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A Study on Farmer's Syndrome and Its Risk Factors of Vinyl House Worker and Farmer in a Rural Area (일부 농촌지역 비닐하우스 재배자들의 농부증 실태와 관련요인)

  • Lee, In-Bae;Lee, Yeon-Kyeong;Chang, Sung-Sil;Lee, Sok-Goo;Cho, Young-Che;Lee, Dong-Bae;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.13-33
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    • 1999
  • The aim of this study was to investigate fatigue scores, physical complaints, farmer's syndrome and to find out its risk factors among farmers. The questionnaire survey was conducted to 177 vinyl house workers and 213 farmers who lived in Chongyang gun of Chungnam province from February 24 to March 15, 1998. The obtained main results were followings; 1. The fatigue scores were not significantly different between vinyl house workers and farmers. The fatigue scores were higher in female group, lower education group, shorter sleep hours group(under 8 hours), nonsmoker, nondrinker group than otherwise groups. There was not statistically significant difference between the mean fatigue scores and age, eating habit and body mass index. Duration of farming years in vinyl house and farming area and number of farming workers in farmers family showed a slight relationship with the fatigue score. 2. Health scores were not different between vinyl house workers and farmers. The health states was poorer in female group, lower education group, shorter sleep hours group(under 8 hours), nonsmoker group, and nondrinker group than otherwise groups by health scores. Health scores were not related with age, eating habit and body mass index. 3. The proportion of farmer's syndrome was 49.1% in vinyl house workers and 52.1% in farmers. That was higher in female than in male and the higher proportion was found in the lower education group of vinyl house workers and farmers. The proportion of farmer's syndrome was higher in the group of smoker, alcohol drinkers and over or under weight in vinyl house workers, but did not differ in those of farmers. 4. By multiple logistic regression, sex and sleep hours were risk factors affecting to farmer's syndrome. Odds ration for female group was 2.53 (reference group was male) and that for over 8 sleep hours group was 0.74 (reference group was under 8 sleep hours group). 5. The chief complaints by CMI were "I am difficult to work due to aching the back and the limbs", "I feel prickle pain in the limbs", "I sometimes have a twinge in the limbs", "I am not quite well as having a pain in the limbs", "I feel weaker grasping power than before" in both of vinyl house workers and farmers. Vinyl house workers more frequently pointed out skin darkening, skin disease and hemorrhoids than farmers. 6. According to correspondence analysis, skin disease of vinyl house workers was related to vinyl house farmers and digestive and general symptom was associated with male and endocrinological and muscular symptom was associated with female in vinyl house workers. And it revealed that farmer's syndrome was highly related with female and farmers relatively. By the above results, the fatigue scores, perceive health and farmer's syndrome did not much differ in two groups, but aged female farmers should be considered as female farmers represented higher fatigue score, farmers syndrome and poorer perceive health than male farmers in addition to farmer's syndrome was increased with ageing process. Also feeble but distinguished symptoms which might be due to working environment were observed especially in vinyl house workers and that should be considered and investigated continuously.

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COMPLIANCE STUDY OF METHYLPHENIDATE IR IN THE TREATMENT OF ADHD (주의력결핍과잉행동장애 치료 약물 Methylphenidate IR의 순응도 연구)

