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Distribution of Weeds with Different Surface Management Systems of Greenhouse Soil in Gyeongnam Province (경남지역 시설원예작물 재배지 및 표토관리별 잡초발생 양상)

  • Hwang, Jae-Bok;Yun, Eul-Soo;Park, Chang-Young;Park, Sung-Tae;Nam, Min-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2011
  • Weed control is of fundamental importance when planting horticultural crops, particularly during the establishment phase. Weeds compete for nutrients, water and light, and can severely threaten the survival and early growth of newly planted crops. Failure to control weeds represents one of the single most important factors leading to crop loss. Knowledge on the existence of the diversity of weed species in greenhouses is of our main concern in this study in order to develop a most efficient and effective weed control strategies. Sixty-two greenhouses were surveyed in 3 cities and counties of Gyeongnam area in March to October 2009 to investigate the feature of weed occurrence in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) after harvesting of the main crops. Forty-one weed species were identified and classified to 18 families which were composed of 14 annual weeds, 18 summer annual weeds and 9 perennial weeds. On the other hand, broadleaf, grasses and sedges recorded with 30, 7 and 4 weed species, respectively. Asteraceae was the most dominant weed species (9 species) noted followed by Poaceae (7 species), Cyperaceae (4 species), Caryophyllaceae and Brassicaceae (3 species respectively) and other families have 1~2 species. The dominant weed species occurred in the greenhouse based on the summed dominance ratio. These weeds were Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus iria, Portulaca oleracea, Rorippa islandica, Mazus japonicas, Cardamine flexousa, and Eclipta prostrata and others. Weed occurrence in the greenhouse after horticultural crops consisted of summer annuals (4 species), winter annuals (3 species), and perennial annuals (1 specie). The dominant species occurred in tilled soil based on summed dominance ratio of weeds were Cardamine flexousa (88.1%), Eclipta prostrate (57.4%) and Portulaca oleracea (55.2%). Comparison of weed occurrence was thoroughly surveyed also in which field without PVC, weed species were Portulaca oleracea (55.2), Eclipta prostrata (57.9%) and Trigonotis peduncularis (25.1%) and field with PVC, the identified weeds were Portulaca oleracea (98.75), Trigonotis peduncularis (49.1%), and Eclipta prostrata (36.8%).

Partial Oxidation of CH4 Using {0.7}Sr0.3Ga0.6Fe0.4O3-δ for Soild Oxide Fuel Cell (고체산화물 연료전지용 La0.7Sr0.3Ga0.6Fe0.4O3-δ계의 메탄부분산화반응)

  • Lee, Seung-Young;Lee, Kee-Sung;Lee, Shi-Woo;Kim, Jong-Won;Woo, Sang-Kuk
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2003
  • We fabricated mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes, $CH_4\;Using\;{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$, by solid state reaction method for solid oxide fuel cell. The membranes consisted of single perovskite phase and exhibited high relative density, $>95\%$. We coated $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}CoO_{3-\delta}$ layer using screen printing method in order to improve surface reactivity of the $La_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$. As a result, the oxygen permeation flux of the coated $La_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$ showed higher value, $0.5ml/min{\cdot}cm^2\;at\;950^{\circ}C$ than the uncoated one. Higher oxygen permeation was observed in the porously coated Lao $La_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$membranes with larger grain sizes. Syngas, $CO+H_2$, was successfully obtained from methane gas, $CH_4$, using the $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}CoO_{3-\delta}$ coated $La_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$, with over $40\%\;of\;CH_4$ conversion and syngas yield. $La_{0.7}Sr_{0.3}Ga_{0.6}Fe_{0.4}O_{3-\delta}$ membrane was stable even when it was exposed to the reducing environment, methane, for 600 hrs at $950^{\circ}C$.

