line routing in terms of rejection probability and total throughput.

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Reactive Routing Keyword based Routing Procedure in MANET (MANET에서의 Reactive Routing Keyword 기반 라우팅 프로시듀어)

  • Park Soo-Hyun;Shin Soo-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.55-69
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    • 2004
  • In MANET(Mobile Ad-hoc Network), unlike in wired networks, a path configuration should be in advance of data transmission along a routing path. Frequent movement of mobile nodes, however, makes it difficult to maintain the configured path and requires re-configuration of the path very often. It may also leads to serious problems such as deterioration of QoS in mobile ad-hoc networks. In this paper, we proposed a Reactive Routing Keyword (RRK) routing procedure to solve those problems. Firstly, we noticed it is possible in RRK routing to assign multiple routing paths to the destination node. We applied this feature into active networks and SNMP information based routing by storing unique keywords in cache of mobile nodes corresponding to present and candidate routings in a path configuration procedure. It was shown that the deterioration of QoS which may observed in Dynamic Source Routing(DSR) protocol was greatly mitigated by using the proposed routing technique.

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Hierarchical placement with routing region assignment (배선 전용 영역을 이용한 계층적 배치)

  • 김원종;신현철
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.32A no.2
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    • pp.130-139
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    • 1995
  • A hierarchical placement system based on routing region assignment has been developed to increase the probability of routing completion after placement. While most of the existing placement systems attempt to reduce the cell density at the portions where routing density is high, our method is distinguished in that specific routing regions are allocated to secure complete routing where the routing density is greater than the routing capacity. Hierarchy is vuilt by clustering and recursive paritioning, and the initial placement obtained by partitioning at each level is improved by using the region refinement algorithm. After placement at each hierarchical level, global routing is performed and fouting regions are assigned, if routing density is greater than routing capacity, to be considered at the next level of placement. the proposed algorithm has been implemented and applied to place several industrical gate-array circuits. A couple of circuits which cannot be routed by using conventional placement techniques can be completely routed by using our new placement technique with routing region assignment.

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A Routing Algorithm with Small Routing Traffic (작은 라우팅 구성 트래픽을 가지는 라우팅 알고리즘)

  • Choi, Ick-Sung;Kwark, Gwang-Hoon;Kim, Geun-Hyung
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.18C no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2011
  • This paper proposes techniques for wireless sensor network routing algorithm with small routing traffics. It reduces routing traffic by gathering routing messages for fixed duration of time and the routing message for the configuration result is sent once. The routing traffic gathering technique has disadvantage of longer network configuration time. To overcome this, first one or first few routing messages are delivered immediately and later routing messages are gathered for fixed duration of time. The proposed scheme was modelled and implemented in Qualnet simulator using C language. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques are effective for reducing routing traffics.

The development of a practical pipe auto-routing system in a shipbuilding CAD environment using network optimization

  • Kim, Shin-Hyung;Ruy, Won-Sun;Jang, Beom Seon
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.468-477
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    • 2013
  • An automatic pipe routing system is proposed and implemented. Generally, the pipe routing design as a part of the shipbuilding process requires a considerable number of man hours due to the complexity which comes from physical and operational constraints and the crucial influence on outfitting construction productivity. Therefore, the automation of pipe routing design operations and processes has always been one of the most important goals for improvements in shipbuilding design. The proposed system is applied to a pipe routing design in the engine room space of a commercial ship. The effectiveness of this system is verified as a reasonable form of support for pipe routing design jobs. The automatic routing result of this system can serve as a good basis model in the initial stages of pipe routing design, allowing the designer to reduce their design lead time significantly. As a result, the design productivity overall can be improved with this automatic pipe routing system.