  • Hwang, Jun-Wan;Cho, Soo-Churl;Kim, Boong-Nyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : There have been very few studies on the compliance of methylphenidate-immediate releasing form(MPH-IR), which is the most frequently used drug in Korea, in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). This study was conducted to investigate the compliance rate and the related factors in the one year pharmacotherapy process via OPD for children with ADHD. Method : Total 100 ADHD patients were selected randomly among patients who have been treated with MPH-IR from September in 2002 to December in 2002. All the selected patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV-ADHD criteria and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In March, 2003(at the time of 6 month treatment), all the patients and parents received the questionnaire for the compliance and satisfaction for MPH-IR treatment. In October 2003(at time of 1 year treatment), we, investigators evaluated the socio-demographic variables, developmental data, medical data, family data, comorbid disorders, treatment variables, and compliance rate. Through these very comprehensive data, The compliance rate at the time of mean 1 year treatment and the related factors were investigated. Result : 1) In the questionnaire for compliance and satisfaction for MPND treatment, the 60% of respondents(parents) reported more than moderate degree of satisfaction in the effectiveness of MPND. Their compliance rate for the morning prescription was 81%, but the rate of afternoon prescription was 43%. 2) In the evaluation at the time of 1 year treatment(October 2003), the 38% of parents were dropped out from the OPD treatment. The mean compliance rate for the 1 year treatment was 62%. the 38% of parents were dropped out from the OPD treatment. The mean compliance rate for the 1year treatment was 62%. 3) Compared with the noncompliant group(drop-out group), compliant group showed higher total, verbal and performance IQ scores. In the treatment variables, higher reposponder rate(clinician rating), higher medication dosage and more compliance rate in afternoon prescription were found in the compliant group compared with the noncompliant group. There were no statistical differences in the demographic variables(age, sex, SES, parental education level), medical data, developmental profiles and academic function. Conclusion : To our knowledge, this is the first report about the compliance rate of the MPH-IR treatment for the children with ADHD. The compliance rate at the time of mean 1year treatment was 62%, which was comparable with other studies performed in foreign countries, especially States. In this study, the compliance related factors were IQ score, clinical treatment response, dosage of MPH-IR, and early compliance for the afternoon prescription. These results suggest that clinician plan the strategies for the promotion of the early compliance for the after prescription and enhancement of overall treatment response.

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The Continuous Monitoring of Oxygen Saturation During Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (기관지내시경 검사시 지속적인 동맥혈 산소포화도 감시의 필요성)

  • Kang, Hyun Jae;Kim, Yeon Jae;Chyun, Jae Hyun;Do, Yun Kyung;Lee, Byung Ki;Kim, Won Ho;Park, Jae Yong;Jung, Tae Hoon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.385-394
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    • 2002
  • Background : Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy(FFB) has become a widely performed technique for diagnosing and managing pulmonary disease because of its low complication and mortality rate. Since the use of FFB can in patients with severely depressed cardiorespiratory function is increasing and hypoxemia during the FFB can induce significant cardiac arrhythmias, the early detection and adequate management of hypoxemia during FFB is clinically important. Method : To evaluate the necessity of the continuous monitoring of the oxygen saturation($SaO_2$) during the FFB, the $SaO_2$ was continuously monitored from the finger tip using pulse oximetry before, during and after the FFB in 379 patient. The patients were then divided into two groups, those with and without hypoxemia($SaO_2$<90%). The baseline pulmonary function data and the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results : The mean baseline $SaO_2$ was $96.9{\pm}2.85%$. An $SaO_2$ <90% was recorded at some point in 62(16.4%) out of 379 patients, with 12 out of 62 experiencing this prior to the FFB, in 37 out of 62 during the FFB, and in 13 out of 62 after the FFB. No differences were observed in the smoking and sex distribution between those with and without hypoxemia. The mean age was older in those with hypoxemia than in those without. Significant differences were observed in the mean baseline $SaO_2$ and the mean time for the procedure between the two groups. The $FEV_1$ was significantly lower in those with hypoxemia, and both the FVC and $FEV_1/FVC$ also tended to decrease in this group. Managing hypoxemia included deep breathing in 20 patients, a supplemental oxygen supply in 39 patients, and the abortion of the procedure in 3 patients. Conclusion : These results suggest that the continuous monitoring of the oxygen saturation is necessary during fiberoptic bronchoscopy, and it should be performed in patients with a depressed pulmonay function in order for the early detection and adequate management of hypoxemia.

A Basic Study on the Health Status in Villages of Kum San Goon, Chung Cheong Nam Do Area (충남(忠南) 금산군내(錦山郡內) 보건시범부락(保健示範部落)에 대(對)한 기초조사(基礎調査))

