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Malacological Studies on Parafossarulus manchouricus(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왜우렁(Parafossarulus manchouricus)의 패류학적(貝類學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Pyung-Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.24-50
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    • 1985
  • Five different populations of Parafossarulus manchouricus (Chongpyung, Chinju and Kunsan, Korea; and Japan and Taiwan), a population of Bitbynia (Gabbia) misella (Gongju, Korea) and two different populations of Bithynta tentaculata (Michigan, U.S.A. and Bodensee, Germany) were compared in regard to eff-laying characteristics, morphology, chromosome cytology, natural infections of parasites and ecology of habitats. A satisfactory culture method was devised for laboratory rearing of the snails. Tropical fish food (Terra SML) and powdered green leaves (Ceralife) were used as the main food sources for the snails. Benthic diatoms such as Navicula and Gomphonema from the periphyton were also essential for satisfactory growth, especially for the baby snails. The aquaria were stabilized with small stones from a local stream. Young P. manchouricus snails grew to adult size in about 54 days after hatching. They laid eggs 150-156 days after hatching. The whole cycle (birth to egg-laying) took approximately 5 months. The three species of bithyniid snails are iteroparous and lay eggs once a year. There were no major morphological differences in the shells of genera or subgenera studied here. They did exhibit the following rather minor differences. The shell of Parafossarulus has spirally raised ridges, and its apex is usually eroded; the other two genera lack these characteristics. The shell of B. (Gabbia) misella is small, nor exceeding 7.5 mm in length, while the shells of the other two species are larger, being more than 10 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the protoconch of P. manchouricus reveals nearly smooth sculpture with small, low, spiral wrinkles. This sculpture is quite different from that of the Hydrobiidae, a family to which the bithyniids are frequently assigned. Scanning electron microscopy of the radulae of the three bithyniid species showed that their radular morphologies are very similar, but there are some small differences, which may be species-specific. There were some statistical differences in shell heights between the Korean and the other populations of P. manchouricus, and between this species and the other two bithyniids as well. The shell differences between the several populations of Korean P. manchouricus may be related to environment. Edtails of the chromosome cycle of these bithyniid snails are similar to those reported for other snails. No specific differences were observed in the chromosome cycle between the various species and populations of snails employed in this study. Reporred for the first time in molluscs are two darkly stained "nucleolar organizers" during pachyterne stages of meiosis. Two different chromosome numbers were observed in the three bithyniid species: n=17 in B. tentaculata and P. manchouricus, and n=18 in B. (G.) misella. no sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes were seen. There were no morphological differences in karyotypes of three Korean strains of P. manchouricus. The infection rates of cercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Chinju and Kunsan strains of P. manchouricus were 0.14% and 1.25%, respectively. However, Clonorchis cercariae were found in Chongpyung strain of P. manchouriceu and Gongju strain of B. (G.) misella. The habitats of P. manchouricus around Jinyang Lake were relatively clean without any heavy pollution of aquatic microorganisms and organic materials during the period of this study. The levels of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) of the water specimens sampled from the study areas ranged from 6.0 to 9.6 ppm and from 0.4 to 1.6 ppm, respectively. Eight metalic constituents from the water samples were also assayed, and all metalic ions detercted were remarkably low below the legal criteria. However, calcium ion in the water samples from the habitats of P. manchouricus was considerably higher than others.

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A Survey on Attitude Related to Physical Therapy Students's Clinical Practice (물리치료과 학생들의 임상실습에 대한 태도조사)

