• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sex

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The effects of shortened dexamethasone administration on remission rate and potential complications during remission induction treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (급성림프구성백혈병 환아의 관해유도 치료 중 덱사메타손 투여기간의 단축이 관해유도율 및 합병증 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae Wook;Lee, Kwang Hee;Kwon, Young Joo;Lee, Dae Hyoung;Chung, Nak Gyun;Jeong, Dae Chul;Cho, Bin;Kim, Hack Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.12
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    • pp.1217-1224
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Due to its high potency against leukemic blasts, our institution has opted for the use of dexamethasone during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remission induction, but in our most recent treatment protocol, CMCPL-2005, we shortened the length of steroid treatment from 4 to 3 weeks. We compared both the rates of remission induction and significant complications observed during induction with CMCPL-2005, with those noted for our previous protocol, CMCPL-2001. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with ALL from January, 2001 to December, 2006 at the Department of Pediatrics, St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. Data concerning age, sex, WBC count at diagnosis, immunophenotype, cytogenetic traits, and risk group were collected for each patient. Results of remission induction treatment were compared between the two patient groups. Infection and other major complications resulting from treatment were investigated according to NCI toxicity criteria. Results : A total of 141 and 88 patients received remission induction under CMCPL-2001 and CMCPL-2005 respectively. In the CMCPL-2001 group, 136 (96%) achieved complete remission while 82 (93%) achieved CR in the CMCPL-2005 group. Patients in the CMCPL-2005 group were more likely to undergo remission induction without experiencing major complications. However, with regards to steroid related toxicities such as infection, no significant differences were noted. Conclusion : We shortened the length of steroid administration from four to three weeks, yet found the remission induction rate to be comparable to that of our previous regimen. However, rates of steroid related toxicities such as infectious complications remain unchanged despite shortened exposure to dexamethasone.

A Study on Findings from Simple Chest Radiographes without Any Clinical Symptoms (임상적 증상이 없는 흉부 단순X선영상 소견에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Ham-Gyum
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2007
  • In this study, the analysis on findings from simple chest radiography(CXR) test with total 1,669 subjects without any special clinical symptom came to the following conclusions : 1. In terms of the general characteristics of subjects hereof, male and female group accounted for 55.2% and 44.8% respectively out of all 1,669 people. 2. Pulmonary disease cases amounted to 249 persons(14.9%) out of all subjects. 3. In the analysis on prevalence rate by age distribution, it was noted that the older age led to the more number of diseases, which was demonstrated by age 34 or younger(6.1%), age $35{\sim}39(9.7%)$, age $40{\sim}49(13.3\;%)$, and age 50 or older(30.8%). 4. In regard of pulmonary disease alone, the region of onset was represented primarily by right upper lobe, which was followed by both upper lobe and left upper lobe, respectively. 5. In terms of disease types, it was found that most cases were represented by pulmonary nodule(55.0%), which was followed by cardiomegaly(24.5%), CP angle blunting(4.8%), scoliosis(4.6%), tortuous aorta(2.8%), bronchial luminal dilatation(2.4%), and pleural thickening(2.0%). However, dextrocardia, cystic dilation of bronchus, cavitary lesion, and lung collapse accounted for relatively low rate(0.4% respectively). 6. In terms of disease types by sex, it was found that male group accounted for higher percentage of having pulmonary nodule than female group, while the latter accounted for higher percentage of having cardiomegaly, tortuous aorta and scoliosis than the former. 7. In terms of disease types by age distribution, it was noted that age 34 or younger group accounted for higher percentage of scoliosis than any other age groups, while age $40{\sim}49$ group, age $35{\sim}39$ group, and age 50 or older group represented the case of CP angle blunting, pulmonary nodule, and cardiomegaly/tortuous aorta, respectively.

