• Title/Summary/Keyword: SDE

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Analysis of Volatiles in Sesame Oil Collected by Simultaneous Distillation/Extraction(SDE) and Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) (연속수증기증류법(SDE)과 동적헤드스페이스법(DHS)에 의한 참기름 중의 향기성분의 분석)

  • Ha, Jaeho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.399-405
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    • 1996
  • The flavor compounds of the oil from roasted sesame seeds were collected by simultaneous steam distillation/ extraction(SDE) and dynamic headspace sampling(DHS) and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and connected into a mass spectrometer. Among the flavor compounds collected by the SDE method, 46 compounds were identified. They consisted of 6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 ketones or acids, 4 furans or phenols, 12 pyrazines, 4 pyridines or thiazoles, and others. Thirty six compounds were identified by DHS and many of them were the same as those identified by the SDE method. However, some compounds such as 1-hexanol, pentanal, and dimethylsulfide were identified only by the DHS method.

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Studies on the Some Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Nutmeg Oil by Different Extraction Methods (추출방법에 따른 Nutmeg Oil의 물리적, 화학적 성질에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Hee-Jin;Ra, Do-Young;Kim, Ok-Chan;Yang, Kwang-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.851-856
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    • 1989
  • The physical properties of essential oil of nutmeg extracted in different methods (SDE, Solvent, $CO_2$) were investigated and also the components of essential oil were analyzed using G.C. and G.C./ Mass. Solvent extraction yield was 23% and was higher than those of SDE extraction and $CO_2$ extraction. From the analysis result and physical properties of nutmeg oil, it was conformed that the nutmeg used In this experiment was similar to East Indies type. The content of sabinene was 3.6-14.1%, 28.4-48.7% for myristicin, 1.2-2.1% for elemicin, and 3.6-5.6% for safrole. The camphene was identified in SDE extracts but not in $CO_2$ extracts. The volatile components of SDE extracts and solvent extracts contained large amount of monoterpene and terpene alcohol but $CO_2$ extracts aminly contained aromatic compounds.

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Comparison of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Meat of the Blue Crab Using V-SDE and SPME Methods (V-SDE와 SPME법에 의한 꽃게(Portunus trituberculatus)육의 휘발성 향기성분 비교)

  • Cha, Yong-Jun;Cho, Woo-Jin;Jeong, Eun-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.441-446
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    • 2006
  • Volatile flavor compounds in meat of the blue crab Portunus trituberculatus were compared using vacuum simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (V-SDE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)/ gas chromatography (GC)/ mass selective detection (MSD) methods. A total of 100 volatile flavor compounds were identified by both methods: 77 by V-SDE and 59 by SPME. These compounds were composed of 17 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 19 alcohols, 5 esters, 4 sulfur-containing compounds, 6 nitrogen-containing compounds, 23 aromatic compounds, 6 hydrocarbons, 2 terpenes, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Although more compounds were detected using V-SDE than using SPME, the levels of all groups detected, except esters, were higher using SPME than using V-SDE. In addition to trimethylamine, aldehydes, and aromatic compounds, the S- and N-containing compounds with low thresholds are thought to have positive roles for flavors in the meat of the blue crab.

A CLASS OF NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS(SDES) WITH JUMPS DERIVED BY PARTICLE REPRESENTATIONS

  • KWON YOUNGMEE;KANG HYE-JEONG
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.269-289
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    • 2005
  • An infinite system of stochastic differential equations (SDE)driven by Brownian motions and compensated Poisson random measures for the locations and weights of a collection of particles is considered. This is an analogue of the work by Kurtz and Xiong where compensated Poisson random measures are replaced by white noise. The particles interact through their weighted measure V, which is shown to be a solution of a stochastic differential equation. Also a limit theorem for system of SDE is proved when the corresponding Poisson random measures in SDE converge to white noise.

Aroma Characteristics of Applemint (Mentha rotundifolia(L.) Huds) with Different Extraction Methods (추출방법에 따른 애플민트의 향기특성)

  • Min, Young-Kyoo;Yoon, Hyang-Sik;Kim, Ji-Yeoun;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1465-1470
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    • 1999
  • Aroma was extracted from Applemint(Mentha rotundifolia(L.) Huds) with SDE(simultaneous distillation and extraction), SFE(supercritical fluid extraction) and headspace method and the compounds of aroma were tentatively identified with GC-MS. The functionality of aroma compounds were determined with GC-olfactometry. Total 67 compounds were identified. Among them, 39 compounds were determined from SDE, 42 from SFE and 16 from headspace extract. Many terpene compounds were extracted with SDE and headspace methods but hydrocarbones with SFE. The major constituents of aroma obtained from SDE and SFE, were piperitenone oxide, germacrene-D and trans sabinene hydrate, but those from headspace method were 3-octanol, 1,8-cineol, camphene and benzeneacetaldehyde. Results of sniffing test, determining characteristics and strength of aroma showed that the major constituents of SDE extract were refreshing sweet and apple-like(ethyl-2-methyl butanoate), sweet and fruity-like$({\alpha}-thujene)$, fresh mushroom-like(1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol), and bitter herb-like$({\delta}-cadidene)$. Major constituents of aroma extracts obtained from headspace method were alcoholic, refreshing sweet and apple-like(ethyl 2-methyl butanoate), unpleasant chemical, and bitter herb and grassy-like(camphene).