  • Kho, Byung-Hoon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 1974
  • Survey results concerning the general information on health status of 7,050 inhabitants (1,141 households) which have been selected within Keumsan Gun, Chung Choung Nam Do area are as follws: 1. The average family size is $6.18{\pm}2.17$ persons per household. Tertiary sex ratio is 105.5 population composition of Kumsan Gun shown a pyramidal form consisting of 51.6% of the inhabitants under 20 years of age. 2. Rate of illiteracy amounts to 12.1% and only 4.1% of villagers were graduated from high schools, 80% of the inhabitants have some kind of jobs: 46.1% of them are engaged in agriculture, 95.2% of villagers have their own houses, and remaining 4.8% do not have their own. 3. 72% of households made use of health services provided provided by health centre or subcentres during a period of 1 year from April 1, 1973 to March 31, 1974. 26.8% of them visited health centre of sub-centres 2-4 times annually for the following purposes: 1) Vaccination: 35.7% 2) Diagnosis or treatment: 26.7% 3) Family planning: 24.1% 4) Maternal and child health: 10.5% 4. Utilization rate of health facilities is on an average 4.4 times per household and 0.75 times per capita. 5. Birth rate in the area is 1.91% and death rate is 0.75%, indicating the natural increase rate is only 1.16% that is lower than the nationwide rate of 1.8-2.2% in 1970 and 1.5-1.9% in 1973. 6. 37.7% of fertile women (20-40 years old) in the area are still unmarried, Fertility rate is the highest in the age group of 63-40 years old showing a value of 17.1%. 7. The unmarried population in this area amounts to 61.4% : 61.4% in male and 57.6% in female. 8. Number of inhaibtants who practice family planning is 612 persons(22.6%) among the married (2.771). This value consists of 8.3% of married males and 34.8% of married females. Only 16.0% of the people who put family planning in practice undergo permanent contraceptive methods and remaining 84.0% of them do temporary measures. 9. Only 57.7% of the subjects took vaccinations as follows: 1) B.C.G. vaccination: 82.7% 2) D.P.T. vaccination: 76.2% 3) Poliomyelitis vaccination: 67.9% 4) Smallpox vaccination: 62.6% 10. In the utilization of medical facilities in case of sickness drug stores (32.15%) comes first and hospitals or clinics (28.65%), health centre of health sub-centres (17.96%), herb drug stores (7.36%) and herb gerneral practioners (6.31%), etc., in decreasing order. Sickness that people living in this area suffer from are neuralgia, disease digestive troubles, respiratory diseases and skin lesions, etc.

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Studies on the Total Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) Activities and CPK Isoenzymes Fractions of the Sera and Organ Tissues in Ruminant (반추수의 혈청과 장기조직의 Creatine Phosphokinase(CPK) 총활성 및 CPK Isoenzyme 분획에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon Sang-Bo;Kim Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.433-449
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    • 1992
  • Total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions of the sera and tissues were examined to obtain the physiological basic data of ruminant available in veterinary clinical practice. For the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions, total 39 clinically healthy Korean native goats (3 to 10 months old, IS of female and 18 of male) and 6 of Korean native goats (1 to 2 years old, 3 of female and 3 of male) were used. Seventeen Korean native cattle (3 to 6 years old, 10 of female and 7 of male) and 27 Holstein-Friesian cattle (2 to 8 months old, 7 of female and 3 to 12 years old, 20 of female) were also examined for the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions. For the total CPK activities and CPK isoenzyme fractions, 3 of female Korean native goats (7 months old), 3 of female Korean native cattle (2 years old) and 3 of dairy cattle (2 years old, 2 of female and 1 of male) were used. The tissues examined were the cerebrum (2 of Korean native cattle), spinal cord (1 of Korean native cattle), heart, lung, diaphragm, reticulum, liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum. colon and femoral muscle. The results obtained were as follows : 1. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old. serum total CPK activities were 67.8${\pm}$17.7(39.0~96.5) IU/$\ell$ in female and 63.4${\pm}$19.0(28.7~94.4) IU/$\ell$ in male. Further they were 67.0${\pm}$5.3(59.5~70.7) IU/$\ell$ and 54.5${\pm}$11.1(39.1~69.4) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of female were slightly higher than those of male. Significance between age and sex was not found. 2. Serum total CPK activities were 56.8${\pm}$19.7(27.6~90.5) IU/$\ell$ and 65.6${\pm}$10.8(52.8~78.0) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native adult cattle, respectively, Serum total CPK activities of male were slightly higher than those of female, but they were not significant 3. Serum total CPK activities we,e 72.5${\pm}$8.2(57.2~83.2) IU/$\ell$ and 60.8${\pm}$12.5(42.7~80.6) IU/$\ell$ in calves and adult of dairy acttle, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of calves were significantly higher than those of adult(p<0.05). 4. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old, serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>BB>MB in female and male, respectively. Further they were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>B8>MB in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. The main fractions of CPK isoenzymes were MM in sera of Korean native goats. 5. Serum CPK Isoenzyme fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB In both female and male of Korean native cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 6. Serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>BB>MB in both calves and adult of dairy cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 7. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the femoral muscle>kidney>reticulum>diaphragm>liver>spleen>heart>colon>lung>jejunum in Korean native goats. 8. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the spinal cord >cerebrum>femoral muscle>reticulum>kidney>liver>spleen>diaphragm>lung>colon>heart>jejunum in Korean native cattle. 9. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order. of the femoral muscle >liver>retoculum>kidney>heart>colon>lung>spleen>jejunum>diaphrasm in dairy cattle. 10. The pattern of the cardiac CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high in the order of MM>MB without BB fractions and the main fraction was MM. 11. The pattern of the pulmonary CPK isoenzymes fractions was the same Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and the main fraction among them was MM. 12. The pattern of CPK isoenzymes fractions of the diaphragm was Identical in Korean native goats and Korean native cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >BB >MB except dairy cattle (MM>MB>BB) but the main fraction among them was MM. 13. The pattern of the reticular CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM) but the main, fraction among them was BB 14. The pattern of the hepatic CPK isoenzymrs fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MB >BB >MM except Korean native goats(MB>MM>BB)but the main fraction was MB. 15. The splenic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MB>BB>MM, MM>BB>MB and BB>MB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fraction among them was different from each other. 16. The pattern of the renal CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >MB>BB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM). 17. The CPK isoenzymes fractions of the Jejunums showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>MM>MB in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM In Korean native goats and Korean native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 18. The colonic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>rrfB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM in Korean native goats and Korean . native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 19. The cerebral CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of BB >MM without MB detected in Korean native cattle and those of spinal cord were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB. The main fractions in both cerebrum and spinal cord were BB.