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The Effect of Antipsychotic Drug Treatment on Serum VEGF, sVEGFR-1, and sVEGFR-2 Level in Schizophrenia - A Preliminary Study - (정신분열병 환자에서 항정신병약물 치료가 혈청 VEGF, sVEGFR-1 및 sVEGFR-2의 농도에 미치는 영향 - 예 비 연 구 -)

  • Kim, Tae Hyun;Kim, Do Hoon;Lee, Sang Kyu;Son, Bong Ki;Jung, Jun Sub
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.232-240
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), one of potent cytokines, and its receptors were related with various biological functions and pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of serum level of free VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, and soluble VEGFR-2 after treatment with atypical antipsychotic drug in schizophrenia. Method : The schizophrenic patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV and were prospectively followed up for 4 and 8 weeks. Thirteen schizophrenic patients were evaluated their clinical assessment with serum levels of free VEGF, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, and positive and negative symptom scale(PANSS) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment with atypical antipsychotic drug. Thirteen normal control subjects were recruited and matched with the patient group by age and sex. Result : The serum level of free VEGF($295.2{\pm}43.7$pg/ml)and sVEGFR-2($8259{\pm}336.7$) at baseline(before treatment) in schizophrenic patients were not significantly different, compared with the control group($199.0{\pm}28.8$ and $8481{\pm}371.9$) respectively. However, the serum level of sVEGFR-1($86.2{\pm}10.3$, p<0.05) was significantly increased in the schizophrenic patients compared with the control group($59.0{\pm}6.4$). After treatment with antipsychotic drug, the serum levels of free VEGF at 4 weeks($338.9{\pm}56.5$) and 8 weeks($309.5{\pm}58.7$) were not significantly, different compared with baseline. But the serum levels of sVEGFR-1 was significantly decreased at 8 weeks ($57.3{\pm}6.3$, p<0.05) after antipsychotic drug treatment. The serum levels of sVEGFR-2 were decreased at 4 weeks ($7761{\pm}403.0$, p<0.05) and 8 weeks($7435{\pm}333.5$, p<0.05) compared with baseline. Conclusion : The decreased serum level of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 might be affected by dopaminergic system which was influenced by antipsychotic drug.

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The Vogue about Outwearization of Underwear in a Tendency to the Century-end (세기말 현상으로 본 속옷의 겉옷화 현상)

  • 이상례
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.35
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    • pp.325-341
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    • 1997
  • One of the noticeable trends of female wear in 1990s is the Outwearization of Underwear as it is called 'Lingerie look' This trend meaned 'Exposure Fashion' raised splendidly its head to the whole stage of fashion destrying the tradional concept having divided the fashion between outwear and underwear by Madonna an Americal populer singer showed up in front of the audience wearing the corset-dress as a stage custome. This corset-dress which can not be recognised whether it is underwear or outwear has been diffused into the mass as a fashionable trend re-gardless of any reason; therefore discrimi-nation of wear by space by far that is underwear should have the sstandard telling between private and public sector has been gradually tumbled. By the way what has propelled desigers to introduce the style continuously having the underwear motive such as outwear almost as same as underwear or underwear worn on out-wear etc. and has made it a fashion trends? How do we accept this "Ligerie look'fashion" The rearch on vogue of outwearization of underwear started by the questions above can be summarized as the followings The division between the sprit and the ma-terial-economic shrinkage by the collapse of the bubble economy in the late of 20 century and expectation for the next century doubt by changes of international politics dynamics for the next century and increasement of psycho-logical tention by the environmental destruc-tion etc, has been extended to break the sense of value down These frustration of the tra-ditional values and dissatisfaction on the pres-ent have reflected on the fashion pursuing some more sensational style to increase the ex-posure of the body. The revolution of wearing bouncing the con-servatismhas outwardly expressed underwear of the private sector. Therefore the spatial concept of wear which for the public sec-tor has been fallen into pieces and has broken the wall of the concept fixed by outwear on underwear. in addition the stage costome for the popular people like Madonna has not been limited by the specularity any more and has been assimilated with the normal wear on the street to take the distinction for away. The circumstances of the late of 20 century pursuing sensation and making sex commer-cialized have accordance with the outweari-zation of underwear. there it is on the basis of Minimalist's dogmatism has been expressed the maximization of expoure in the pubric space to popularize bra pants(knickers) as outwear. The reaction on the attribute of hiding and shanding has brought 'See-Through fashion' with the transparent materials, The contemporary doubt recalling the mem-ory of the past has sublimated corset which was an instument of toture for women into Romanticism to introduce it to fashion with the development of a new material not to be a tool of any oppression and maltretment any longer. The popularization of outwear like underwear what's more has brought high quality of underwear. There it has called for the variety of materials such as knit demin and velvet etc, and has urged the famous designers to enlarge their working boundaries to underwear designs, Besides outwearization of underwear has been popular even in the Orient which has the con-servative opinions on exposure ; so changes of the thoughts can be seen among the establish-ment generation on exposure of the body. As the more high tech information publi-cized and the more technology and media digitalized the more expression being analog the pursue for the new in fashion with vision never been seen and even though it is imprac-tical the experimental designers have drived the freedom beyond the traditional roles of the previous century. Consequently outwearization of underwear may be viewd as a trial as an expression responded the contemporary background. This trend in my opinion will have been lasted for a while by being proliperlated among lasted for a while by being proliperlated among the pub-lic who has the century-end anxiety and doubt and expectation for the next century.

