• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sire

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Sire-maternal Grandsire Model and Sire Model in Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Average Daily Gain and Carcass Traits of Japanese Black Cattle

  • Kim, Jong-Bok;Lee, Chaeyoung;Tsuyuki, Tsutomu;Shimogiri, Takeshi;Okamoto, Shin;Maeda, Yoshizane
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1678-1684
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    • 2006
  • The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and sire breeding values for average daily gain (ADG) and carcass traits using sire-maternal grandsire model with REML approach, sire model with REML approach, sire model without relationships among sires and with REML and ANOVA approach, and to investigate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data were collected from 42,325 Japanese Black steers and heifers finished and slaughtered from 1991 to 2004. Traits analyzed in this study were average daily gain (ADG) during the fattening period, live weight at slaughter (LW), cold carcass weight (CW), estimated lean yield percentage (LYE), longissimus muscle area (LMA), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RT), and marbling score (BMS). Bivariate analyses were also performed to obtain genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients among traits. Estimated breeding values were obtained from each model, and simple and rank correlations among breeding values from each model were calculated. Estimates of heritability using the four models ranged from 0.25 to 0.31 in ADG, from 0.21 to 0.24 in LW, from 0.23 to 0.27 in CW, from 0.10 to 0.17 in DP, from 0.40 to 0.42 in LYE, from 0.19 to 0.31 in LMA, from 0.31 to 0.34 in SFT, from 0.26 to 0.33 in RT, and from 0.18 to 0.44 in BMS. The differences in heritability estimates using the four models seemed to be feasible in ADG, CW, DP, LMA, RT, and BMS. Genetic correlation coefficients of ADG with CW, SFT, RT and BMS were moderate to high and positive while the genetic correlation coefficients between ADG and LYE was low and negative. Correlation coefficients of BMS with SFT were negligible for both genetic and phenotypic correlations. The correlations of estimates evaluated from sire models with those from sire-maternal grandsire model were not large enough to convincing that breeding values using a sire model were corresponding to those using a sire-maternal grand sire model. If information of maternal grand sires are not available, the sire model with incomplete pedigree information included only sire of sire (Model 2) is optimal among the sire models evaluated in this study.

CARCASS QUALITY TRAITS AMONG CROSSES OF ANGUS, SANTA GERTRUDIS AND GELBVIEH BEEF CATTLE

  • Khan, R.N.;Benyshek, L.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 1993
  • A total of 333 calves were evaluated for carcass quality traits including: dressing percentage (DP), yield grade (YG), marbling score (MS), fat thickness (FT) and percent body fat (PF). Mating types included straightbred Angus (A) and Santa Gertrudis (S), the reciprocal crosses of these two breeds and Gelbvieh (G) ${\times}$ Angus. The year of birth, slaughter group and dam breed were found to have greatly influenced DP. Mating types had no effect on DP. For YG, sire breed, sire within sire breed and slaughter group were important. Crossbreds of A ${\times}$ S had the highest YG followed by A purebreds. Crossbreds of G ${\times}$ A had the lowest YG. Sire breed, dam breed and the slaughter group has significantly affected the MS. Sire breed, sire nested within sire breed and slaughter group were found to have greatly influenced the FT. Sires and dams of A produced the greatest FT while sires of G produced the lowest. Slaughter group 2 (slaughtered at 433 days of age) had a greater FT than group 1 (slaughtered at 393 days of age). For PF, sire breed, sire within sire breed, dam breed and slaughter group had significant effects. A purebreds had the largest PF while S purebreds and G ${\times}$ A crosses had the least.

EFFECT OF BREEDING LENGTH ON GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN JAPANESE HOLSTEIN POPULATION

  • Terawaki, Y.;Shimizu, H.;Fukui, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.363-370
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    • 1996
  • The effect of breeding length of sire on genetic progress was examined in the Holstein dairy cattle population in Japan. Genetic progress was extimated by gene flow method. Breeding length of sires directly influences the replacement rates of sires and the selection intensity of sires because there are a fixed number of progeny tested young bulls per year. As breeding length of sires increased, rate of gene flow decreased and average proportions of genes deriving from selected animals had lower asymptotic values. When breeding length was short, average proportions of genes required a longer period to converge to asymptotic values. Changes of Rcow-sire's(sire to breed recorded cows) and Ncow-sire's(sire to breed non recorded cows) breeding length influenced not only transmission of their genes but also that of genes derived from all other selected animals. Irrespective of whether the discount rate was assumed to be 0 or 6%, longer term (${\geq}$ 20 years) expected total genetic improvement was maximized by a sire breeding length of five years. For shorter term assessment(10 years), genetic improvement was maximized by a sire breeding length of three years. There was a linear increase in the contribution of the sire to bulls pathway to the total genetic improvement, with increase in the term of assessment.