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Health Management and Services of School-Nurse in Special Schools (특수학교의 보건관리)

  • Lee, Kyung Hee;Park, Jae Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.176-192
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    • 1991
  • School nurses, in service of 102 special schools in Korea, were urveyed by mail questionnaires from February to March, 1991 and 77 of hem responded. Collected data were analyzed to establish the direction of health management in special school and to provide basic reference data for improving the quality of the management of school-nurses' services. The major findings are as follows: Out of special schools surveyed, 67.5% is private school and 83.2% is located in city. The average number of classes, students, and educational personnels per special school is 17.2, 194, and 28 respectively. The average age of school-nurses surveyed is 32.7. The proportion of graduates from the junior college and upward was 97.4%, the proportion of the married was 71.4%. Out of respondents, 71.4% has religion : 79.2% has past career in the fields of clinics or public health: 62.3% accompanishes independent services: 77.9% belongs to primary school. About 69% of nursing room in special schools surveyed is located at the first floor. Out of special school surveyed, 90.9% has no organization for school health programms: Only 18.2% entrusted everyone of school doctor, school dentist, and school pharmacists with school health. 46.8% of respondents didn't know about the annual budget for school health programmes. The average annual expenditure for school health programme per special school was 317,000F26. won and the purchase cost for medical supplies accounted for the larger part of them. The monthly average number of students utilizing school nursing room was 71 per school, annual utilization times of school nursing room was 4.4 per student and utilization due to injury was prevalent by 26.6% and there is some differences in using the school nursing room according to disabled area. Rate of referral to medical facilities was 1.4%. The leading reason of referral to medical facilities was high fever among those who have visual handicaps, fracture among those who have emotional disturbance, injury by trauma among others. Nine hundred fifty six students of students in special school surveyed have sufferd from epilepsy and prevalence rate of epilepsy was 6.4%. Only 22.6% of respondents replied that they had physical examination more than 2 times per year. Out of respnodents, 98.7% answered that they had health education and 67.1% of them ansered that they educated in a classroom, 98.7% of respondents emphasized need of sex education. Respondents put the most emphasis on the personal hygiene when they performed health education and they used broadcasting education in the area of visual handicaps, OHP or VTR in hearing handicaps, home correspondence or OHP VTR in other area importantly. About 47% of repondents answered that health education was the most difficult and they emphasized that definite guide on health management was requested. Respondents had self-confidence and high perfomance rate in most of school-nurses' services completely, but so they was not in area of evaluation of school health programmes, an examination of physical strength, evaluation of health education, management of school purification area, suture of wounds. In consideration of above findings, we may conclude that special education for school-nurse in special schools as well as improvement of definite guiding principles are requested to establish direction for health management in special schools and to improve the degree of quality for school-nurses' sevices in special schools.