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Neurochemical Profile Quantification of Regional Adult Mice Brain Using: ex vivo $^1H$ High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy (생체 외 조직 고 분해능 Magic Angle Spinning을 이용한 정상 Adult Mice에서의 뇌 부위별 뇌 신경화학 대사물질 정량분석)

  • Lee, Do-Wan;Woo, Dong-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Ho;Kim, Sang-Young;Kim, Goo-Young;Rhim, Hyang-Shuk;Choi, Chi-Bong;Kim, Hwi-Yool;Lee, Chang-Wook;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to quantitate regional neurochemical profile of regional normal adult mice brain and assess regional metabolic differences by using ex vivo $^1H$ high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ($^1H$ HR-MAS NMRS). The animals were matched in sex and age. The collected brain tissue included frontal cortex, temporal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Quantitative 1D spectra were acquired on 40 samples with the CPMG pulse sequence (8 kHz spectral window, TR/TE = 5500/2.2 ms, NEX = 128, scan time: 17 min 20 sec). The mass of brain tissue and $D_2O$+TSP solvent were 8~14 mg and 7~13 mg. A total of 16 metabolites were quantified as follow: Acet, NAA, NAAG, tCr, Cr, tCho, Cho, GPC + PC, mIns, Lac, GABA, Glu, Gln, Tau and Ala. As a results, Acet, Cho, NAA, NAAG and mIns were showed significantly different aspects on frontal cortex, hippocampus, temporal cortex and thalamus respectively. The present study demonstrated that absolute metabolite concentrations were significantly different among four brain regions of adult mice. Our finding might be helpful to investigate brain metabolism of neuro-disease in animal model.

Type A behavior pattern and social control of parents (A형행동양상과 부모의 사회적인 통제)

  • Lee, Choong-Won;Yoon, Nung-Ki;Suh, Suk-Kwon;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.23 no.1 s.29
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    • pp.22-32
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    • 1990
  • Associations between type A behavior Pattern (TABP) and parental social control were examined by a questionnaire survey in a sample of 803 undergraduates of the three universities in Daegu city in 1988. TABP was assessed by the Student Jenkins Activity Survey (SJAS, short form) and social control of parents by Bernstein and Brandis' Index of control and communication which were both dichotomized by median. The mean age of the sample was 20.7 (standard deviation, 2.2) and mean of total score of SJAS was 5.6 with its standard deviation and median, 2.7 and 5, respectively. In stratified analysis for TABP-social control association by the native place, sex and socioeconomic status (SES), males of rural origin with low SES showed odds ratio (OR), 2.49 but those with high SES 0.40. For females of rural origin, those with low SES showed OR, 1.02, whereas those with high SES did 0.35. For those who was of urban origin, males with low SES had OR 1.27, and those with high SES did 1.29. Females with high SES showed 0.85 and those with low SES 0.67. None of the TABP-social control associations among the strata showed confidence intervals not including unity. In multiple logistic regression by native place, for those with rural origin the only term showed a statistically significance was the social control-SES of parents interaction, OR 3.99 (95% confidence interval, $1.03{\sim}15.46$). For those of urban origin, none of the terms are statistically significant. These results suggest a social upward mobility by education of the rural disadvantaged group and a Confucian idea that regards academic achievement as one of social virtues, both of which may reflect the different sociocultural structures from the West.

