• Title/Summary/Keyword: Salt effects

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The Effect of Salt and pH on the Phase Transition Behaviors of pH and Temperature-Responsive Poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-methylacrylic acid)

  • Liu, Tonghuan;Fang, Jian;Zhang, Yaping;Zeng, Zhengzhi
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.670-675
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    • 2008
  • A series of pH and temperature-responsive (N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-methylacrylic acid) copolymers were synthesized by radical copolymerization and characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) $^1H$, $^{13}C$ and LLS. The effects of salt and pH on the phase transition behaviors of the copolymers were investigated by uv. With increasing NaCl concentration, significant salt effects on their phase transition behaviors were observed. UV spectroscopic studies showed that the phase transition became faster with increasing NaCl concentration. In addition, the phase transition behaviors of copolymers were sensitive to pH. The pH and temperature sensitivity of these copolymers would make an interesting drug delivery system.

A Study on Neutral Salt Effects of Dyeing for Aramid (중성염이 아라미드 염색에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Jin;Park, Jun-Ho;Yang, Byeong-Gil;Gang, Tae-Chung;Jeon, Byeong-Dae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.187-189
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    • 2008
  • 아라미드 섬유는 화학적으로 치밀한 구조 때문에 염료의 침투가 어려워 염색이 곤란하다. 염료의 침투가 용이하도록 팽윤제를 사용하여 염색하는 방법이 주로 사용되고 있지만 만족스러운 염착률을 얻을 수 없다. 본 연구에서는 기존의 방법에 중성염을 첨가하여 아라미드를 염색함으로써 중성염이 아라미드 염색에 미치는 영향에 대해 알아보았다. 연구 결과, 중성염을 사용하지 않은 경우에 비해 염색성이 향상되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 연구에 사용된 3종의 중성염 중에서 NaCl을 사용한 경우에 가장 우수한 염색성을 나타내어 현장에서 경제적으로 적용 가능한 아라미드 염색법이 될 것으로 기대된다.

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Salt Effects on the Critical Micelle Concentration and Counterion Binding of Cetylpyridinium Bromide Micelles

  • Jong Jae Chung;Sang Wook Lee;Joon Ho Choi
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.411-413
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    • 1991
  • The effects of electrolyte on the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and bromide counterion binding in the micelles of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) have been investigated by UV spectroscopy and conductance measurements. Salts used in this study decreased cmc in the order $Cl^-\;<\;Br^-\;<\;NO3^-$ (which parallels the lyotropic series for the inorganic anions) and the effects on cmc followed the equation proposed by Shinoda: log cmc = A - B log (cmc + [NaX]). In the equation, constant B represents the counterion binding to the micelles at cmc and for the micelle of CPB at $25^{\circ}C$, B=80.76%. The association constant for the binding of counterions to long chain cations within micelles was also derived from the cmc values and counterion binding constant to the micelles.

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The trans $\rightarrow$ cis Photoisomerization and Fluorescence of trans 1,2-Bispyrazylethylene: pH, Salt and Heavy Atom Effects

  • Shim, Sang-Chul;Bong, Pill-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.53-55
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    • 1986
  • The $trans{\rightarrow}cis$ photoisomerization and fluorescence of trans-1,2-bispyrazylethylene were investigated in various conditions. The quantum yields of the $trans{\rightarrow}cis$ photoisomerization and the fluorescence intensity of trans-1,2-bispyrazylethylene decrease on going from neutral to acidic or basic solutions. The quantum yields of photoisomerization, however, are little affected by changing the concentration of salt while the fluorescence intensity increases as the concentration of salt increases. pH and salt effects on the energy levels of $^1(n,\;{\pi}^*)\;and\;^1({\pi},\; {\pi}^*)$ states lead to opposing changes in photoisomerization and fluorescence quantum yields. The heavy atom effect on the fluorescence of 1,2-bispyrazylethylene was also investigated.

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Thermosensitive Block Copolymers Consisting of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Star Shape Oligo(ethylene oxide)

  • Lee, Seung-Cheol;Chang, Ji-Young
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1521-1525
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    • 2009
  • Thermosensitive block copolymers of ethylene oxide and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) were synthesized. A five armed star shape oligo(ethylene oxide) initiator with a cyclotriphosphazene core was prepared and used for the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of NIPAM. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of the copolymers were 36 to 46 ${^{\circ}C}$, higher than that of PNIPAM (32 ${^{\circ}C}$), depending on their molecular weights. The copolymers were soluble in water below the LCSTs but formed micelles above the LCSTs. The thermosensitive micellization behaviors of the polymers were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. With increasing the temperature of an aqueous solution of P2 and pyrene above the LCST, the peak of 333 nm red-shifted to appear around 339 nm and its intensity increased significantly, indicating the micelle formation. The transfer of pyrene into the micelles was also confirmed by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The fluorescence image obtained from P2 in an aqueous pyrene solution exhibited a green emission resulting from the pyrene transferred into the micelles. Salt effects on the solubility of the copolymers in an aqueous solution were investigated. The LCST of P2 decreased sharply as the concentration of sodium chloride increased, while decreased slowly with potassium chloride.

Effects of Neutral Salts on Alkaline Hydrolysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (II) - Anionic Effect - (중성염이 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) 직물의 알칼리 가수분해에 미치는 영향(II))

  • Do, Sung-Guk;Cho, Hwan
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 1994
  • Neutral salts have negative or positive effects on the rates of many chemical reactions and also on the rates of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of carboxylic esters. The direction of neutral salt effects on the hydrolysis of ester depends on the charge of esters. Neutral salts accelerate alkaline hydrolysis of esters with negative charge, but decelerate alkaline hydrolysis of esters with positive charge, and have little effect on the alkaline hydrolysis of neutral esters. It is expected that the rate of the alkaline hydrolysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalte) (PET), polymeric solid carboxylic polyester with carboxyl end group at the polymer end, is also influenced positively by neutral salts. In the present work, to clarify the mechanism of the neutral salt effect on the alkaline hydrolysis of PET, many salts with different anions like NaF, NACl, NaBr, NaI were added to the aqueous alkaline solutions. Then PET was hydrolyzed with aqueous solutions of many salts in alkali metal hydroxides under various conditions. Some conclusions obtained from the experimental results were summarized as follows. The reaction rate of the alkaline hydrolysis of PET was increased by the addition of neutral salts and In k was increased nearly linearly with the square root of ionic strength of reaction medium. This fact suggested that the ionic strength effect by Debye-Huckel and Bronsted theory was exerted on the reaction. The specific salt effect was also observed. The reaction rate was increased with the decrease in the nucleophilicity of anions of neutral salts, i.e., in the order of $F^-$ <$Cl^-$<$Br^-$<$I^-$. It was thought that the reaction rate was increased in the order of $F^-$ <$Cl^-$<$Br^-$<$I^-$. because the completion of anions with $OH^-$ for carbonyl carbon became weaker with the decrease in the nucleophilicity and with the increase in the size of anions.

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