• Title, Summary, Keyword: SD rat

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Efficiency of ATP Synthesis and Impairment of Glucose Tolerance in the NIDDM-Prone Rat

  • Kim, Sook-Bae
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to determine whether genetic defects in the efficiency of ATP synthesis existed in the NIDDM-prone BHE/cdb rat and to determine whether these defects caused the development of glucose intolerance. Thyroxine treatment provided an excellent clue as to the nature of the genetic defects in this rat. The characteristics of hyperhyroid and control Sprague-Dawley(SD) and BHE/cdb rats were studied. Hyperthyroidism was induced through the addition of thyroxine($T_4$) to the diet(2mg/kg of diet). Active proton conductances and passive proton conductances were tested. Mitochondria from hyperhyroid BHE/cdb rats were less efficient iii active proton conductances than mitochondria from hyperhyroid SD rats. It showed that decreased efficiency of ATP synthesis in the BHE/cdb rat was probably related to defects in active proton conductance, Indicating aberrant FoATPase. The levels of $F_1F_0$ATPaseATPase activity were tested. Mitochondria from hyperthyroid BHE/cdb rats were less active than mitochondria from hyperthyroid SD rats. This may be an attribute of aberrant F$_1$ATPase and may contribute to the BHE/cdb strain s characteristic of reduced ATP synthesis efficiency. Glucose tolerances were tested. BHE/cdb rats were profoundly affected by thyroxine, whereas SD rats were less so. It showed that the diabetes phenotype in BHE/cdb rats was related to defects in thyroxine-induced uncoupling. These results showed the decreased efficiency of ATP synthesis due to genetic defects in $F_1F_0$ATPase had relevance to the characteristic of impaired glucose tolerance in the NIDDM-prone BHE/cdb rat.

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White Matter Damage and Hippocampal Neurodegeneration Induced by Permanent Bilateral Occlusion of Common Carotid Artery in the Rat: Comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Strain

  • Kim, Seul-Ki;Cho, Kyung-Ok;Kim, Seong-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2008
  • In order to reproduce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as it occurs in human aging and Alzheimer's disease, we introduced permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) in rats (Farkas et al, 2007). Here, we induced BCCAO in two different rat strains in order to determine whether there was a strain difference in the pathogenic response to BCCAO. Male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (250-270 g) were subjected to BCCAO for three weeks. Kluver-Barrera and cresyl violet staining were used to evaluate white matter and gray matter damage, respectively. Wistar rats had a considerably higher mortality rate (four of 14 rats) as compared to SD rats (one of 15 rats) following BCCAO. Complete loss of pupillary light reflex occurred in all Wistar rats that survived, but loss of pupillary light reflex did not occur at all in SD rats. Moreover, BCCAO induced marked vacuolation in the optic tract of Wistar rats as compared to SD rats. In contrast, SD rats showed fewer CA1 hippocampal neurons than Wistar rats following BCCAO. These results suggest that the neuropathological process induced by BCCAO takes place in a region-specific pattern that varies according to the strain of rat involved.

GC-FID Analysis of Tranylcypromine in Rat Urine (GC-FID에 의한 Rat 뇨중 Tranylcypromine의 분석)

  • 강건일;전순영
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 1985
  • A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was developed to measure tranylcypromine in rat urine. The method involves extraction of the drug and the internal standard, phenylpropylamine from the urine using ethyl acetate and back extraction into 0.5N $H_{2}SO_{4}$. Following final extraction using dichloromethane, both the drug and the internal standard were converted to trifluoroacetyl derivatives and analyzed using a column of 3% SE-30 on 80/100 mesh Chromosorb W(HP). A calibration curve was constructed in the range of $5~50{\mu}g$tranylcypromine sulfate in 0.5ml urine and found to be linear. The detection limit was $2{\mu}g$. The tranylcypromine could be analyzed with the percent recovery of $100.81{\pm}8.13$ (SD) ina concentration range of $8-40{\mu}g$ in 0.5ml urine. When 0.4mmol/kg dose of the drug was administered through, an oral route, excretion percent of tranylcypromine in rat urine over 36hr was found to be $11.90{\pm}6.04$ (SD) for tranyleypromine sulfate and $2.23{\pm}0.63$ (SD) for benzyl trans-2-phenylcyclopropanecarbamate.