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The Seroprevalence and Related Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection (Helicobacter pylori 감염의 유병률과 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yeung-Wook;Lee, Su-Ill;Cho, Byung-Mann;Koh, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Young-Sil;Kang, Su-Yong;Cha, Oae-Ri;Kim, Don-Kyoun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.29 no.3 s.54
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    • pp.669-678
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    • 1996
  • Helicobacter pylori is now recognized as causative agent of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, and strongly associated with development of gastric carcinoma. With development of sensitive and specific serologic tests to identify individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, the epidemiologic study of this diseases has been investigated. But it's transmission route is not established, yet. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in healthy children and young adults and to evaluate related factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea. The seroprevalence of Ig G antibodies to Helicobacter pylori was determined using a Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and we obtained the information, such as demographic characteristics, monthly household income, numbers of family members in the house, numbers of persons using same room, type of house, and type of drinking water through the questionnaire survey. The observed overall seropositivity rate was 25.7%. The rate is increased progressively from 5.8% in the age group $1\sim3$ years to 44.4% in the age group $20\sim29$years($\chi^2$ for trend, p<0.001). Especially, the rate increased steeply from 6.5% in the age group $4\sim6$ years to 20.8% in the age group $7\sim9$ years, and this suggested that elementary school age was the major acquisition time of Helicobacter pylori infection. In multivariate logistic regression model, age, numbers of family members in the house, and type of house was statistically significant variables for Helicobacter pylori infection. Each odds ratio(93% CI) were as follows; base to age group $1\sim9$ years, age group $10\sim19$ years $3.6(2.0\sim6.4)$, age group $20\sim29$ years $7.3(4.1\sim13.1)$ and base to group of $1\sim3$ family members, group of $4\sim5$ family members $2.1(1.1\sim4.0)$, group of 6 or more family members $2.7(1.3\sim5.4)$ and base to apartment, single and multihouse $1.9(1.1\sim3.5)$. Sex, monthly household income, numbers of persons using same room, and type of drinking water was not statistically significant for Helicobacter pylori infection.

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A Comparative Study on Enhancing the Function of the Health Center in a Urban Area (도시지역 한 보건소 기능 강화 방안에 대한 의견 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Weon-Young;Shin, Young-Jeon;Kwon, Young-Jun;Choi, Bo-Youl;Moon, Ok-Ryun;Jeon, Hye-Jeong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.4 s.63
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    • pp.857-874
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study is to collect the opinions on the present condition and the improvement directions of urban health centers from and to make a comparison. Samples were drawn from the various sources of a district in seoul. 53 persons involved in district health's administration(the Members of a District Parliament, the senior officials of a District office, village chief) and 84 health center workers were surveyed with anonymous postal questionaires and 427 district private medical personnels with postal questionaires and 625 users of a health center with direct questionaires, from November 18 to 25, 1996. Additionally, 12,151 households were surveyed with self-reported questionaires including priorities on special district health services of health center, from September 1 to 7, 1996. The major findings were as follows : 1) Although the persons involved in district health administration tend to put lower priority on health service over other community activities, they well acknowledged the importance of health center. But health center workers strongly acknowledged the importance of both health service and heath center. 2) As to the level of human resoureces, equipments and ammenities of Health Center commpared with private medical institute, the persons involved in district health's administration and health center workers responded that health center was higher in following order : 54.9%, 41.6%, 36.5% and 88.0%, 80.7%, 44.1%. 3) Concerning the priorities of health center's improvement, the persons involved in district health's administration replied in the order of reinforcement of proffesional health workers (43.3%), improvement of equipments and ammenities(28.3%), and the health center workers replied in the order of reconstruction of organization(24.1%), public health education and promotion(22.8%), reinforcement of proffesional health workers(21.0%). 4) Both the persons involved in district health's administration and health center workers replied that Ministry Health and Welfare, District office, health center were essential as the most critical organizations in the activation of Health Center's Function. 5) Persons involved in district health's administration and health center workers chose, as the most important health center's Function, medical treatment and prevention of infectious disease, and prevention of acute and chrone disease control and special district health service, respectively. Both Groups replied that fammily planning and parasite control are no longer in need. 6) As the future health service requiring reinforcement, every human resources parties considered health conselling, health line, sex education as the most imortant elements in public health education. Concerning the reinforement of other health services such as medical checkup and visiting nurses, every human resources parties showed more than 80% approval rate, but for oriental medical care service, the private medical personels showed relatively low approval rate(52.9%). Therefore the planning for reinforcement of health center's function requires the reflection of human resources party's opinion and the implication of system which can control and combine the differences in party's opinions.