Properties of Yttrium Manganates with MFS Structure Fabricated on Various Substates (MFS 구조로 적층된 Yttrium Manganates의 기판 변화에 따른 특성 연구)

  • 강승구
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2003
  • Effects of substrates and buffer layer upon the formation of crystalline phases and ferroelectricity of $YMnO_3$ thin films were investigated. The hexagonal $YMnO_3$ was easily formed on Si(100) while the mixed phases, hexagonal and orthorhombic $YMnO_3$, on $Pt(111)/TiO_2/SiO_2/Si$ substrate. When the $Y_2O_3$ buffer layer of 70 nm thick was inserted between the substrates and the $YMnO_3,$ the c-axis oriented hexagonal single phase formed on both substrates, Si(100) and $Pt(111)/TiO_2/SiO_2/Si$. The leakage current density of the hexagonal $YMnO_3$ thin films was lower than that consisting of mixed phases, hexagonal and orthorhombic. Furthermore the hexagonal $YMnO_3$ with c-axis preferred orientation showed the lowest leakage current density. The remnant polarization from a P-E hysteresis curve for the $YMnO_3$ formed on Si(100) was 0.14 without buffer layer and $0.24_{mu}C/cm^2$ for that with buffer layer. For the $Pt(111)/TiO_3/SiO_3/Si$ substrates, the specimen without $Y_2O_3$buffer layer did not show the hysteresis curve, while the buffer-layered has the remnant polarization of $1.14_{mu}C/cm^2$. It was concluded that the leakage current density and the ferroelectricity for the $YMnO_3$ thin films could be controlled by varying crystalline phases and their preferred orientation which depend on the kind of substrates and whether the $Y_2O_3$buffer layer exist or not.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2012 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2012년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwataik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Choi, Jong Min;Park, Jun-Seok;Kim, Sumin
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.346-361
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    • 2013
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2012. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. The conclusions are as follows : (1) The research works on thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of fluid machinery, pipes and valves, fuel cells and power plants, ground-coupled heat pumps, and general heat and mass transfer systems. Research issues are mainly focused on new and renewable energy systems, such as fuel cells, ocean thermal energy conversion power plants, and ground-coupled heat pump systems. (2) Research works on the heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for natural convection in a square enclosure with two hot circular cylinders, non-uniform grooved tube considering tube expansion, single-tube annular baffle system, broadcasting LED light with ion wind generator, mechanical property and microstructure of SA213 P92 boiler pipe steel, and flat plate using multiple tripping wires. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on the design of a micro-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump, numerical simulation of a heat pump evaporator considering the pressure drop in the distributor and capillary tubes, critical heat flux on a thermoexcel-E enhanced surface, and the performance of a fin-and-tube condenser with non-uniform air distribution and different tube types were actively carried out. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on a plate heat exchanger type dehumidifier, fin-tube heat exchanger, an electric circuit transient analogy model in a vertical closed loop ground heat exchanger, heat transfer characteristics of a double skin window for plant factory, a regenerative heat exchanger depending on its porous structure, and various types of plate heat exchangers were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were executed to improve refrigeration system performance, and to evaluate the applicability of alternative refrigerants and new components. Various topics were presented in the area of refrigeration cycle. Research issues mainly focused on the enhancement of the system performance. In the alternative refrigerant area, studies on CO2, R32/R152a mixture, and R1234yf were performed. Studies on the design and performance analysis of various compressors and evaporator were executed. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, twenty-nine studies were conducted to achieve effective design of mechanical systems, and also to maximize the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included heating and cooling, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energy systems, and lighting systems in buildings. New designs and performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data, which can improve the energy efficiency of buildings. (5) In the fields of the architectural environment, studies for various purposes, such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy were performed. In particular, building energy-related researches and renewable energy systems have been mainly studied, reflecting interests in global climate change, and efforts to reduce building energy consumption by government and architectural specialists. In addition, many researches have been conducted regarding indoor environments.

Organization and function of shoot apical meristem affecting growth and development in plants (식물의 생장과 발달에 영향을 미치는 슈트 정단분열조직의 체제와 기능)

  • Lee, Kyu Bae
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.180-193
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    • 2014
  • In plants, a shoot apex has a small region known as the shoot apical meristem (SAM) having a group of dividing (initiating) cells. The SAM gives rise to all the groundabove structures of plants throughout their lifetime, and thus it plays important role in growth and development of plants. This review describes theories to explain the SAM organization and function developed over the last 250 years. Since in 1759 German botanist C. F. Wolff has described firstly the SAM, in 1858 Swiss botanist C. N${\ddot{a}}$geli proposed the apical cell theory from the observation of a large single apical cell in the SAM of seedless vascular plants: however, this view was recognized to be unsuitable to seed plants. In 1868, German botanist J. Hanstein suggested the histogen theory: this concept subdividing the SAM into dermatogen, periblem, and plerome was unable to generally apply to seed plants. In 1924, German botanist A. Schmidt proposed the tunica-corpus theory from the examination of angiosperm SAM in which two parts show different planes of cell division: this theory was proved to be not suitable to gymnosperm SAM, not have stable surface tunica layer. In 1938, American botanist A. Foster described zones in gymnosperm SAM based on the cytohistologic differentiation and thus called it a cytohistological zonation theory. With works by E. Gifford, in 1954, this zonation pattern was demonstrated to be also applicable to angiosperm SAM. As another theory, in 1952 French botanist R. Buvat proposed the m${\acute{e}}$rist${\grave{e}}$me d'attente (waiting meristem) theory: however, this concept was confuted because of its negation of function during vegetative growth phase to central initial cells. Rescent studies with Arabidopsis thaliana have found that formation and maintenance of the SAM are under the control of selected genes: SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) gene forms the SAM, and WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA (CLV) genes function in maintaining the SAM; signaling between WUS and CLV genes act through a negative feedback loop.