  • Yi Seung-Ju;Park Youn-Ki
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate an attitude related to physical therapy students's clinical practice, a questionnaire survey was carried out for 101 third grader(Taegu Junior Health College 66, Andong Junior College 35) from 11th of January to 22th of March. The results are as follow : A. Frequency classified by item 1. Among preconception and anxiety on the clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(83.2\%)$ was the highest. 2. Among expectation on the clime practice, the chance to meet patients directly$(94.1\%)$ was the highest. 3. Among anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(82.2\%)$ was the highest. 4. Among satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, after students graduated college, they will maintain physical therapist's life continuously$(71.3\%)$ was the highest. B. The variables that showed statistical difference between general characteristics and variables classified by item are as follow : 1. Between sex and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, girl-students$(86.7\%)$ showed higher rate than man-students$(61.1\%)$ in, a shortage of knowledge(P<0.01). 2. Between religion and expectation on clinical practice, religionists$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists $(44.8\%)$ in the chance to practice love for humanity(P<0.05). 3. Between religion and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionist$(56.9\%)$ in not unskillful counsel patients(P<0.01). 4. Between religion and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(81.4\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists$(63.3\%)$ in pride of major choice(P<0.01). 5. Between hospitalization experience of family and exportation on clinical practice, students who had hospitalization experience of family$(79.7\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(62.2\%)$ in the chance to apply knowledge(P<0.05). 6. Between hospitalization experience and satisfaction after students experienced dime practice, students who had hospitalization experience$(68.4\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(45.1\%)$ in settlement of anxiety(P<0.05). 1. Between choice motive of physiotherapy(PT) department and expectation on clinical practice, self-will students $(80.5\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's $(66.7\%)$ in rejoining participate in treatment(P<0.01). 8. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(74.0\%)$ showed higher rate than lither-will students's $(58.3\%)$ in the wish PT-job in the future(P<0.05). 9. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(75.3\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's$(58.3\%)$ in pride on major in physical therapy(P<0.05). It was revealed by this survey that girl-students had higher anxiety than man-students in anxiety after students experiences clinical practice, self-will student had higher satisfaction higher than other-will student in the choice of physiotherapy department.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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Clinical Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression for Rectal Cancer Patients with Lymph Node Involvement (림프절 전이를 동반한 직장암 환자들에서 Cyclooxygenase-2 발현의 임상적 의미)

  • Lee, Hyung-Sik;Choi, Young-Min;Hur, Won-Joo;Kim, Su-Jin;Kim, Dae-Cheol;Roh, Mee-Sook;Hong, Young-Seoub;Park, Ki-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. Results: COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age (<60-year old vs. $\geq$60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size (<5 cm vs. $\geq$5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72.7%, respectively (p=0.118). The 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (p<0.05) for the degree of differentiation, N stage, and stage, whereas the 5-year disease free survival rates were significant for N stage and stage. Conclusion: Being positive for and the degree of COX-2 expression did not have a significant influence on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. However, N stage and stage did significantly influence the rateof survival. Further analysis of a greater sample size is necessary for the verification of the effect of COX-2 expression on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

Long-term Survival Analysis of Bronchioloalveolar Cell Carcinoma (기관세지폐포암의 장기결과분석)

  • Lee Seung Hyun;Kim Yong Hee;Moon Hye Won;Kim Dong Kwan;Kim Jong Wook;Park Seung Il
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.39 no.2 s.259
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    • pp.106-110
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    • 2006
  • Background: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is an uncommon primary malignancy of the lung, and it accounts for $2{\~}14\%$ of all pulmonary malignancies. According to World Health Organization (WHO) categorisation, BAC is a subtype of adenocarcinoma. The current definition of BAC includes the following: malignant neoplasms of the lung that have no evidence of extrathoracic primary adenocarcinoma, an absence of a central bronchogenic source, a peripheral parenchymal location, and neoplastic cells growing along the alveolar septa. Previous reports had demonstrated a better prognosis following surgery for patients affected by BAC than those affected by other type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aim to analyse Asan Medical Center experiences of BAC. Material and Method: Between 1990 and 2002, 31 patients were received operations for BAC. We analyse retrosepectively sex, age, disease location, preoperative clinical stage, postoperative pathologic stage & complications, survival according to medical record. Result: There were 12 men and 19 women, the average age was 61.09$\pm$10.63 ($31{\~}79$) years. Tumor locations were 7 in RUL, 1 in RML, 4 in RLL, 8 in LUL, 11 in LLL. Operations were 28 lobectomies, 2 pneumonectomies. Postoperative pathologic stage were 12 T1N0M0, 15 T2N0M0, 1 T1N1M0, 1 T1N2M0, 1 T2N2M0, 1 T1N0M1. Mortality were 4 cases ($12.9\%$) and there were no early mortality. Cancer free death was 1 cases, other 3 were cancer related deaths. All of them were affected by distal metastasis and received chemotherapy and each metastatic locations were right rib, brain, and both lung field. The average follow up periods were 50.87$\pm$24.77 months. The overall 3, 5-year survival rate among all patients was $97.1\%,\;83.7\%$, stage I patients overall 2, 5year survival rate was $96.3\%$. The overall disease free 1, 2, 5-year survival rate among all patients was $100\%,\;90\%,\;76\%$ and 2, 5-year survival rate in cases of stage I was $96.4\%,\;90.6\%$. 7 cases ($22.58\%$) were chemotherapies, 1 case ($3.22\%$) was radiation therapy, and 2 cases ($6.45\%$) were chemoradiation therapies. Metastatic locations were 3 cases in lung, 1 case in bone, 1 cases in brain. Conclusion: BAC has a favourable survival and low recurrence rate compare with reported other NSCLC after operative resections.

