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A Study on Developing Customized Bolus using 3D Printers (3D 프린터를 이용한 Customized Bolus 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sang Min;Yang, Jin Ho;Lee, Seung Hyun;Kim, Jin Uk;Yeom, Du Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : 3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. Materials and Methods : RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$ and $V_{95%}$ in treatment plan through Eclipse. Results : Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average $3.9cm^3$ at the customized bolus. And it was average $29.6cm^3$ at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. Conclusion : The customized bolus developed by 3D printers was effective in minimizing the air gap, especially when it is used against the treatment area with irregular surface. However, the air gap between branded bolus and skin was not enough to cause a change in target dose. On the other hand, in the chest wall could confirm that dose decrease for small the air gap. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days and the development cost was quite expensive. Therefore, the commercialization of customized bolus developed by 3D printers requires low-cost 3D printer materials, adequate for the use of bolus.

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Three-dimensional analysis of artificial teeth position according to three type complete mandibular denture before and after polymerization (세 가지 방식으로 제작한 하악 총의치의 중합 전후에 따른 인공치아 위치 3차원 분석)

  • Park, Jin-Young;Kim, Dong-Yeon;Kim, Won-Soo;Lee, Gwang-Young;Jeong, Il-Do;Bae, So-Yeon;Kim, Ji-Hwan;Kim, Woong-Chul
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of three type complete mandibular denture of before and after polymerization. Methods: Mandibular edentulous model was selected as the master model. 15 study models were made by Type IV stone. Wax complete mandibular dentures were produced by the denture base and artificial teeth. Before and after curing, STL files were obtained using a blue scanner. By superimposing the digitized complete mandibular denture data(after curing) with the CAD-reference(before curing) three-dimensionally, visual fit-discrepancies were drawn by calculating the root mean square (RMS) and visualized on a color-difference map. Each calculated RMS-value was statistically analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) (${\alpha}=.05$). Results: Mean(SD) RMS-values was OM group $88.98(6.10){\mu}m$, BM group $82.35(13.46){\mu}m$, BDM group $77.83(9.46){\mu}m$. The results of the 1-way ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences in the RMS values of the Three groups for the material (P > .241). Conclusion : Deformation of artificial teeth position was observed in all groups after resin polymerization. But the values, all group were within the clinically acceptable range. The values of BDM group showed the least deformation than the other two groups.

Restoration of implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis using the automatic abutment superimposition function of the intraoral scanner in partially edentulous patients (부분무치악 환자에서 구강스캐너의 지대주 자동중첩기능을 이용한 임플란트 고정성 보철물 수복 증례)

  • Park, Keun-Woo;Park, Ji-Man;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2021
  • The digital workflow of optical impressions by the intraoral scanner and CADCAM manufacture of dental prostheses is actively developing. The complex process of traditional impression taking, definite cast fabrication, wax pattern making, and casting has been shortened, and the number of patient's visits can also be reduced. Advances in intraoral scanner technology have increased the precision and accuracy of optical impression, and its indication is progressively widened toward the long span fixed dental prosthesis. This case report describes the long span implant case, and the operator fully utilized digital workflow such as computer-guided implant surgical template and CAD-CAM produced restoration after the digital impression. The provisional restoration and customized abutments were prepared with the optical impression taken on the same day of implant surgery. Moreover, the final prosthesis was fabricated with the digital scan while utilizing the same customized abutment from the provisional restoration. During the data acquisition step, stl data of customized abutments, previously scanned at the time of provisional restoration delivery, were imported and automatically aligned with digital impression data using an 'A.I. abutment matching algorithm' the intraoral scanner software. By using this algorithm, it was possible to obtain the subgingival margin without the gingival retraction or abutment removal. Using the digital intraoral scanner's advanced functions, the operator could shorten the total treatment time. So that both the patient and the clinician could experience convenient and effective treatment, and it was possible to manufacture a prosthesis with predictability.

Development of a Korean Speech Recognition Platform (ECHOS) (한국어 음성인식 플랫폼 (ECHOS) 개발)

  • Kwon Oh-Wook;Kwon Sukbong;Jang Gyucheol;Yun Sungrack;Kim Yong-Rae;Jang Kwang-Dong;Kim Hoi-Rin;Yoo Changdong;Kim Bong-Wan;Lee Yong-Ju
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2005
  • We introduce a Korean speech recognition platform (ECHOS) developed for education and research Purposes. ECHOS lowers the entry barrier to speech recognition research and can be used as a reference engine by providing elementary speech recognition modules. It has an easy simple object-oriented architecture, implemented in the C++ language with the standard template library. The input of the ECHOS is digital speech data sampled at 8 or 16 kHz. Its output is the 1-best recognition result. N-best recognition results, and a word graph. The recognition engine is composed of MFCC/PLP feature extraction, HMM-based acoustic modeling, n-gram language modeling, finite state network (FSN)- and lexical tree-based search algorithms. It can handle various tasks from isolated word recognition to large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. We compare the performance of ECHOS and hidden Markov model toolkit (HTK) for validation. In an FSN-based task. ECHOS shows similar word accuracy while the recognition time is doubled because of object-oriented implementation. For a 8000-word continuous speech recognition task, using the lexical tree search algorithm different from the algorithm used in HTK, it increases the word error rate by $40\%$ relatively but reduces the recognition time to half.