A Study on the Analysis of Five Artificial Sweetners in Beverages by HPLC/MS/MS (HPLC/MS/MS를 이용한 음료류 중 인공감미료 동시분석에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seong-Bong;Yong, Kum-Chan;Hwang, Sun-Il;Kim, Young-Su;Jung, You-Jung;Seo, Mi-Young;Lee, Chang-Hee;Sung, Jin-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2014
  • A method for analysis of five artificial sweetners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, cyclamate) in beverage samples was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The method uses a single-step dilution for sample preperation. Seperation was achieved on a $C_{18}$ column ($2.1{\times}150mm$, $3.5{\mu}m$) with A- 2% methanol (1 mM ammonium acetate), B-95% methanol (1 mM ammonium acetate) as mobile phase with gradient mode. The quantitation of target compounds was performed by external calibration in selected reaction monitorning (SRM) mode. The coefficient of determination of calibration curve for sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose and cyclamate were 0.9957, 0.9991, 0.9943, 0.9982 and 0.9948, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the range of 0.001~0.022 mg/L and 0.004~0.073 mg/L, repectively. Recoveries for beverage samples were in the range of 92.76~113.50% with RSD < 10.91%. The method has applied to the determination of the five sweetners in 102 beverage samples. Three artificial sweetners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose were detected from 42 samples. Sodium saccharin and cyclamate were not detected in all samples.

The Heading Response of Field-grown Rice Varieties of Different Heading Ecotypes in Korea (벼 품종의 출수생태 특성에 따른 포장 출수 반응 분석)

  • Yang, Woonho;Kang, Shingu;Kim, Sukjin;Choi, Jong-Seo;Park, Jeong-Hwa
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.282-293
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    • 2018
  • The heading response of rice varieties is determined by the combined effects of their basic vegetative phase (BVP), photoperiod-sensitivity (PS), and thermo-sensitivity (TS). This study was performed to analyze the effect of differences among heading ecotypes of rice on their heading response in the field. To do this, we investigated the heading response of 15 varieties grown under different day-length and temperature conditions in a phytotron. The characteristics of heading ecotypes were compared to the heading responses in the field-grown rice varieties that were used in the phytotron experiments. The ranges of these characteristics across the 15 varieties were 18 - 35 days for BVP, 12 - 61 days for PS, and 12 - 35 days for TS. In comparisons of coupled varieties that differed only in a single trait among BVP, PS, and TS, the variety with the longer BVP and that with the higher PS had a longer period from sowing to heading (DTH), while the variety with the higher TS had a shorter DTH. The comparative magnitude of DTH in the coupled varieties followed the PS trait when BVP and PS were involved, the BVP trait when BVP and TS were involved, and the PS trait when PS and TS were involved in the heading response of field-grown rice. When comparing the coupled varieties with different traits of the three examined factors, the heading response was consistent with the PS trait. The DTH in all 15 varieties was significantly correlated with the PS, and the DTH in 9 selected varieties with a relatively small PS was correlated with BVP. The reduced DTH of rice in the July 10 seeding treatment compared to those in the June 25 and May 11 seeding treatments was positively associated with PS, but not with TS. We concluded that the heading response of rice varieties under natural conditions in Korea is mainly governed by the PS trait and is also greatly affected by the BVP trait when the PS is small.