Investigation of Daily Life and Consciousness of Longevous People in Korea -(1)The Regional Features of Longevity Areas- (우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 생활(生活) 및 의식조사(意識調査)에 관한 연구(硏究) -(1) 장수지역(長壽地域)의 지역적(地域的) 특성(特性)-)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Pyeun, Jae-Hyeung;Rhim, Chae-Hwan;Yang, Jong-Soon;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jeung-Han;Lee, Byeong-Ho;Woo, Soon-Im;Choe, Sun-Nam;Byun, Dae-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.116-126
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to be a link in the chain of the investigation on daily life and consciousness of longevous people in Korea, and to investigate the regional feature of longevity areas. The daily life and consciousness were investigated on 379 subjects(male 121, female 258) of the aged who were above 80 years of age, from June to November in 1985. This paper is to report the results investigated the longevity rate, distribution, classification and weather of longevity districts, and also the actual conditions such as the functions of daily life and educational degree of longevous people. 1. The number of longevous people in Korea was 171,449 (male 42,842, female 128,607), and the average longevity rate was 0.46% against total population in Korea(male 0.23%, female 0.69%). 2. Of the longevity rates of shi and/or do in Korea, Cheju(1.03%) was the highest among these districts, and decreased in the order of Chonnam(0.79%), Chonbuk(0.66%), Kyongbuk(0.65%) and Kyongnam(0.61%), whereas the large cities such as Inchon(0.22%), Seoul(0.23%), Pusan(0.23%) and Taegu(0.28%) were remarkably lower than districts in seasides and mountains. 3. The districts above 1.0% of longevity rate in Korea showed 17-guns, and the distribution of these districts was 10-guns of Chonnam, 2-guns of Kyongbuk and Kyongnam, and 1-gun of Kyonggi, Cho-nbuk and Cheju, respectively. 4. Of these districts, Pukcheju(1.65%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of Namhae(1.56%), Sungju(1.24%), Posong(1.22%) and Koksong(1.20%). The highest figure(male 0.71%, female 2.51%) was observed in Pukcheju as contrasted with 0.23%(male) and 0.69%(female) of the average longevity rate in Korea. 5. The sex ratio of longevous people in Korea showed the female/male ratio of 3.0. It is, therefore, believed that the longevity rate of female was 3 times higher than that of male. 6. The longevity districts were classified into seven districts in seasides, three districts in isolated islands, and seven rural districts in mountains. 7. The situation of weather in longevity districts was in the range of 11.2 to $14.8^{\circ}C$ at annual average temperature, and 878.5 to 1585.9mm at annual average rainfall. 8. Of the educational degree of longevous people, uneducated(71.5%) was the highest, and followed by the order of village school(15.8%) and above elementary school(4.8%). 9. In the functions of daily life, the aged moving actively(53.0%) was the highest among these longevous people, followed by the aged moving a little(23.5%). Therefore, it is believed that health degree of these longevous peoples by the functions of daily life was very gratifying.