Efficacy of Auxiliary Traits in Estimation of Breeding Value of Sires for Milk Production

  • Sahana, G.;Gurnani, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.511-514
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    • 1999
  • Data pertaining to 1111 first lactation performance record of Karan Fries (Holstein-Friesian $\times$ Zebu) cows spread over a period of 21 years and sired by 72 bulls were used to examine the efficiency of sire indices for lactation milk production using auxiliary traits. First lactation length, first service period, first calving interval, first dry period and age at first calving were considered as auxiliary traits. The efficiency of this method was compared with simple daughter average index (D), contemporary comparison method (CC), least-square method (LSQ), simplified regressed least-squares method (SRLS) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for lactation milk production. The relative efficiency of sire evaluation methods using one auxiliary trait was lower (24.2-32.8%) in comparison to CC method, the most efficient method observed in this study. Use of two auxiliary traits at a time did not further improve the efficiency. The auxiliary sire indices discriminate better among bulls as the range of breeding values were higher in these methods in comparison to conventional sire evaluation methods. The rank correlation between breeding values estimated using auxiliary traits were high (0.77-0.78) with CC method. The rank correlation among auxiliary sire indices ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, indicating similar ranking of sire for breeding values of milk production in all the auxiliary sire indices.

Sire Evaluation Using Animal Model and Conventional Methods in Murrah Buffaloes

  • Jain, A.;Sadana, D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1196-1200
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    • 2000
  • First lactation records of 683 Murrah buffaloes maintained at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were used for comparing the sire evaluation for age at first calving, first lactation 305-day or less milk yield and first service period. The sires were evaluated using Simple daughters average, Contemporary comparison, Least-squares and BLUP methods. The BLUP evaluations were obtained under single-, two- and three-trait individual animal models. The results revealed that for taking a decision regarding the method of sire evaluation to be used for selecting sires with high breeding values, criteria of the rank correlation could be misleading and comparison of the selected sires is likely to give a veritable picture. The Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method under multi-trait animal model incorporating first lactation milk yield with first service period as a covariable and age at first calving in the model was found to be more efficient and accurate for sire selection in Murrah buffaloes.

Animal Model Versus Conventional Methods of Sire Evaluation in Sahiwal Cattle

  • Banik, S.;Gandhi, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1225-1228
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    • 2006
  • A total of 1,367 first lactation records of daughters of 81 sires, having 5 or more progeny were used to evaluate sires by 3 different methods viz., least squares (LS), best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and derivative free restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) method. The highest and lowest overall average breeding value of sires for first lactation 305 days or less milk yield was obtained by BLUP (1,520.72 kg) and LS method (1,502.22 kg), respectively. The accuracy, efficiency and stability of different sire evaluation methods were compared to judge their effectiveness. The error variance of DFREML method was lowest ($191,112kg^2$) and its coefficient of determination of fitting the model was highest (33.39%) revealing that this method of sire evaluation was most efficient and accurate as compared to other methods. However, the BLUP method was most stable amongst all the methods having coefficient of variation (%) very near to unadjusted data (18.72% versus 19.89%). The higher rank correlations (0.7979 to 0.9568) between different sire evaluation methods indicated that there was higher degree of similarity of ranking sires by different methods ranging from about 80 to 96 percent. However, the DFREML method seemed to be the most effective sire evaluation method as compared to other methods for the present set of data.

Selection of Young Dairy Bulls for Future Use in Artificial Insemination

  • Dutt, Triveni;Gaur, G.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.117-120
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    • 1998
  • Relationships of breeding values of sires for first lactation milk yield with pedigree information or indices were examined to identify the optimal criteria of selecting young dairy bulls for future use in artificial insemination (AI). Records of performance data on 1087 crossbred daughters (Holstein - Friesian, Jersey and Brown Swiss with Hariana) of 147 sires, generated at Livestock Production Research (Cattle and Buffaloes) Farm, IVRI, Izatnagar, U.P., during 1972 - 1995 were used to obtain the estimates of sire's breeding values (EBV) using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction Procedures. The correlations between young bull's EBV and the dam's first lactation milk yield was non-significantly different from zero. However, the young bull's EBV was negatively and significantly related (r = - 0.275 ; P < 0.05) to the dam's best lactation milk yield, suggesting that the selection of young dairy bulls from high yielding elite dams is not a suitable criteria for genetic improvement. The correlations of sire's and paternal grandsire's EBV's with young bull's EBV were high and positive (0.532, 0.844; P < 0.01). The maternal grandsire's EBV was positively but non-significantly related to grandson's EBV. The pedigree index incorporating dam's milk records and sire's EBV's showed a negative and non-significant correlation with young bull's EBV. However, the correlation of a pedigree index $(I_3)$ combining information on sire's and paternal grand-sire's EBV's with young bull's EBV's was considerably high and positive (0.797; P < 0.01). The regression coefficients of young bull's EBV on pedigree index $I_3$, was higher than those on other pedigree information. These results revealed that there was no advantage in basing selection on dam's performance or maternal grand-sire's EBV and that sire's and paternal grandsire's EBV's were reliable pedigree information for selection of young dairy bulls for future use in AI.