Transfer Learning using Multiple ConvNet Layers Activation Features with Principal Component Analysis for Image Classification (전이학습 기반 다중 컨볼류션 신경망 레이어의 활성화 특징과 주성분 분석을 이용한 이미지 분류 방법)

  • Byambajav, Batkhuu;Alikhanov, Jumabek;Fang, Yang;Ko, Seunghyun;Jo, Geun Sik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.205-225
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    • 2018
  • Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) is one class of the powerful Deep Neural Network that can analyze and learn hierarchies of visual features. Originally, first neural network (Neocognitron) was introduced in the 80s. At that time, the neural network was not broadly used in both industry and academic field by cause of large-scale dataset shortage and low computational power. However, after a few decades later in 2012, Krizhevsky made a breakthrough on ILSVRC-12 visual recognition competition using Convolutional Neural Network. That breakthrough revived people interest in the neural network. The success of Convolutional Neural Network is achieved with two main factors. First of them is the emergence of advanced hardware (GPUs) for sufficient parallel computation. Second is the availability of large-scale datasets such as ImageNet (ILSVRC) dataset for training. Unfortunately, many new domains are bottlenecked by these factors. For most domains, it is difficult and requires lots of effort to gather large-scale dataset to train a ConvNet. Moreover, even if we have a large-scale dataset, training ConvNet from scratch is required expensive resource and time-consuming. These two obstacles can be solved by using transfer learning. Transfer learning is a method for transferring the knowledge from a source domain to new domain. There are two major Transfer learning cases. First one is ConvNet as fixed feature extractor, and the second one is Fine-tune the ConvNet on a new dataset. In the first case, using pre-trained ConvNet (such as on ImageNet) to compute feed-forward activations of the image into the ConvNet and extract activation features from specific layers. In the second case, replacing and retraining the ConvNet classifier on the new dataset, then fine-tune the weights of the pre-trained network with the backpropagation. In this paper, we focus on using multiple ConvNet layers as a fixed feature extractor only. However, applying features with high dimensional complexity that is directly extracted from multiple ConvNet layers is still a challenging problem. We observe that features extracted from multiple ConvNet layers address the different characteristics of the image which means better representation could be obtained by finding the optimal combination of multiple ConvNet layers. Based on that observation, we propose to employ multiple ConvNet layer representations for transfer learning instead of a single ConvNet layer representation. Overall, our primary pipeline has three steps. Firstly, images from target task are given as input to ConvNet, then that image will be feed-forwarded into pre-trained AlexNet, and the activation features from three fully connected convolutional layers are extracted. Secondly, activation features of three ConvNet layers are concatenated to obtain multiple ConvNet layers representation because it will gain more information about an image. When three fully connected layer features concatenated, the occurring image representation would have 9192 (4096+4096+1000) dimension features. However, features extracted from multiple ConvNet layers are redundant and noisy since they are extracted from the same ConvNet. Thus, a third step, we will use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to select salient features before the training phase. When salient features are obtained, the classifier can classify image more accurately, and the performance of transfer learning can be improved. To evaluate proposed method, experiments are conducted in three standard datasets (Caltech-256, VOC07, and SUN397) to compare multiple ConvNet layer representations against single ConvNet layer representation by using PCA for feature selection and dimension reduction. Our experiments demonstrated the importance of feature selection for multiple ConvNet layer representation. Moreover, our proposed approach achieved 75.6% accuracy compared to 73.9% accuracy achieved by FC7 layer on the Caltech-256 dataset, 73.1% accuracy compared to 69.2% accuracy achieved by FC8 layer on the VOC07 dataset, 52.2% accuracy compared to 48.7% accuracy achieved by FC7 layer on the SUN397 dataset. We also showed that our proposed approach achieved superior performance, 2.8%, 2.1% and 3.1% accuracy improvement on Caltech-256, VOC07, and SUN397 dataset respectively compare to existing work.

REPORT OF EXPERIENCE WITH KIMURA'S DISEASE (기무라씨 질환, 5 예 보고)