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Factors Influencing Workers' Perception and Attitude Toward Special Periodic Health Screening Test (특수건강진단에 대한 근로자의 인식과 태도에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Nam, Si-Hyun;Kam, Sin;Park, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.28 no.2 s.50
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    • pp.334-346
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    • 1995
  • To investigate the factors influencing workers' perception and attitude toward special periodic health screening test for workers, a survey with self-administered questionnaires was performed on 779 workers who had special periodic health screening test from September 1 to October 15, 1994. A study model was developed by modifying the health belief model. The end and intermediate response variables of the model were the voluntary participation and necessity perception on the special screening for workers. The result of analysis was consistent with the study model. Rates for the necessity perception and voluntary participation on the special screening for workers were 77.2%, 79.2%, respectively. Factors influencing on the voluntary participation were necessity perception, benefit of special screening for workers, and cue to action. And on the necessity perception were susceptibility and severity to occupational disease, knowledge to special screening for workers, and support of company. General and occupational characteristics influencing on the susceptibility and severity to occupational disease were sex, age, educational level, work duration, and health education. On the knowledge to special screening for workers were age, educational level, work duration, and locus-of-control. On the benefit of special screening for workers were age, locus-of-control, pride on health, and health education. Therefore, to increase the voluntary participation and necessity perception on the special periodic health screening for workers, 1) if a worker is judged as occupational disease, the judgment should be widely known in his workplace, 2) the screening result forms should be directly sent to the workers themselves, 3) for the positivity of employers, the campaign and education program subjected to them should be planned, 4) health education should give the first consideration to the younger, lower educational level, and newly employed women, and its frequency should be increased and it should be more frequently dealt with occupation-related subjects, and 5) the employers should have a careful concern in not being disadvantageous to workers due to result of screening.

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Risk Factor's Affecting long-term Outcome of Alport syndrome (Alport 증후군의 예후와 관련된 위험요인 분석)

  • Byun Ji-Yoon;Baek Seoung-Yon;Lee Young-Mock;Kim Ji-Hong;Lee Jae Seung;Kim Pyung-Kil;Hong Soon-Won;Jeong Hyeon-Joo;Kim Soon-Il;Kim Yu-Seun;Park Ki-Il
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.164-175
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Alport syndrome is a hereditary nephrotic disease characterized by progressive nephrotic symptom, sensorineural hearing loss, ophthalmic abnormality, typical microscopic findings, and familial occurrence. In this study, we tried to find the risk factors related with its prognosis by taking a close observation on clinical symptoms of children with Alport syndrome reviewing retrospectively. Materials & methods : We chose children diagnosed as Alport syndrome in renal biopsy during 20 years(from 1980, Jan. until 1999, Dec.) who could receive follow up studies in tile department of pediatrics. They were divided into two groups by comparing renal function at the time of diagnosis and at current status. We compared several clinical aspects in them, and applied nonparametric test for statistical analysis. Results : The sex ratio(male:female) of 24 children was 3:1. The most common clinical symptom presented at their first visit was gross hematuria. Among those 24 children, 11 cases($46\%$) of progressing into chronic renal failure(Group II) were observed. Hypertension, proteinuria and edema were seen much frequently in group II. The level of serum protein, albumin, and creatinine clearance were decreased while BUN, creatinine were relatively increased. All the results were statistically significant. Conclusion Clinically significant risk factors related to prognosis in Alport syndrome were the presence of hypertension, edema, and proteinuria at the time of diagnosis. Also, the level of serum protein, albumin, BUN, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate were proved to be important factors in predicting prognosis. We believe that studies on these possible risk factors would be of great help in treating and predicting prognosis of children suffering with Alport syndrome. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2001;5 : 164-75)

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