• Title, Summary, Keyword: SphR

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Two-component Signal Transduction in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under Phosphate Limitation: Role of Acetyl Phosphate

  • Juntarajumnong, Waraporn;Eaton-Rye, Julian J.;Incharoensakdi, Aran
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.708-714
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    • 2007
  • The two-component signal transduction, which typically consists of a histidine kinase and a response regulator, is used by bacterial cells to sense changes in their environment. Previously, the SphS-SphR histidine kinase and response regulator pair of phosphate sensing signal transduction has been identified in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In addition, some response regulators in bacteria have been shown to be cross regulated by low molecular weight phosphorylated compounds in the absence of the cognate histidine kinase. The ability of an endogenous acetyl phosphate to phosphorylate the response regulator, SphR in the absence of the cognate histidine kinase, SphS was therefore tested in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The mutant lacking functional SphS and acetate kinase showed no detectable alkaline phosphatase activity under phosphate-limiting growth conditions. The results suggested that the endogenous acetyl phosphate accumulated inside the mutants could not activate the SphR via phosphorylation. On the other hand, exogenous acetyl phosphate could allow the mutant lacking functional acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase to grow under phosphate-limiting conditions suggesting the role of acetyl phosphate as an energy source. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that the transcripts of acetate kinase and phospho-transacetylase genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is up-regulated in response to phosphate limitation suggesting the importance of these two enzymes for energy metabolism in Synechocystis cells

Comparison of different iterative schemes for ISPH based on Rankine source solution

  • Zheng, Xing;Ma, Qing-wei;Duan, Wen-yang
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.390-403
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    • 2017
  • Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has a good adaptability for the simulation of free surface flow problems. There are two forms of SPH. One is weak compressible SPH and the other one is incompressible SPH (ISPH). Compared with the former one, ISPH method performs better in many cases. ISPH based on Rankine source solution can perform better than traditional ISPH, as it can use larger stepping length by avoiding the second order derivative in pressure Poisson equation. However, ISPH_R method needs to solve the sparse linear matrix for pressure Poisson equation, which is one of the most expensive parts during one time stepping calculation. Iterative methods are normally used for solving Poisson equation with large particle numbers. However, there are many iterative methods available and the question for using which one is still open. In this paper, three iterative methods, CGS, Bi-CGstab and GMRES are compared, which are suitable and typical for large unsymmetrical sparse matrix solutions. According to the numerical tests on different cases, still water test, dam breaking, violent tank sloshing, solitary wave slamming, the GMRES method is more efficient than CGS and Bi-CGstab for ISPH method.

A numerical study on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter using SPH code (SPH 코드를 사용한 TBM 디스크커터의 암석 절삭에 대한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Jeong, Ho-Young;Jeon, Seok-Won;Cho, Jung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.345-356
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    • 2013
  • Numerical simulation on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter was carried out using SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) code. AUTODYN3D, a commercial software program based on finite element method, was used in this study. The three-dimensional geometry of a disc cutter and a rock specimen were modeled by Lagrange and SPH code respectively. The numerical simulation was carried out for Hwangdeung granite for 10 different cutting conditions. The results of the numerical simulation, i.e. the relation between cutter force and failure behavior, had a good agreement with those from LCM test. The cutter forces measured in the numerical simulation had 10% deviation from the LCM test results. Moreover, the optimum cutter spacing was almost identical with the experimental results. These results indicate that SPH code can be successfully used had applicability for simulation on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter. However, further study on Lagrange-SPH coupled modelling would be necessary to reduce the computation time.