The Subjects Analysis of Transportation Technology Problem Solving Activities at Energy and Transportation Technology Unit in Middle School Technology·Home Economics Textbooks of the 2009 National Revised Curriculum ('09 개정 교육과정에 따른 중학교 '기술·가정' 교과서 '에너지와 수송기술' 단원의 수송기술 문제해결 활동 주제 분석)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun;Yi, Sang-Bong
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.134-150
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    • 2016
  • This study has analyzed the subjects of transportation technology problem solving activities at Energy and Transportation Technology unit in the 12 kinds of middle school Technology Home Economics textbooks of the 2009 national revised curriculum. An analysis frame was developed with systems and environmental mediums which are common elements of transportation and the subjects were analyzed. As a result of this study, first, 8 kinds of subjects among 20 subjects in analysis frame were suggested in the textbooks. Second, according to the environmental, there are 13 terrestrial activities, 2 atmospheric activities, and 1 marine activity in the textbooks. However, there is no space related activity. Third, according to the system, there are 13 activities for the structure, 12 activities for the propulsion and suspension system, 5 activities related to the control system, and 1 activity regarding guidance system. Fourth, there are 4 kinds of problem solving activities depending on categorizing result of the analysis of the activities.

A Convergence Study on the 5-axis Machining Technology using the DICOM Image of the Humerus Bone (위팔뼈 의료용 디지털 영상 및 통신 표준 영상을 이용한 5축 가공기술의 융합적 연구)

  • Yoon, Jae-Ho;Ji, Tae-Jeong;Yoon, Joon;Kim, Hyeong-Gyun
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.11
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2017
  • The present study aimed to obtain basic knowledge of a customized artificial joint based on the convergence research of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine(DICOM) and 5-axis machining technology. In the case of the research method, three-dimensional modeling was generated based on the medical image of the humerus bone, and the shape was machined using a chemical wood material. Then, the anatomical characteristics and the modeling machining computation times were compared. The results showed that the Stereolithography (STL) modeling required twice more time for semi-finishing and 10 times more time for finishing compared to the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification(IGES) modeling. For the 5-axis machining humerus bone, the anatomical structures of the anatomic neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, and intertubercular groove were similar to those in the three-dimensional medical image. In the future, the convergence machining technology, where 5-axis machining of various structures(e.g., the surgical neck undercut of the humerus bone) is performed as described above, can be efficiently applied to the manufacture of a customized joint that pursues the precise model of a human body.

Development of Mathematics 3D-Printing Tools with Sage - For College Education - (Sage를 활용한 수학 3D 프린팅 웹 도구 개발 - 대학 수학교육을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jae-Yoon;Lim, Yeong-Jun;Park, Kyung-Eun;Lee, Sang-Gu
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.353-366
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the widespread usage of 3D-Printing has grown rapidly in popularity and development of a high level technology for 3D-Printing has become more necessary. Given these circumstances, effectively using mathematical knowledge is required. So, we have developed free web tools for 3D-Printing with Sage, for mathematical 3D modeling and have utilized them in college education, and everybody may access and utilize online anywhere at any time. In this paper, we introduce the development of our innovative 3D-Printing environment based on Calculus, Linear Algebra, which form the basis for mathematical modeling, and various 3D objects representing mathematical concept. By this process, our tools show the potential of solving real world problems using what students learn in university mathematics courses.

Hip Range of Motion Estimation using CT-derived 3D Models (CT기반 3차원 모델을 이용한 고관절 운동범위 예측)

  • Lee, Yeon Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2018
  • The success of the total hip arthroplasty is revealed as initial stability, range of motion, and long term pain, etc. Depending upon choice of implantation options such as femoral neck offset, diameter of the femoral head, the lateral opening tilt. Especially the impingement between femoral head component and acetabular cup limits the range of motion of the hip. In this sense, estimation or evaluation of the range of motion before and after the total hip arthroplasty is important. This study provides the details of a computer simulation technique for the hip range of motion of intact hip as well as arthroplasty. The suggested method defines the hip rotation center and rotation axes for flexion and abduction, respectively. The simulation uses CT-based reconstructed 3D models and an STL treating software. The abduction angle of the hip is defined as the superolateral rotation angle from sagittal plane. The flexion angle of the hip is defined as the superoanterior angle from the coronal plane. The maximum abduction angle is found as the maximum rotation angle by which the femoral head can rotate superolaterally about the anterior-posterior axis without impingement. The maximum flexion angle is found as the maximum rotation angle by which the femoral head can rotate superoanteriorly about the medial-lateral axis without impingement. Compared to the normal hip, the total hip replacement hip showed decreased abduction by 60 degrees and decreased flexion by 4 degrees. This measured value implies that the proposed measurement technique can make surgeons find a modification of increase in the femoral neck offset or femoral head, to secure larger range of motion.