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A Case-Control Study on Effects of Genetic Polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 on Risk of Lung Cancer (GSTM1과 GSTT1, 그리고 CYP1A1, CYP2E1 다형성이 폐암발생에 미치는 영향에 대한 환자-대조군연구)

  • Nan, Hong-Mei;Kang, Jong-Won;Bae, Jang-Whan;Choe, Kang-Hyeon;Lee, Ki-Hyeong;Kim, Seung-Taik;Won, Choong-Hee;Kim, Yong-Min;Kim, Heon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1999
  • Objectives: This study was performed to investigate sweets of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTT1), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytoehrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) on lung cancer development. Methods: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients and 98 age-sex matched non-cancer patients hospitalized in Chungbuk National University Hospital form March 1997 to August 1998, were the subjects of this case-control study. Direct interview was done and genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 were investigated using multiplex PCR or PCR-RFLP methods with DNA extracted from venous blood. Effects of the polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1, lifestyle factors including smoking, and their interactions on lung rancor were statistically analyzed. Results: GSTM1 was deleted in 67.01% of the cases and 58.16% of the controls, and the odds ratio(95% CI) was 1.46(0.82-2.62). GSTT1 deletion was 58.76% for the lung cancer patients and 50.00% for the controls[OR:1.43(0.81-2.51)]. The frequencies of lle/lle, lle/Val and Val/Val of the CYP1A1 polymorphisms were 59.18-18%, 35.71%, and 5.10% for the cases, and 52.04%, 45.92%, 2.04% for the controls, respectively. Risk of lung cancer was not associated with polymorphism of CYP1A1 ($x^2trend=0.253$, p-value>0.05). The respective frequency of c1/c1 c1/c2, c2/c2 genotypes for CYP2E1 were 50.00%, 42.86%, 7.14% for the lung cancer patients, and 66.33%, 30.61%, 3.06% for the controls $(x^2trend=5.783,\;p<0.05)$. c2 allele was a significant risk factor for lung cancer. We also observed a significant association of cigarette smoking history with lung cancer risk. The odds ratio(95% Cl) of cigarette smoking was 3.03(1.58-5.81). In multiple logistic analysis including genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1, and smoking habit, only snaking habit came out to be a significant risk factor for lung cancer. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 are not so strongly associated with lung cancer as lifestyle factors including cigarette smoking.

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A Study on Risk Factors for Early Major Morbidity and Mortality in Multiple-valve Operations (중복판막수술후 조기성적에 영향을 미치는 인자에 관한 연구)

  • 한일용;조용길;황윤호;조광현
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 1998
  • To define the risk factors affecting the early major morbidity and mortality after multiple- valve operations, the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative informations were retrospectively collected on 124 consecutive patients undergoing a multiple-valve operation between October 1985 and July 1996 at the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Pusan Paik Hospital. The study population consists of 53 men and 71 women whose mean age was 37.9$\pm$11.5(mean$\pm$SD) years. Using the New York Heart Association(NYHA) classification, 41 patients(33.1%) were in functional class II, 60(48.4%) in class III, and 20(16.1%) in class IV preoperatively. Seven patients(5.6%) had undergone previous cardiac operations. Atrial fibrillations were present in 76 patients(61.3%), a history of cerebral embolism in 5(4.0%), and left atrial thrombus in 13(10.5%). The overall early mortality rate and postoperative morbidity was 8.1% and 21.8% respectively. Among the 124 cases of multiple-valve operation, there were 57(46.0%) of combined mitral valve replacement(MVR) and aortic valve replacement(AVR), 48(38.7%) of combined MVR and tricuspid annuloplasty(TVA), 12(9.7%) of combined MVR, AVR and TVA, 3(2.4%) of combined MVR and aortic valvuloplasty, 2(1.6%) of combined MVR and tricuspid valve replacement, and others. The patients were classified according to the postoperative outcomes; Group A(27 cases) included the patients who had early death or major morbidity such as low cardiac output syndrome, mediastinitis, cardiac rupture, ventricular arrhythmia, sepsis, and others; Group B(97 cases) included the patients who had the good postoperative outcomes. The patients were also classified into group of early death and survivor. In comparison of group A and group B, there were significant differences in aortic cross-clamping time(ACT, group A:153.4$\pm$42.4 minutes, group B:134.0$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.042), total bypass time(TBT, group A:187.4$\pm$65.5 minutes, group B:158.1$\pm$50.6 minutes, p=0.038), and NYHA functional class(I:33.3%, II:9.7%, III:20%, IV:50%, p=0.004). In comparison of early death(n=10) and survivor(n=114), there were significant differences in age(early death:45.2$\pm$8.7 years, survivor:37.2$\pm$11.6 years, p=0.036), sex(female:12.7%, male:1.9%, p=0.043), ACT(early death:167.1$\pm$38.4 minutes, survivor:135.7$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.030), and NYHA functional class(I:0%, II:4.9%, III:1.7%, IV:35%, p=0.001). In conclusion, the early major morbidity and mortality were influenced by the preoperative clinical status and therefore the earlier surgical intervention should be recommended whenever possible. Also, improved methods of myocardial protection and operative techniques may reduce the risk in patients with multiple-valve operation.