Reversion of Multidrug Resistance by SKI-II in SGC7901/DDP Cells and Exploration of Underlying Mechanisms

  • Zhu, Zu-An;Zhu, Zheng-Qiu;Cai, Hong-Xing;Liu, Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.625-631
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate whether SKI-II could reverse drug resistance and its possible mechanisms, we treated SGC7901/DDP cells with SKI-II or SKI-II in combination with DDP. Then cell growth, apoptosis, micromorphological changes, and expression of SphK1, P-gp, NF-${\kappa}B$, Bcl-2 and Bax were assessed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and Western blot assay respectively. SGC7901/DDP cells were insensitive to cisplatin 2.5mg/L, but when pretreated with SKI-II, their proliferation was inhibited by cisplatin 2.5mg/L significantly, the inhibition rate increasing with time and dose. The apoptosis rate was also significantly elevated. Expression of SphK1 and P-gp was decreased significantly, Pearson correlation analysis showing significant correlation between the two (r=0.595, P<0.01). Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ and Bcl-2 was decreased significantly,while that of Bax was increased, compared to the control group. There were significant correlations between SphK1 and NF-${\kappa}B$(r=0.723, P<0.01), NF-${\kappa}B$ and Bcl-2(r=0.768, P<0.01). All these data indicated that SKI-II could reverse drug resistance of SGC7901/DDP to cisplatin by down-regulating expression of P-gp and up-regulating apoptosis through down-regulation of SphK1. The increased apoptotic sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP to cisplatin was due to the decreasing proportion of Bcl-2/Bax via down-regulating NF-${\kappa}B$.

Luminosity Distribution of Dwarf Elliptical-like Galaxies

  • Seo, Mira;Ann, Hong Bae
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.32.2-32.2
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    • 2018
  • We present the structural parameters of ~ 910 dwarf elliptical-like galaxies in the local universe ($z{\lesssim}0.01$) derived from the r-band images of the Sloan Digital SKy Survey (SDSS). We examine the dependence of structural parameters on the morphological types (dS0, dE, dEbc, dSph, and dEblue) and the environment. There is not much difference in the structural parameters among the five subtypes but the mean surface brightness within the effective radius (<${\mu}e$>) of dSph galaxies is clearly different from that of other subtypes. The frequency of disk features such as spiral arm, bar, lens, and rings strongly depends on the morphology of dwarf elliptical-like galaxies with no disk features in dSph galaxies. The absence of disk features and the low surface brightness of dSph galaxies are thought to be closely related to their low mass which leads to different evolution from other subtypes of dwarf elliptical-like galaxies. Density Environments Using IMSNG.

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Comparative study of the operative experience of surgical residents before and after 80-hour work week restrictions

  • Kim, Dong Jin;Kim, Sung Geun
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.95 no.5
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: In Korea, the working-hour limitation regulation has been implemented in December 2017. We aimed to define the difference in operative experience of surgical residents before and after implementing this policy in 2 hospitals among 8 affiliated hospitals of the Catholic Medical Center where implemented the 80 working-hour limitation policy since March 2015. Methods: All the operation records were reviewed, and the number of resident-participated surgeries between March and August in 2002 and 2017 were compared. Operations performed or participated in by residents as first assistants were defined as resident participated surgery. Results: After 2 years from the initiation of the resident work-hour limitations, the number of resident participated surgery has slightly decreased in both hospitals (Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital [YSM]: 317 to 302, St. Paul Hospital [SPH]: 635 to 461). For each resident, changes were like followings: $0{\rightarrow}21$ cases for R1, $65{\rightarrow}72$ cases for R2, $83{\rightarrow}192$ cases for R3, and $169{\rightarrow}17$ cases for R4 in YSM. In SPH, number of resident participating surgery was changed like followings: $4{\rightarrow}32$ cases for R1, $222{\rightarrow}100$ cases for R2, $317{\rightarrow}300$ cases for R3, and $92{\rightarrow}29$ cases for R4. In both hospital, while, total number of resident participating oncologic surgery has been decreased, number of resident participating appendectomy has been far increased. Activity of each grade resident is different according to hospital. Conclusion: Although total number of resident participating surgery decreased, variable changes were observed in each grade of resident according to each type of surgery and different hospitals. It is believed that comparisons of experiences from more hospitals in the future would be helpful in establishing the guidelines for surgical experience requirement of residents in Korea.