In vitro evaluation of the wear resistance of provisional resin materials fabricated by different methods (제작방법에 따른 임시 수복용 레진의 마모저항성에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ju;Huh, Jung-Bo;Choi, Jae-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study was to evaluate the wear resistance of 3D printed, milled, and conventionally cured provisional resin materials. Materials and methods: Four types of resin materials made with different methods were examined: Stereolithography apparatus (SLA) 3D printed resin (S3P), digital light processing (DLP) 3D printed resin (D3P), milled resin (MIL), conventionally self-cured resin (CON). In the 3D printed resin specimens, the build orientation and layer thickness were set to $0^{\circ}$ and $100{\mu}m$, respectively. The specimens were tested in a 2-axis chewing simulator with the steatite as the antagonist under thermocycling condition (5 kg, 30,000 cycles, 0.8 Hz, $5^{\circ}C/55^{\circ}C$). Wear losses of the specimens were calculated using CAD software and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate wear surface of the specimens. Statistical significance was determined using One-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 analysis (${\alpha}=.05$). Results: Wear losses of the S3P, D3P, and MIL groups significantly smaller than those of the CON group (P < .05). There was no significant difference among S3P, D3P, and MIL group (P > .05). In the SEM observations, in the S3P and D3P groups, vertical cracks were observed in the sliding direction of the antagonist. In the MIL group, there was an overall uniform wear surface, whereas in the CON group, a distinct wear track and numerous bubbles were observed. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, provisional resin materials made with 3D printing show adequate wear resistance for applications in dentistry.

Efficacy and Accuracy of Patient Specific Customize Bolus Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Electron Beam Therapy (전자선 빔 치료 시 삼차원프린터를 이용하여 제작한 환자맞춤형 볼루스의 유용성 및 선량 정확도 평가)

  • Choi, Woo Keun;Chun, Jun Chul;Ju, Sang Gyu;Min, Byung Jun;Park, Su Yeon;Nam, Hee Rim;Hong, Chae-Seon;Kim, MinKyu;Koo, Bum Yong;Lim, Do Hoon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2016
  • We develop a manufacture procedure for the production of a patient specific customized bolus (PSCB) using a 3D printer (3DP). The dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB is evaluated for electron beam therapy. In order to cover the required planning target volume (PTV), we select the proper electron beam energy and the field size through initial dose calculation using a treatment planning system. The PSCB is delineated based on the initial dose distribution. The dose calculation is repeated after applying the PSCB. We iteratively fine-tune the PSCB shape until the plan quality is sufficient to meet the required clinical criteria. Then the contour data of the PSCB is transferred to an in-house conversion software through the DICOMRT protocol. This contour data is converted into the 3DP data format, STereoLithography data format and then printed using a 3DP. Two virtual patients, having concave and convex shapes, were generated with a virtual PTV and an organ at risk (OAR). Then, two corresponding electron treatment plans with and without a PSCB were generated to evaluate the dosimetric effect of the PSCB. The dosimetric characteristics and dose volume histograms for the PTV and OAR are compared in both plans. Film dosimetry is performed to verify the dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB. The calculated planar dose distribution is compared to that measured using film dosimetry taken from the beam central axis. We compare the percent depth dose curve and gamma analysis (the dose difference is 3%, and the distance to agreement is 3 mm) results. No significant difference in the PTV dose is observed in the plan with the PSCB compared to that without the PSCB. The maximum, minimum, and mean doses of the OAR in the plan with the PSCB were significantly reduced by 9.7%, 36.6%, and 28.3%, respectively, compared to those in the plan without the PSCB. By applying the PSCB, the OAR volumes receiving 90% and 80% of the prescribed dose were reduced from $14.40cm^3$ to $0.1cm^3$ and from $42.6cm^3$ to $3.7cm^3$, respectively, in comparison to that without using the PSCB. The gamma pass rates of the concave and convex plans were 95% and 98%, respectively. A new procedure of the fabrication of a PSCB is developed using a 3DP. We confirm the usefulness and dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB for the clinical use. Thus, rapidly advancing 3DP technology is able to ease and expand clinical implementation of the PSCB.