• Title, Summary, Keyword: Surface Crack

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Analysis for Rainfall Infiltration Using Electrical Resistivity Monitoring Survey (강우 침투 특성 분석을 위한 전기비저항 모니터링 탐사)

  • Kim, Sung-Wook;Choi, Eun-Kyeong;Park, Dug-Keun;Yoon, Yeo-Jin;Lee, Kyu-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 2012
  • During rainfall period, to identify the characteristics of the infiltration of moisture, electrical resistivity monitering survey was carried out to weathered zone. Four regions of geophysical exploration areas with different rock types, four regions were selected. An area consists of mafic granite and three areas are composed of sedimentary rocks (Sandstone, Shale, Unconsolidated Mudstone). Survey was conducted from June (rainy season) to November (dry season), and during the period the change in resistivity was observed. According to the result of monitoring exploration on Geumjeong and Jinju areas, for the estimation of the standard rainfall, it is necessary to estimate the effects of the antecedent rainfall during the rainy season based on the overall rainfall from June till October and also necessary to consider this for the estimation of the half period. Also, the vertical distribution of the low resistivity anomaly zone does not show that the infiltration of moisture does not occur uniformly from the surface of the ground to the lower ground but shows that it occurs along the relaxed gap of the crack or soil stratum of the weathering zone. In Pohang area, the type of moisture infiltration is different from that of the granite or sedimentary rock. Since, after the rainfall, the rate of infiltration to the lower ground is high and the period of cultivation to the lower bedrock aquifer is short, it has similar effect to that of the antecedent rainfall applied for the estimation of the standard rainfall being presently used. In Danyang, due to the degree of water content of the ground, the duration period of the low resistivity anomaly zone observed in the lower ground of the place where clastic sedimentary rock is distributed is similar to that in Pohang area. The degree of lateral water diffusion at the time of localized heavy rain is the same as that of the sedimentary rock in Jinju. According to the above analysis results, in Danyang area, the period when the antecedent rainfall has its influence is estimated as three weeks or so.

Investigation of Rock Slope Failures based on Physical Model Study (모형실험을 통한 암반사면의 파괴거동에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Tae-Chin;Suk, Jae-Uk;Lee, Sung-Am;Um, Jeong-Gi
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.447-457
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    • 2008
  • Laboratory tests for single plane sliding were conducted using the model rock slope to investigate the cut slope deformability and failure mechanism due to combined effect of engineering characteristics such as angle of sliding plane, water force, joint roughness and infillings. Also the possibility of prediction of slope failure through displacement monitoring was explored. The joint roughness was prepared in forms of saw-tooth type having different roughness specifications. The infillings was maintained between upper and lower roughness plane from zero to 1.2 times of the amplitude of the surface projections. Water force was expressed as the percent filling of tension crack from dry (0%) to full (100%), and constantly increased from 0% at the rate of 0.5%/min and 1%/min upto failure. Total of 50 tests were performed at sliding angles of $30^{\circ}$ and $35^{\circ}$ based on different combinations of joint roughness, infilling thickness and water force increment conditions. For smooth sliding plane, it was found that the linear type of deformability exhibited irrespective of the infilling thickness and water force conditions. For sliding planes having roughness, stepping or exponential types of deformability were predominant under condition that the infilling thickness is lower or higher than asperity height, respectively. These arise from the fact that, once the infilling thickness exceeds asperities, strength and deformability of the sliding plane is controlled by the engineering characteristics of the infilling materials. The results obtained in this study clearly show that the water force at failure was found to increase with increasing joint roughness, and to decrease with increasing filling thickness. It seems possible to estimate failure time using the inverse velocity method for sliding plane having exponential type of deformability. However, it is necessary to estimate failure time by trial and error basis to predict failure of the slope accurately.

Conservation Scientific Diagnosis and Evaluation of Bird Track Sites from the Haman Formation at Yongsanri in Haman, Korea (함안 용산리 함안층 새발자국 화석산지의 보존과학적 진단 및 평가)

  • Lee, Gyu Hye;Park, Jun Hyoung;Lee, Chan Hee
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.74-93
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    • 2019
  • The Bird Track Site in the Haman Formation in Yongsanri (Natural Monument No. 222) was reported on the named Koreanaornis hamanensis and Jindongornipes kimi sauropod footprint Brontopodus and ichnospecies Ochlichnus formed by Nematoda. This site has outstanding academic value because it is where the second-highest number of bird tracks have been reported in the world. However, only 25% of the site remains after being designated a natural monument in 1969. This is due to artificial damage caused by worldwide fame and quarrying for flat stone used in Korean floor heating systems. The Haman Formation, including this fossil site, has lithofacies showing reddish-grey siltstone and black shale, alternately. The boundary of the two rocks is progressive, and sedimentary structures like ripple marks and sun cracks can clearly be found. This site was divided into seven formations according to sedimentary sequences and structures. The results of a nondestructive deterioration evaluation showed that chemical and biological damage rates were very low for all formations. Also, physical damage displayed low rates with 0.49% on exfoliation, 0.04% on blistering, 0.28% on break-out; however, the joint crack index was high, 6.20. Additionally, efflorescence was observed on outcrops at the backside and the northwestern side. Physical properties measured by an indirect ultrasonic analysis were found to be moderately weathered (MW). Above all, the southeastern side was much fresher, though some areas around the column of protection facility appeared more weathered. Furthermore, five kinds of discontinuity surface can be found at this site, with the bedding plane showing the higher share. There is the possibility of toppling failure occurring at this site but stable on plane and wedge failure by means of stereographic projection. We concluded that the overall level of deterioration and stability were relatively fine. However, continuous monitoring and conservation treatment and management should be performed as situations such as the physicochemical weathering of the fossil layer, and the efflorescence of the mortar adjoining the protection facility's column appear to be challenging to control.