CLOSE ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN A NEUTRON STAR AND A MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR

  • LEE HYUNG MOK;KIM SUNG S.;KANG HYESUNG
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 1996
  • We have examined consequences of strong tidal encounters between a neutron star and a normal star using SPH as a possible formation mechanism of isolated recycled pulsars in globular clusters. We have made a number of SPH simulations for close encounters between a main-sequence star of mass ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 $M_\bigodot$ represented by an n=3/2 poly trope and a neutron star represented by a point mass. The outcomes of the first encounters are found to be dependent only on the dimensionless parameter $\eta'{\equiv}(m/(m+ M))^{1/2}(\gamma_{min}/R_{MS})^{3/2}(m/M)^{{1/6)}$, where m and M are the mass of the main-sequence star and the neutron star, respectively, $\gamma_{min}$ the minimum separation between two stars, and $R_{MS}$ the size of the main-sequence star. The material from the (at least partially) disrupted star forms a disk around the neutron star. If all material in the disk is to be acctreted onto the neutron star's surface, the mass of the disk is enough to spin up the neutron star to spin period of 1 ms.

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MORPHOLOGY OF DWARF GALAXIES IN ISOLATED SATELLITE SYSTEMS

  • Ann, Hong Bae
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2017
  • The environmental dependence of the morphology of dwarf galaxies in isolated satellite systems is analyzed to understand the origin of the dwarf galaxy morphology using the visually classified morphological types of 5836 local galaxies with $z{\leq}0.01$. We consider six sub-types of dwarf galaxies, dS0, dE, $dE_{bc}$, dSph, $dE_{blue}$, and dI, of which the first four sub-types are considered as early-type and the last two as late-type. The environmental parameters we consider are the projected distance from the host galaxy ($r_p$), local and global background densities, and the host morphology. The spatial distributions of dwarf satellites of early-type galaxies are much different from those of dwarf satellites of late-type galaxies, suggesting the host morphology combined with $r_p$ plays a decisive role on the morphology of the dwarf satellite galaxies. The local and global background densities play no significant role on the morphology of dwarfs in the satellite systems hosted by early-type galaxies. However, in the satellite system hosted by late-type galaxies, the global background densities of dE and dSph satellites are significantly different from those of $dE_{bc}$, $dE_{blue}$, and dI satellites. The blue-cored dwarf satellites ($dE_{bc}$) of early-type galaxies are likely to be located at $r_p$ > 0.3 Mpc to keep their cold gas from the ram pressure stripping by the hot corona of early-type galaxies. The spatial distribution of $dE_{bc}$ satellites of early-type galaxies and their global background densities suggest that their cold gas is intergalactic material accreted before they fall into the satellite systems.

Bird Strike Analysis of Radome Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Technique (입자완화 유체동역학 기법을 이용한 레이돔 조류충돌해석)

  • Yun, Gangsik;Kim, Youngjin;Kim, Moon-soo;Kim, Jihyeon;Kim, Taehyeong;Yoon, Siyoung;Park, Sungkyun;Seo, Won-gu;Oh, Dongho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.743-751
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    • 2017
  • To evaluate the structural integrity of the helicopter radome, we performed bird strike analysis using SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) technique. Since the SPH method is a meshfree method, there is no phenomenon such as mesh tangling and it is suitable to predict the dispersion behavior of debris and debris cloud generated by high-speed impact. In order to observe the scattering direction of fractured bolts, the analysis were performed under the condition that the fracture occurs at the proof load. As a result of bird strike analysis, there is no secondary damage as well as the damage due to, the dispersion behavior of the bird model, and the scattering of the fractured bolts and radome. From the additional analysis that were performed to determine the actual bolt fracture, only plastic deformation is predicted since the maximum stress of the bolt does not exceed the ultimate stress.