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The Prevalence of Obesity and Underweight in Adolescents in Incheon Area and the Relationship between Serum Cholesterol Level and Obesity (인천지역 청소년의 비만도와 혈청 콜레스테롤치와의 관계)

  • Kim, Myung Hyun;Kim, Tae Wan;Hong, Young Jin;Son, Byong Kwan;Pai, Soo Hwan;Chang, Kyung Ja;Kim, Soon Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obese and underweight adolescents in Incheon area and to examine the relationship between serum cholesterol level and obesity, then to assess the nutritional condition of adolescents. Methods : With a questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics, blood samples were obtained from apparently healthy students aged 12 to 24 years by venipuncture at April and May, 2000. We measured the obesity index using standard body weight and the body mass index(BMI) according to the criteria established by the Korean Pediatric Society in 1998. Obesity was defined as BMI more than 95 percentile, and underweight less than 15 percentile by age and sex. Results : A total of 1,456 students(M : F=685 : 771) aged 12 to 24 years were included in this study. The prevalence of obesity by standard body weight in adolescents in Incheon were 11.7% : mild obesity 6.5%, moderate 4.6%, and severe 0.5%. By BMI, the prevalence of obesity was 6.4% in males and 6.2% in females. In males, the prevalence of obesity in rural areas was 8.5%, lower than in urban areas(14.3%). The prevalence of underweight by obesity index was 34.1% in rural areas and 22.9% in urban areas. In females, the prevalence of obesity was 12.5% in rural areas and 19.6% in urban areas. There were no significant differences between the two regions(P=0.529). The prevalence of obesity increased with age till 16.3% of peak prevalence in 16 years of age, and then decreased. In males, the prevalence of obesity in academic and vocational school were 13.7% and 9.7%, respectively(P=0.116). In females of the academic and vocational school, the prevalence of obesity was 6.8% and 18.0%, respectively(P=0.001). In obese adolescents, serum total cholesterol was over 200 mg/dL in 6.2%. Conclusion : This study revealed that the prevalence of obesity in adolescents was about 12% and that the prevalence of underweight adolescents was considerably high. We think nutritional assessment and intervention are warranted for adolescent students.

Relationship between Stress and Eating Habits of Adults in Ulsan (울산지역 성인 남녀의 스트레스와 식습관)

  • Kim, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.536-546
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    • 2009
  • This study was done to investigate the effect of stress on appetite and eating habits, and other health-related behaviors. The subjects of this study consisted of 188 males and 224 females in Ulsan area. The results were as follows: When stressed, 56% (n = 231) of the subjects experienced a change in appetite and of these, 32% (n = 132) experienced an increased appetite. Stress-induced eating may be one factor contributing to the development of obesity. There was a gender-specific response to stress in which women are more likely to use food to deal with stress, whereas men are more likely to use alcohol consumption or smoking. It was found that types of stressors were individual (52.9%), social (50.7%), family relations (34.5%), work demands (34.2%) and physical environment (32.3%). Stress-induced symptoms of the subjects were anxiety (38.3%), headache (36.7%) and neck or shoulder aches (36.2%), and females experienced those symptoms more than males. Those older than 50 years had a higher eating habit score and lower stress score compared with younger subjects. There were significant differences between sex, age, occupation, family type, BMI, exercise, sleeping hours and eating habits or stress level. This study may be helpful in advancing findings in this area to better provide health professionals with appropriate counseling tools to improve the health of all individuals.