• Title/Summary/Keyword: Species diversity

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A Study on the Ground Covering in Landscape Planting -In the Case of the Mongchon Earth Fort- (조경배식에 있어 지피식생조성에 관한 연구 -몽촌토성을 중심으로-)

  • 우종서;이경재
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1991
  • This research investigated soil, plants, insects and birds in the Mongchon Earth Fort, establishing the 11 plots, according to planting treatment, in order to present management method for ecological stability of species in the ground covering plots. The results of analysizing the investigated data summarize as follows. 1. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the density and coverage of middle and low layer in the natural plots were higher than those in the artificial plots. 2. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the density and coverage of low layer were higher than those in the artificial, while the density and coverage of herb layer in the natural plots were lower. 3. Whether there was upper layer or not, the total species diversity and enenness of the ground covering community in the natural plot without artificial treatment and natural treatment plot were higher than those ground covering. 4. In the ground covering plots with upper layer, the species diversity of ground covering in the plots without artificial treatment is high, while the species diversity in the plots with natural treatment caused the secondary succession is higher than that of the natural plot. 5. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the species diversity in the plots with artificial management was higher than that of natural plots, while the evenness in the plots with artificial management was lower. 6. In the ground covering plots with upper layer the species diversity of insect in the plot of natural state was higher than that of insect in the plots with artifical treatment. 7. Synthetically, in the area with upper layer the species diversity of the ground covering community in the natural plot was high, while in the area without upper layer, the species diversity of it in the plots with artificial treatment was high. The insect turned up frequently in the plots of high species diversity of the ground covering, so the bird did in the plots of high species diversity of the ground covering and insects.

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Comparison of Frequencies in Order to Estimate of Tree Species Diversity in Caspian Forests of Iran

  • Mirzaei, Mehrdad;Bahnemiry, Atefeh Karimiyan;Abkenar, Kambiz Taheri
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2019
  • Species diversity is one of the most important indices that used to evaluate the sustainability of forest communities. In the present study, three variables including number of individuals (frequency of species), basal area and volume of tree species were compared to estimate tree species diversity in broadleaves forests of Iran. Based on systematic random design, 30 plots (circle plot, $1000m^2$) was selected. Type of species, number of species, DBH and height of trees were measured. Simpson (1-D), Hill ($N_2$), Shannon-Wiener (H'), Mc Arthur ($N_1$), Smith-Wilson ($E_{var}$) and Margalef ($R_1$) indices used to estimate tree species diversity. Species diversity was calculated in each plot. ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference between of three variables used for estimation of species diversity. Number of trees variable has more precision than basal area and volume variables to estimate of species diversity. But Duncan test revealed that there were significant difference between of basal area and volume variables with number of trees. Therefore, basal area and volume variables were selected as more suitable variables in order to estimate of biodiversity indices in northern forests of Iran.

Analysis of Bird Species Diversity Response to Structural Conditions of Urban Park - Focused on 26 Urban Parks in Cheonan City - (도시공원 구조 및 식생 조건에 따른 조류 종다양성 분석 - 천안시 26개 도시공원을 대상으로 -)

  • Song, Wonkyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2015
  • The urban park has important functions as a habitat for wildlife as well as open space of rest and community for people. This study was carried out to find what factors of structure and vegetation of urban parks could affect forest bird species diversity in Cheonan city. The study surveyed bird and vegetation species in 26 urban parks, Cheonan city. A correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed to test whether habitat structure and vegetation were the major correlate with species diversity. The results showed the Dujeong park was the most high bird species diversity (H' = 2.13), and the Dujeong-8 park (H' = 2.02) and the Cheongsa park (H' = 1.73) were considerably higher than the other urban parks. The variables that were strongly correlated with bird species diversity were park area, number of subtree species, canopy of shrub, number of shrub species, shape index, canopy of subtree, canopy of tree, and impervious surface ratio. The regression of bird species diversity against the environmental variables showed that 3 variables of park area, canopy of subtree, and canopy of tree were included in the best model. Model variable selection was broadly similar for the 5 optimal models. It means park area and multi-layer vegetation were the most consistent and significant predictor of bird species diversity, because urban parks were isolated by built-up areas. Especially the subtree coverage that provides shelter and food for forest birds was an important variable. Therefore, to make parks circular-shaped and abundant multi-layer vegetation, which could be a buffer to external disturbances and improve the quality of habitats, may be used to enhance species diversity in creation and management of urban parks.

Investigation Plant Species Diversity and Physiographical Factors in Mountain Forest in North of Iran

  • Hashemi, Seyed Armin
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Species diversity is one of the most important specifications of biological societies. Diversity of organisms, measurement of variety and examination of those hypotheses that are about reasons of diversity are such as affairs that have been desired by the ecologists for a long time. In this research, diversity of plant species in forest region, numbers of 60 sample plots in 256.00 square meters have been considered in random - systematic inventory was considered. In each sample plot, four micro-plots in 2.25 square meters in order to study on herbal cover, were executed that totally 240 micro-plots were considered. At each plot six diversity indices in relation to physiographic factors (slope, geographical aspect and altitude from the sea level) were studied. The results indicate that species diversity is more in the northern direction and also species diversity in slops less than 30% has the most amounts. Factor of altitude from the sea level did not have meaningful relation with species diversity. Through study on correlation of the numbers of species in sample plots with indices and also process and role of indices in different processors of analysis, Simpson's reciprocal index was suggested as suitable index in this type of studies.