  • Seel David J.;Park Yoon-Kyu;Lee Kwang-Min
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1989
  • Kimura's Disease is a chronic inflammatory and proliferative condition producing subcutaneous masses especially in the head and neck area. This report of our experience with 5 patients with this disease is the first in the Korean surgical literature. Kimura's Disease is thought to be part of the larger spectrum of the entity known as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE). It is characterized pathologically by hyperplastic lymphoid follicles, eosinophilic infiltration, and vase 비 ar proliferation. It produces masses which are most common in the area of the parotid, submandibular gland and upper neck. These masses occupy the subcutaneous tissues but also extend into salivary tissue and into upper neck nodes. One of our patients had masses in the groin. The tumors are extremely vascular due to the presence of new proliferative vessels and sinusoids. The average age of our 5 patients was 35, but all but one case were younger than 38 years of age. The male: female ratio was 3 : 2, and the average duration of symptoms was 5,2years. All patients had peripheral blood eosinophilia. All had multiple masses, sometimes symmetrical. The management was surgery alone in one case, surgery and steroids in one case, surgery and radiotherapy in two cases, and all three modalities in one case. The relationship of this entity to ALHE and our experience in the management of this disease are presented. A clinicopathological discrepancy alerted us to the existence of Kimura's Disease. A nineteen-year old male presented with subcutaneous masses over both mastoid areas present for 3 years (Case III). When biopsy on each side was reported as 'eosinophilic granuloma' we submitted the slides to an internationally expert pathologist. Symmetrically occurring tumors in the peri-parotid subcutaneous areas did not fit any category of neoplasm or granuloma known to us. The diagnosis, made by Dr. Gist Fan at the Ochsner Clinic, was Kimura's Disease. We found two additional cases in a review of soft tissue eosinophilic granuloma previously reported at Presbyterian Medical Center, and since then have diagnosed two new cases. These five cases constitute the basis for this, the largest series to be reported in Korea. These vascular, tumor-like lesions of the skin, subcutaneous areas and subjacent structures of the head and neck have been a variety of names, such as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, angioblastic lymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, histioid hemangioma, and epithelioid hemangioma. The history of this disease spectrum dates back to 1937 when Kimm and Szeto (1) reported 7 cases of 'eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma' in the Proceedings of the Chinese Medical Journal. In 1948 Kimura and his associates(2) reported additional cases in Japan under the title 'On the unusual granulation combined with hyperplastic changes of lymphatic tissue.' From then until 1966 several hundred cases were reported in China and Japan. The first report from the West was by Wells and Whimster(3) in the British Journal of Dermatology, in 1969. These authors coined the term, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE). Since that time a debate has ensued as to whether Kimura's Disease and ALHE are distinct entities, or whether Kimura's is part of the larger spectrum of ALHE, perhaps a later or advanced phase. From the clinical perspective, surgeons should be aware of the diagnosis of Kimura's Disease not only as part of the differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors but also because these lesions are indolent, and generally require conservative surgical removal as part of the management program. CASE I. A 37-year-old female company employee presented in August 1982 with submental swelling of 12 years' duration and with inguinal swelling of 7 years' duration. The submental mass measured 5x5cm. and the inguinal mass was 8x4cm. in size. Peripheral eosinophilia varying from 14% to 40% was found. On August 20, 1982, the submental mass was removed and a superficial groin dissection was done. In May 1983 an intraoral lesion of the palate was removed. The patient is free of disease. CASE II. A 23-year-old unemployed man visited this hospital for the first time in July, 1984, with swelling of the right cheek present for 6 years. The mass was soft and ill-defined but measured 10x20cm. and extended from the submandibular upper neck to the zygomatic arch, and from the mastoid to the cheek, over the parotid gland. Eosinophilia varying from 27% to 29% was noted in the peripheral blood. On March 21, 1986, the lesion was resected. The procedure comprised an extended superficial parotidectomy from the temporalis fascia to the upper neck. Post-operatively radiotherapy 3000 rad tissue dose was administered using the 6 MeV linear accelerator. The patient remains free of disease. CASE III. A 19-year-old student came to the clinic with masses over both mastoid areas, present 3 years. On the right there were two adjacent lesions, one over the mastoid, the other in the upper jugular level of the neck. On the left it was a single mass over the mastoid. Eosinophilia varied from 13 to 32% in the peripheral blood, and 11.6% in the bone marrow. Incisional biopsy revealed 'eosinophilic granuloma' and a trial of predisolone was employed. The mass increased in size so a small dose of radiation (600 rads) was used, with substantial regression,. The lesion on the left was excised and follwed by 1000 rads radiotherapy. Finally recurrent tumor on the right side was removed on November 5, 1985. The patient remains free of disease. CASE N. A 29-year-old local merchant had had swelling of both upper necks since childhood. At the time of his first visit on March 17, 1986, the right submandibular mass measured 5x3.5cm. and the ,right upper neck and parotid tail mass measured 2.5cm. On the left there were masses in the upper neck, the largest of which measured 2.5cm, and of the parotid tail, 2.0cm. in size.(See Fig. 1) Peripheral eosinophilia of 39% was recorded. Left side partial parotidectomy and resection of the upper neck and subdigstric mases was done on May 2, 1986. The mass involving the right parotid tail and upper neck nodes was removed on Angust 7,1986. Postoperatively the patient was placed on prednisolone 30 mg. per day. No definite masses are palpable. CASE V. A 66-year-old housewife informed us, at the time of her first visit in May, 1986, that she had had multiple neck masses since 10 years ago. On the right side there was a 2.5cm. subcutaneous mass of the upper neck, over the upper jugular chain. On the left there was a 9x4.5cm. mass involving the entire parotid, the post-auricular area and the upper neck. A third mass presented in the submental area and measured 3.5cm. (See Fig. 2) Eosinophilia of 51% was noted in the peripheral blood. partial excision of the left upper neck lesion and complete excision of the submental mass were performed on june 6, 1986. post-operatively she was placed on 20 mg. of prednisolone daily, but when the mass re-grew after two months she was referred to Radiation Therapy for a 2500 rad course of treatment. A barely palpable thickening remains.