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Effect of swimming exercise therapy on a fatty liver in SD-Rat dosage high fat diet (수영운동 치료가 고지방식 투여 SD-Rat의 지방간에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Ryong
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1019-1040
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the repercussions of swimming exercise therapy that has an effect on lipid in blood and liver enzyme of the 3D-Rat dosage high fat diet. The object of this study consisted of two groups. One was the swimming exercise SD-Rat group, the other was the non-exercise SD-Rat group. Sample size was seven Rats repectively. Exercise period was ten week. Exercise group swimmed twenty minutes per a day and 5 times per a week. And then collecting blood from these two group's SD-Rats, making M Health center a request for a blood test on TC, TG, GOT, GPT, we come to a conclusion like below. The weight of the swimming exercise group has decreased 5.93% in comparison with non-exercise group. and has a significant difference(p<0.05). The liver weight of the swimming exercise group has decreased 7.83% in comparison with non-exercise group, and has not a significant difference. The TC of the swimming exercise group has decreased 39.22% in comparison with non-exercise group, and has a significant difference(p<0.05). The TG of the swimming exercise group has decreased 62.88% in comparison with non-exercise group, and has a significant difference(p<0.05). The GOT of the swimming exercise group has decreased 3.22% in comparison with non-exercise group, and has not a significant difference. The GPT of the swimming exercise group has decreased 16.14% in comparison with non-exercise group, and has a significant difference(p<0.05). In regard to above results, the regular swimming exercise therapy with dosage of high fat diet has an important role in healing and preventing a fattyliver, a hyperlipidemia, and an arteriosclerosis, intervening the lipid in blood.

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Comparative Analysis of the Multiple Test Methods for the Detection of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Virus

  • Choi, Young-Jin;Nam, Hae-Seon;Park, Joon-Soo;Kim, Hwi-Jun;Park, Kyung-Bae;Jeon, Min-Hyok;Kim, Chang-Jin;HwangBo, Young;Park, Kwi-Sung;Baek, Kyoung-Ah
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1456
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    • 2010
  • Accurate and rapid diagnosis of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1 2009) infection is important for the prevention and control of influenza epidemics and the timely initiation of antiviral treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of several diagnostic tools for the detection of H1N1 2009. Flocked nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 254 outpatients of suspected H1N1 2009 during October 2009. This study analyzed the performances of the RealTime Ready Inf A/H1N1 Detection Set (Roche), Influenza A (H1N1) Real-Time Detection Kit (Bionote), Seeplex Influenza A/B OneStep Typing Set [Seeplex Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)], BinaxNow Influenza A & B Test Kit [Binax Rapid Antigen Test (RAT)], and SD BIOLINE Influenza Ag kit (SD RAT). Roche and Bionote real-time RT-PCR showed identical results for the H1N1 2009 hemagglutinin gene. Compared with real-time RT-PCR, the sensitivities and specificities were 83.7% and 100% for Seeplex RT-PCR, 64.5% and 94.7% for Binax RAT, and 69.5% and 100% for SD RAT. The sensitivities of Seeplex RT-PCR, Binax RAT, and SD RAT in patients aged over 21 years were 73.7%, 47.4%, and 57.9%, respectively. The sensitivities of Seeplex RT-PCR, Binax RAT, and SD RAT on the day of initial symptoms were mostly lower (68.8%, 56.3%, and 31.3%, respectively). In conclusion, multiplex RT-PCR and RAT for the detection of H1N1 2009 were significantly less sensitive than real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, a negative RAT may require more sensitive confirmatory assays, because it cannot be ruled out from influenza infection.

Effects of Morindae Officinalis Radix on the Spermatogenesis and Antioxidant Activities in the SD Rat

  • Choi Eun Mi;Cho Jung Hoon;Jang Jun Bock;Lee Kyung Sub
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Morindae officinalis Radix (巴戟) on the spermatogenesis and antioxidant activities in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. Materials and Methods: We choose the 2-month-old SD rats, and administered the extract powder of Morindae officinalis Radix once in a day for 28 days. The control rats were administered normal water in the same way and duration. We observed changes of body weight, surgically isolated testis, epididymis, vascular gland and prostate gland before and after administration of Morindae officinalis Radix extracts in SD Rats. Also we compared the testicular tissue, especially seminiferous tubules between the control and treated groups by histochemical methods. In addition, we examined the total, normal, morphologic and motile sperm in the cauda epididymis, and the activity of catalase and peroxidase in the isolated testis tissue. Results: There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups in the body weight, testis, vascular and prostate gland, but the weight of epididymis showed significant difference in the control group. The concentration of total sperm, the motility and normality of spermatozoa was significantly different when compared with the control group, respectively. In the histological examination of testicular tissues, the tendency of increasement of angiogenesis between seminiferous tubules was observed. And the concentration of spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocyte and sperm were higher than that of control testicular tissues. Finally, the activity of catalase and peroxidase related inhibitory molecules of oxidation were slightly increased in the treatment group than those of control group. Conclusions: This study shows that Morindae officinalis Radix has the beneficial effect on the concentration, morphology and motility of sperm, the important factor in male fertility. We can suggest that Morindae officinalis Radix has an effect on the spermatogenesis in the SD rat.