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Investigation of Daily Life and Consciousness of Longevous People in Korea -(1)The Regional Features of Longevity Areas- (우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 생활(生活) 및 의식조사(意識調査)에 관한 연구(硏究) -(1) 장수지역(長壽地域)의 지역적(地域的) 특성(特性)-)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Pyeun, Jae-Hyeung;Rhim, Chae-Hwan;Yang, Jong-Soon;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jeung-Han;Lee, Byeong-Ho;Woo, Soon-Im;Choe, Sun-Nam;Byun, Dae-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.116-126
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to be a link in the chain of the investigation on daily life and consciousness of longevous people in Korea, and to investigate the regional feature of longevity areas. The daily life and consciousness were investigated on 379 subjects(male 121, female 258) of the aged who were above 80 years of age, from June to November in 1985. This paper is to report the results investigated the longevity rate, distribution, classification and weather of longevity districts, and also the actual conditions such as the functions of daily life and educational degree of longevous people. 1. The number of longevous people in Korea was 171,449 (male 42,842, female 128,607), and the average longevity rate was 0.46% against total population in Korea(male 0.23%, female 0.69%). 2. Of the longevity rates of shi and/or do in Korea, Cheju(1.03%) was the highest among these districts, and decreased in the order of Chonnam(0.79%), Chonbuk(0.66%), Kyongbuk(0.65%) and Kyongnam(0.61%), whereas the large cities such as Inchon(0.22%), Seoul(0.23%), Pusan(0.23%) and Taegu(0.28%) were remarkably lower than districts in seasides and mountains. 3. The districts above 1.0% of longevity rate in Korea showed 17-guns, and the distribution of these districts was 10-guns of Chonnam, 2-guns of Kyongbuk and Kyongnam, and 1-gun of Kyonggi, Cho-nbuk and Cheju, respectively. 4. Of these districts, Pukcheju(1.65%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of Namhae(1.56%), Sungju(1.24%), Posong(1.22%) and Koksong(1.20%). The highest figure(male 0.71%, female 2.51%) was observed in Pukcheju as contrasted with 0.23%(male) and 0.69%(female) of the average longevity rate in Korea. 5. The sex ratio of longevous people in Korea showed the female/male ratio of 3.0. It is, therefore, believed that the longevity rate of female was 3 times higher than that of male. 6. The longevity districts were classified into seven districts in seasides, three districts in isolated islands, and seven rural districts in mountains. 7. The situation of weather in longevity districts was in the range of 11.2 to $14.8^{\circ}C$ at annual average temperature, and 878.5 to 1585.9mm at annual average rainfall. 8. Of the educational degree of longevous people, uneducated(71.5%) was the highest, and followed by the order of village school(15.8%) and above elementary school(4.8%). 9. In the functions of daily life, the aged moving actively(53.0%) was the highest among these longevous people, followed by the aged moving a little(23.5%). Therefore, it is believed that health degree of these longevous peoples by the functions of daily life was very gratifying.