Estimation of Direct and Service Sire Genetic Parameters for Reproductive Traits in Yorkshire

  • Kim, B.W.;Kim, S.D.;Lee, I.J.;Chung, K.H.;Kwon, O.S.;Ha, J.K.;Lee, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1232-1236
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    • 2002
  • Direct and service sire genetic parameters for total number of pigs born (TNB), number of pigs born alive (NBA), total pig weight at birth (TWB), and average pig birth weight (ABW) were estimated by DF-REML under a multiple trait animal model. Data on 3,078 litters of the Yorkshire from Jan, 1975 to Dec, 1998 at National Livestock Research Institute were obtained. The animal model included fixed contemporary group effects and random additive direct, service sire, and residual effects. Additive genetic relationships among animals were included. A separate relationship matrix for service sires and their sire was also included. Additive direct heritability estimates for TNB, NBA, TWB, and ABW were 0.19, 0.18, 0.25 and 0.39, respectively. Service sire heritability estimates for TNB, NBA, TWB, and ABW were 0.02, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of TNB with NBA estimated in this study were 0.81 and 0.81, respectively, and the genetic and phenotypic correlations of TNB with TWB estimated were 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. Results indicate that service sires account for 1 to 2% of the total variation for TNB, NBA, TWB, and ABW. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the service sire effect is primarily genetic or environmental.

Pedigree Indexing of Imported American Brahman Breeder Cattle in the Philippines

  • Bondac, O.L.;Mercado, C.M.;Vera Cruz, N.C.;Palou, R.N.;Jr, J.S.Server
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.614-620
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    • 1997
  • Pedigree data were used to predict the performance of 1,166 imported Americas Brahman breeder cattle, composed of 104 bulls and 1,062 heifers with an average age of 24.4 months (range of 17 to 40 months). A total of 13 full sib, 10 maternal half sib, and 228 paternal half sib groups were identified, each with average group size of 2.08, 2.00, and 4.49, respectively. Only 758 (64.9% of total) imported cattle were found to have at least one ancestor with expected progeny differences (EPDs) reported in the Spring 1995 Brahman Sire Summary. Moderate average accuracy values of .71, .69, .52, and .52 for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and maternal milk, respectively, were noted for EPDs of the ancestors. Prediction equations were derived by multiple regression analysis of available EPDs of sire, paternal grand sire, and maternal grand sire. Based on pedigree indexes that involve various combinations of available ancestral information, the average predicted EPDs (lbs) for imported cattle were $1.76{\pm}0.54$, $14.93{\pm}4.86$, $25.10{\pm}9.50$, and $5.86{\pm}2.08$ for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and maternal milk, respectively. Significant correlations (p < .05) were also found between sire and son EPDs (+.27) for yearling weight; and between sire and paternal grand sire EPDs for birth weight (+.34), weaning weight (+.51), yearling weight (+.49), and maternal milk (+.55).

Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Performance of Reproduction and Lactation in Holstein Cows (Holstein종 유우의 번식 및 산유능력에 미치는 유전과 환경의 효과)

  • 김호중;이규승;상병찬
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1986
  • This study was conducted to determine the main effects of year, month, sire and parity on certain reproduction and lactation traits on the basis of the data obtained from 1,510 head of Holstein cows at National Animal Breeding Institute from 1971 to 1981. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows; 1. The conception interval and number of services per concetption were 124.10 days and 2.19 times, respectively. The effects of year, month and sire on the above traits were significant. 2. The birth weight and gestation length were 42.20kg and 281.52 days, respectively. The effects of year, month and parity on the birth weight, and year, sire and parity on gestation length were significant. 3. The yields of milk and milk fat in 305 days, and the fat percent were 4937.05kg, 174.43kg and 3.56%, respectively. The effects of year, month, sire and parity on the above traits were significant. 4. The peak yield and days reaching the peak yield were 26.46kg and 49.17 days, respectively. The effects of the sire and parity on above traits were significant.

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