An Evaluation of the Effects of Rehabilitation Practiced in the Coal Mining Spoils in Korea 1. An Evaluation Based on Vegetation

  • Lee, Chang-Seok;Cho, Yong-Chan;Shin, Hyun-Chul;Lee, Seon-Mi;Lee, Choong-Hwa;Eom, Ahn-Heum
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2007
  • This study evaluated the effects of rehabilitation of existing coal mining spoils on species composition and species diversity. The species composition of most rehabilitated stands differed from that of the reference stands, and thus did not suggest successful rehabilitation. However, stands subjected to restorative treatment many years ago showed higher species diversity than the reference stands and thereby met the goals of rehabilitation. Our results demonstrate that restorative treatments practiced in the past created a heterogeneous ecological space with regard to the surrounding areas. Therefore, even though species diversity increased several years after rehabilitation, this does not indicate that the treatment achieved true rehabilitation success. The treatment did result in temporary stability through increased species diversity, but it could not be described as successful rehabilitation in terms of biological integrity with the surrounding ecosystems.

Species Diversity of a Stratified Hornbeam Community in Kwangneung Forest (광릉산림에 있어서 서나무군집의 층에 따른 종다양성에 관한 연구)

  • 이광석;장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 1995
  • The herb, shrub, understory and canopy strata, which arbitrarily delineated by size classes, were sampled separately. The former one were sampled by the pin-point quadrat method. And remaining three by size quadrats, diversity (H= =$\Sigma$ Pi log Pi) of of each stratum was estimated for each set of census data. Species diversity within a stratum was independent of sample plot size above a minimum cumulative area. Diversity based on plotless and plot samples could he determined by the same equation, and by pooling the data needed to estimate diversity of each stratum.

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Species Diversity Analysis of Ecosystem Survey Data Using Total Information (정보계측기법을 이용한 생태조사자료의 종다양도 분석)

  • Jung, Nam-Su;Lee, Jeong-Jae;Park, Seung-Kie;Kim, Woong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2007
  • Shannon and Simpson indexes are used for species diversity analysis of ecosystem. In species diversity analysis of ecosystem, not only frequency of each species but also survey size have to be considered. In this study, total information composed with knowledge and ignorance was suggested as a species diversity analysis method for ecosystem survey. To apply developed method, flora in the Sangachun river valley was sampled with 19 sites and 198 species. In applying results, Shannon index shows more reasonable results than Simpson index by the variance of sample size but has difficulties of determining the relation of surveying species number and sample site number. Suggested total information can overcome this difficulty by the relation of knowledge and ignorance.

Species Diversity of Forest Vegetation in Togyusan National Park (덕유산 국립공원 삼림식생의 종 다양성)

  • Kim, Chang-Hwan;Bong-Seop Kil
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 1996
  • Five measurements of species diversity (richness index, diversity index, evenness index, dominance index and species sequences-importance curve) and their relationships with sltitude, tree age and community type were studied in $T\v{o}gyusan$ National Park, Korea. Altitude and tree age were the major variables explaining the differences of species diversity in the whole forest. Species richness index, diversity index and evenness index of Quercus mongolica and Pinus densiflora communities were lower than those of Carpinus laxiflora, Q. serrata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Q. mongolica - P. densiflora communities than that in the other communities. The species sequence-importance curve of the forest communities in $T\v{o}gyusan$ coincided with the ideal curve calculated by the lognormal-distribution theory.

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Effect of Gaps on Species Diversity in the Naturally Regenerated Mixed Broadleaved-Korean Pine Forest of the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China

  • Jin, Guangze;Liu, Yanyan;Liu, Shuang;Kim, Ji-Hong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2007
  • Recognizing the ecological importance of forest gap formation for forest community structure, we examined the differences in species diversity between forest gaps and closed canopy areas for trees and shrubs in three developmental stages (seedling, sapling I, and sapling II) in a typical mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest. We randomly placed 100 sample plots ($2{\times}2m$ for seedling and sapling I, and $5{\times}5m$ for sapling II) in forest gap and closed canopy areas of a 9 ha permanent sample plot for vegetation surveys of plants of each developmental stage in each habitat type. Even though the formation of forest gaps encouraged the occurrence of gap-dependent species and increased overall species diversity, there were no significant differences in species richness among the three developmental stages for both tree and shrub species (p>0.05). Comparing the two types of sites, statistical tests revealed no difference in species richness for trees, but highly significant differences (p<0.01) between forest types for shrubs for seedlings and sapling I, but not sapling II. Analysis of variance test indicated that there were no significant differences in species diversity among the three developmental stages of tree species (p>0.05) for both Simpson and Shannon indices. The variance for shrub seedlings was significantly different between forest gaps and closed canopy areas, but not for sapling I and sapling II. The analysis showed that the species diversity in forest gaps was significantly different from that of closed canopy areas for seedling and sapling I (p<0.01), but not for sapling II (p>0.05).

Characteristics of Species Composition and Community Structure for the Forest Vegetation of Mt. Ohseo in Chungnam Province (충남 오서산 산림식생의 종 조성 및 군집 특성)

  • Shin, Hak-Sub;Yun, Chung-Weon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.35-51
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    • 2014
  • A phytosociological vegetation survey was conducted in July to September 2011 in order to examine the vegetation community structure in Mt. Ohseo area. It was aimed to provide basic data for the effective vegetation conservation by analyzing the importance, species diversity and community similarity of the forest community in Mt. Ohseo for each layer, followed by the classification of the actual forest vegetation. According to the cluster analysis, the community type of Mt. Ohseo was classified into a total of 4 vegetation communities: Pinus densiflora community, Cornus controversa-Quercus serrata community, Miscanthus sinensis community, and Quercus mongolica community; the vegetation type 4 showed the lowest species diversity index of 0.5236, and vegetation type-2 showed the highest species diversity index of 0.6606. The community similarity between Quercus mongolica community and Pinus densiflora community showed the highest 0.679, and the community similarity between Quercus serrata community and Pinus densiflora community and between Quercus serrata community and Quercus mongolica community showed the levels of 0.5, respectively.