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Correlation of p53 Protein Overexpression, Gene Mutation with Prognosis in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer(NSCLC) Patients (비소세포폐암에서 p53유전자의 구조적 이상 및 단백질 발현이 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Y.H.;Shin, D.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lim, H.Y.;Chung, K.Y.;Yang, W.I.;Kim, S.K.;Chang, J.;Roh, J.K.;Kim, S.K.;Lee, W.Y.;Kim, B.S.;Kim, B.S.
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.339-353
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    • 1994
  • Background : The p53 gene codes for a DNA-binding nuclear phosphoprotein that appears to inhibit the progression of cells from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. Mutations of the p53 gene are common in a wide variety of human cancers, including lung cancer. In lung cancers, point mutations of the p53 gene have been found in all histological types including approximately 45% of resected NSCLC and even more frequently in SCLC specimens. Mutant forms of the p53 protein have transforming activity and interfere with the cell-cycle regulatory function of the wild-type protein. The majority of p53 gene mutations produce proteins with altered conformation and prolonged half life; these mutant proteins accumulate in the cell nucleus and can be detected by immunohistochemical staining. But protein overexpression has been reported in the absence of mutation. p53 protein overexpression or gene mutation is reported poor prognostic factor in breast cancer, but in lung cancer, its prognostic significance is controversial. Method : We investigated the p53 abnormalities by nucleotide sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP), and immunohistochemical staining. We correlated these results with each other and survival in 75 patients with NSCLC resected with curative intent. Overexpression of the p53 protein was studied immunohistochemically in archival paraffin- embedded tumor samples using the D07(Novocastra, U.K.) antibody. Overexpression of p53 protein was defined by the nuclear staining of greater than 25% immunopositive cells in tumors. Detection of p53 gene mutation was done by PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequencing from the exon 5-9 of p53 gene. Result: 1) Of the 75 patients, 36%(27/75) showed p53 overexpression by immunohistochemical stain. There was no survival difference between positive and negative p53 immunostaining(overall median survival of 26 months, disease free median survival of 13 months in both groups). 2) By PCR-SSCP, 27.6%(16/58) of the patients showed mobility shift. There was no significant difference in survival according to mobility shift(overall median survival of 27 in patients without mobility shift vs 20 months in patients with mobility shift, disease free median survival of 8 months vs 10 months respectively). 3) Nucleotide sequence was analysed from 29 patients, and 34.5%(10/29) had mutant p53 sequence. Patients with the presence of gene mutations showed tendency to shortened survival compared with the patients with no mutation(overall median survival of 22 vs 27 months, disease free median survival of 10 vs 20 months), but there was no statistical significance. 4) The sensitivity and specificity of immunostain based on PCR-SSCP was 67.0%, 74.0%, and that of the PCR-SSCP based on the nucleotide sequencing was 91.8%, 96.2% respectively. The concordance rate between the immunostain and PCR-SSCP was 62.5%, and the rate between the PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequencing was 95.3%. Conclusion : In terms of detection of p53 gene mutation, PCR-SSCP was superior to immunostaining. p53 gene abnormalities either overexpression or mutation were not a significant prognostic factor in NSCLC patients resected with curative intent. However, patients with the mutated p53 gene showed the trends of early relapse.

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