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Malacological Studies on Parafossarulus manchouricus(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왜우렁(Parafossarulus manchouricus)의 패류학적(貝類學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Pyung-Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.24-50
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    • 1985
  • Five different populations of Parafossarulus manchouricus (Chongpyung, Chinju and Kunsan, Korea; and Japan and Taiwan), a population of Bitbynia (Gabbia) misella (Gongju, Korea) and two different populations of Bithynta tentaculata (Michigan, U.S.A. and Bodensee, Germany) were compared in regard to eff-laying characteristics, morphology, chromosome cytology, natural infections of parasites and ecology of habitats. A satisfactory culture method was devised for laboratory rearing of the snails. Tropical fish food (Terra SML) and powdered green leaves (Ceralife) were used as the main food sources for the snails. Benthic diatoms such as Navicula and Gomphonema from the periphyton were also essential for satisfactory growth, especially for the baby snails. The aquaria were stabilized with small stones from a local stream. Young P. manchouricus snails grew to adult size in about 54 days after hatching. They laid eggs 150-156 days after hatching. The whole cycle (birth to egg-laying) took approximately 5 months. The three species of bithyniid snails are iteroparous and lay eggs once a year. There were no major morphological differences in the shells of genera or subgenera studied here. They did exhibit the following rather minor differences. The shell of Parafossarulus has spirally raised ridges, and its apex is usually eroded; the other two genera lack these characteristics. The shell of B. (Gabbia) misella is small, nor exceeding 7.5 mm in length, while the shells of the other two species are larger, being more than 10 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the protoconch of P. manchouricus reveals nearly smooth sculpture with small, low, spiral wrinkles. This sculpture is quite different from that of the Hydrobiidae, a family to which the bithyniids are frequently assigned. Scanning electron microscopy of the radulae of the three bithyniid species showed that their radular morphologies are very similar, but there are some small differences, which may be species-specific. There were some statistical differences in shell heights between the Korean and the other populations of P. manchouricus, and between this species and the other two bithyniids as well. The shell differences between the several populations of Korean P. manchouricus may be related to environment. Edtails of the chromosome cycle of these bithyniid snails are similar to those reported for other snails. No specific differences were observed in the chromosome cycle between the various species and populations of snails employed in this study. Reporred for the first time in molluscs are two darkly stained "nucleolar organizers" during pachyterne stages of meiosis. Two different chromosome numbers were observed in the three bithyniid species: n=17 in B. tentaculata and P. manchouricus, and n=18 in B. (G.) misella. no sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes were seen. There were no morphological differences in karyotypes of three Korean strains of P. manchouricus. The infection rates of cercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Chinju and Kunsan strains of P. manchouricus were 0.14% and 1.25%, respectively. However, Clonorchis cercariae were found in Chongpyung strain of P. manchouriceu and Gongju strain of B. (G.) misella. The habitats of P. manchouricus around Jinyang Lake were relatively clean without any heavy pollution of aquatic microorganisms and organic materials during the period of this study. The levels of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) of the water specimens sampled from the study areas ranged from 6.0 to 9.6 ppm and from 0.4 to 1.6 ppm, respectively. Eight metalic constituents from the water samples were also assayed, and all metalic ions detercted were remarkably low below the legal criteria. However, calcium ion in the water samples from the habitats of P. manchouricus was considerably higher than others.

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A Survey on Attitude Related to Physical Therapy Students's Clinical Practice (물리치료과 학생들의 임상실습에 대한 태도조사)

  • Yi Seung-Ju;Park Youn-Ki
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate an attitude related to physical therapy students's clinical practice, a questionnaire survey was carried out for 101 third grader(Taegu Junior Health College 66, Andong Junior College 35) from 11th of January to 22th of March. The results are as follow : A. Frequency classified by item 1. Among preconception and anxiety on the clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(83.2\%)$ was the highest. 2. Among expectation on the clime practice, the chance to meet patients directly$(94.1\%)$ was the highest. 3. Among anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(82.2\%)$ was the highest. 4. Among satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, after students graduated college, they will maintain physical therapist's life continuously$(71.3\%)$ was the highest. B. The variables that showed statistical difference between general characteristics and variables classified by item are as follow : 1. Between sex and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, girl-students$(86.7\%)$ showed higher rate than man-students$(61.1\%)$ in, a shortage of knowledge(P<0.01). 2. Between religion and expectation on clinical practice, religionists$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists $(44.8\%)$ in the chance to practice love for humanity(P<0.05). 3. Between religion and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionist$(56.9\%)$ in not unskillful counsel patients(P<0.01). 4. Between religion and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(81.4\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists$(63.3\%)$ in pride of major choice(P<0.01). 5. Between hospitalization experience of family and exportation on clinical practice, students who had hospitalization experience of family$(79.7\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(62.2\%)$ in the chance to apply knowledge(P<0.05). 6. Between hospitalization experience and satisfaction after students experienced dime practice, students who had hospitalization experience$(68.4\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(45.1\%)$ in settlement of anxiety(P<0.05). 1. Between choice motive of physiotherapy(PT) department and expectation on clinical practice, self-will students $(80.5\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's $(66.7\%)$ in rejoining participate in treatment(P<0.01). 8. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(74.0\%)$ showed higher rate than lither-will students's $(58.3\%)$ in the wish PT-job in the future(P<0.05). 9. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(75.3\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's$(58.3\%)$ in pride on major in physical therapy(P<0.05). It was revealed by this survey that girl-students had higher anxiety than man-students in anxiety after students experiences clinical practice, self-will student had higher satisfaction higher than other-will student in the choice of physiotherapy department.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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