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Implementation of a Service Data Aggregator Service based on OGSA By Using Globes Toolkit V.3 (Globus Tookit V.3를 사용한 OGSA 기반 서비스 데이터 수집기 서비스 구현)

  • Kang Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes the main characteristics of Grid Services based on OGSA and a Grid service for aggregating service data element(SDE)s. In order to build a Grid Service, it needs to consider a systematic building approach from the high-level software architecture that represents the main system components and their interactions. The purpose of this paper is to design and implement an extended service data aggregator service in which SDE is a basic unit for collecting resource information. A GT3 based service data aggregator service is extended to apply the multiple collections based storage scheme for maintaining persistently SDEs with a XML DBMS Xindice. To provide efficient aggregating service for service data elements, which is running under wide area environment like Internet, the aggregator service is asynchronously operated by notification mechanism.

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Feature Extraction via Sparse Difference Embedding (SDE)

  • Wan, Minghua;Lai, Zhihui
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.3594-3607
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    • 2017
  • The traditional feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) cannot obtain the local structure of the samples, and locally linear embedding (LLE) cannot obtain the global structure of the samples. However, a common drawback of existing PCA and LLE algorithm is that they cannot deal well with the sparse problem of the samples. Therefore, by integrating the globality of PCA and the locality of LLE with a sparse constraint, we developed an improved and unsupervised difference algorithm called Sparse Difference Embedding (SDE), for dimensionality reduction of high-dimensional data in small sample size problems. Significantly differing from the existing PCA and LLE algorithms, SDE seeks to find a set of perfect projections that can not only impact the locality of intraclass and maximize the globality of interclass, but can also simultaneously use the Lasso regression to obtain a sparse transformation matrix. This characteristic makes SDE more intuitive and more powerful than PCA and LLE. At last, the proposed algorithm was estimated through experiments using the Yale and AR face image databases and the USPS handwriting digital databases. The experimental results show that SDE outperforms PCA LLE and UDP attributed to its sparse discriminating characteristics, which also indicates that the SDE is an effective method for face recognition.

Volatile Aroma Compounds and Their Characteristics of Labiatae by Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) (Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME)에 의한 꿀풀과 약초의 향기성분과 그 특성)

  • Song, Yong-Eun;Ku, Chang-Sub;Mun, Sung-Phil;Ryu, Ji-Sung;Kim, Dae-Hyang;Choi, Joung-Sik;Choi, Yeong-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to find the possibility of use of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) for extracting the volatile aroma compounds in the five aromatic plants (Agastache rugosa O. Kuntze, Mentha arvensis Linne, Thymus quinquecostatus Celakovsky, Elsholtzia splendens Nakai, Schizonepta tenuifolia Briquet) belongs to the Labiatae. In the result of the analysis, the volatile aroma compounds were mainly composed monoterpene alcohol (linanol, menthol, ${\alpha}-terpineol$, borneol), monoterpene ketone (limonene, menthone) and sesquiterpene (trans-caryophyllene,${\delta}-cadinene)$. The volatile aroma compounds of Agastache rugosa O. Kuntze and Mentha arvensis Linne were extracted by SPME more identified than the SDE. However, Schizonepta tenuifolia Briquet more identified by the SDE and in Elsholtzia splendens Nakai similar to the SDE. Especially, the SPME showed the sesquiterpene contents was more than the SDE. The major volatile aroma compounds were difference but the composition of those between the SPME and the SDE showed no difference. Within the results, the SPME showed the most convenient and a rapid extraction method to analysis of the volatile aroma compounds.

Volatile Flavor Components of Cultivated Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Sprout (재배한 무순의 향미성분)

  • 송미란
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2001
  • The consumption of radish ( Rhaphanus sativus L.) sprout, which is Cruciferae family, is increasing because of its pungent flavor and taste. Its volatile components were analyzed by SDE (simultaneous steam distillation & extraction) method and P&T(purge & cryogenic trapping) method. As a solvent, diethyl ether and diethyl ether : pentane mixture(2:1, v/v) were used in SDE method, and diethyl ether in P&T method. Analyzing by GC and GC-MS, the major component was sulfur compounds (19 species, peak area 76.6%) with diethyl ether, sulfur compounds(15. 44.0%) and hydrocarbons(23, 23.8%) with diethyl ether-pentane mixture in SDE method. Also, hydrocarbons(25, 84.1% ) was major component in P& T method. The major volatile component of fresh radish sprout were n-heptane, methyl pentane and that of boiled radish sprout were 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, methyl mercaptane, 2,3-dimethyl disulfide. Low molecular volatile components were detected more by P& T method, but types and relative quantities of volatile components were measured less comparing to SDE method.

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Evaluation of surface displacement equation due to tunnelling in cohesionless soil

  • Mazek, Sherif A.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.55-73
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    • 2014
  • The theoretical predictions of ground movements induced by tunnelling are usually based on the assumptions that the subsoil has the same soil densities. The theoretical prediction does not consider the impact of different sand soil types on the surface settlement due to tunnelling. The finite elements analysis (FEA) considers stress and strength parameters of the different sand soil densities. The tunnel construction requires the solution of large soil-structure interaction problem. In the present study, the FEA is used to model soil-tunnel system performance based on a case study to discuss surface displacement due to tunnelling. The Greater Cairo metro tunnel (Line 3) is considered in the present study as case study. The surface displacements obtained by surface displacement equation (SDE) proposed by Peck and Schmidt (1969) are presented and discussed. The main objective of this study is to capture the limitations of the parameters used in the SDE based on the FEA at different sand soil densities. The study focuses on the parameters used in the SDE based on different sand soil densities. The surface displacements obtained by the FEA are compared with those obtained by the SDE. The results discussed in this paper show that the different sand soil densities neglected in the SDE have a significant influence on the surface displacement due to tunnelling.