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Isolation and morphological characterization of natural killer cell in the sprague-dawley(SD) rats (Sprague-dawley(SD) 랫드에서 natural killer cell의 분리 ·동정 및 형태적 특징)

  • Kang, Kyung-sun;Lee, Yong-soon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 1992
  • This study was performed to demonstrate the presence of large granular lymphocyte(LGL) in Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats and morphologically observe NK cell and also establish the method of isolation of natural killer cell in SD rats. By percoll discontinuous density gradients centrifugation, highly enriched LGL population were shown to fraction 2(border line between 44.2% and 50.8%). LGL were shown to bind selectively to YAC1 mouse lymphoma cell. This fraction expressed very high NK cell cytolysis. Therefore, we thought that LGL have NK activity in SD rats. The Morphology of rat LGL is very similar to that of human LGL. These cells have an eccentric kidney-shaped nucleus. Their most distinctive feature was their cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. Another distinguishing feature of rat LGL was their high cytoplasmic : nuclear ratio. It was concluded that LGL played a role part in mediating natural killer activity in this species.

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Antioxidant Effects of Berchemia berchemiaefolia in Nerve Pain Models

  • Lee, Gil-Hyun;Hyun, Kyung-Yae;Choi, Seok-Cheol
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.380-387
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    • 2017
  • Berchemia berchemiaefolia (BB) are climbing plants or small to medium-sized trees that live in Africa, Asia and America. We performed the present study to investigate whether oral administration of Berchemia berchemiaefolia extract (BBE) protects SD rats from pain. The SD rat experimental groups were divided into four groups. Two of the animal model groups were fed on BBE (200 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). We performed oral acute toxicity test to determine the optimal oral dose of BBE. To explore if BBE alleviated pain in the SD rat, we undertook the tail flick latency test and formalin test. Additionally, we conducted the anti-oxidative test. The findings of the present study suggest that Berchemia berchemiaefolia extract exhibits strong antioxidant and analgesic activities.

Quantification of Metabolic Alterations of Dorsolateral Pre-Frontal Cortex in Depression SD Rat by MR Spectroscopy

  • Hong, Sung-Tak;Choe, Bo-Young;Choi, Chi-Bong;Park, Cheong-Soo;Hong, Kwan-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.126-140
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Contrary to the human study, it has rarely investigated metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of depressed rats versus age and sex-matched controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, the purpose of this research was to verify the feasibility of metabolic differences between the normal rat and the depression model rat. Materials and Methods: A homogeneous group of 20 SD male rats was used for MRI and in vivo 1H MRS. To induce a depressed status in SD rats, we performed the forced swimming test (FST). Using image-guide, water suppressed in vivo 1H MRS with 4.7 T MRI/MRS system, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were mainly measured between depressed rats and normal subjects. Results: In depressed rats, increased Cho/Cr ratio was measured versus control subjects. However, no significant group effect for NAA/Cr was observed between case-control pairs. Discussion and Conclusions: The present 1H MRS study shows significant brain metabolic alterations of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with experimental depressed status of SD rat induced by FST compared to normal subjects. This result provides new evidence that in vivo 1 H MRS may be a useful modality for detecting localized functional neurochemical markers alterations in left DLPFC in SD rats.

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The Effect of Oral Administration of Yongyukjowi-tang on the Immune Activity in Aged Rat (용육조위탕(龍肉調胃湯) 경구투여가 노화 흰쥐의 면역활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Han-Eol;Ahn, Taek-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.62-74
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of oral administration of Yongyukjowi-tang(YJT) on the immune activity in aged Sprague-Dawley rat(SD rat). Methods : SD rats were divided into three groups: Yongyukjowi-tang groups(YJT groups), distilled water groups(control groups) and Vitamin C groups(positive control groups) which were administered an oral dose(1ml/1day) to 6, 48 and 68 weeks old SD rats for four weeks. After four weeks, the number of total leukocyte, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and the level of cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-${\gamma}$) were measured in spleen tissue of each SD rats. Results and Conclusions : 1) The number of total leukocyte significantly increased in 52 weeks old YJT group and 72 weeks old YJT group in comparison with those of the control group. 2) The number of CD3+ cell significantly increased in 72 weeks old YJT group in comparison with those of the control group and the positive control group. 3) The number of CD8+ cell significantly increased in 52 weeks old YJT group in comparison with those of the control group. 4) The level of IL-2 significantly increased in 72 weeks old YJT group in comparison with those of the control group and the positive control group. 5) The level of IL-4 significantly increased in 52 weeks old YJT group in comparison with those of the positive control group. These results suggest that oral administration of YJT has an effect on increase of immune activity in aged rat.