• Title/Summary/Keyword: TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)

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A Study on the Removal of TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) using Marsh and Pond Type Microcosm Wetland Systems (Marsh와 Pond 형태의 Microcosm 습지 시스템을 이용한 TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)의 분해 연구)

  • Choi, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Se-Kyung;Kang, Ho-Jeong;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.198-205
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the removal of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in the batch and continuous type microcosm systems consisting of marsh and pond. First, the batch reactor study showed that TNT (10 mg/L) was completely removed in the marsh and pond system within 20 days. The major reductive metabolites of TNT include 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT), and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT). These metabolites concentration also decreased during further treatment. The continuous reactor systems combining marsh and pond indicated the similar pattern of TNT degadation and the metabolites production. Among the continuous reactor combinations, marsh-pond system showed more stable TNT removal and metabolites production. The toxicity of the effluent from the continuous system was examined by Microtox Assay using Vibrio fischeri. The result showed that the effluent toxicity was reduced below toxicity endpoint ($EC_{50}$) after continuous marsh pond system, indicating that metabolites of TNT are less toxic than TNT itself. Based on the results, TNT contaminated wastewater can be efficiently treated using marsh and pond wetland systems.

Combined Effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene(TNT) and Cadmium on Uptake and Phytotransformation of TNT by Abutilion avicennae (TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)와 카드뮴의 복합오염이 어저귀의 TNT흡수 및 생물학적 전환에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sun-Young;Bae, Bum-Han;Chang, Yoon-Young;Lee, In-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2002
  • Most of army depots contaminated with co-contaminants, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene(TNT) and heavy metals. In phytoremediation for the TNT, heavy metals may inhibit mineralization, transformation and sequestration of TNT by the plant. We studied effect of cadmium on TNT degradation and transformation by Abutilion avicennae in hydroponic cultures. When cultured in 20 mgTNT/L and 1.3 mgCd/L, the plant displayed phytotoxicities; reduction of leaf fresh, leaf roil, chlorosis, leaf loss and fresh weight loss. Phytotoxicity was severer in the combined contaminants than in single contaminant. Because A. avicennae uptake just a little cadmium, 1.3 mgCd/L included in the TNT medium did not influece significantly TNT transformation, translocation and distribution by A. avicennae. Therefore, the soil solution containing cadmium would not affect TNT degradation by Abutilion avicennae in Army depots polluted with TNT.

Combined Effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene(TNT) and Cadmium on Uptake and Phytotransformation of TNT by Abutilion avicennae (TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene)와 카드물의 복합오염이 어저귀의 TNT 흡수 및 생물학적 전환에 미치는 영향)

  • 이인숙;김선영;배범한;장윤영
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2002
  • Most of army depots contaminated with co-contaminants. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene(TNT) and heavy metais. In phytormediation for the TNT, heavy metals may inhibit mineralization, transformation and sequestration of TNT by the plant. W studied effect of cadmium on TNT degradation and transformation by Abutilion avicenneae in hydroponic cultures. When cultured in 20 ㎎TNT/L and 1.3 ㎎Cd/L. the plant displayed phytotoxicities; reduction of leaf fresh, leaf roll, chlorosis, leaf loss and fresh weight loss. Phytotoxicity was severer in the combined contaminnts than in single contaminant. Because A. avicennae uptake just a little cadmium, 1.3 ㎎Cd/L induded in the TNT medium did not influece significanfly TNT transformation, translocation and distrivution by A. Therefore, the soil solution containing cadmium would not affect TNT degradation by Abutilion avicennae in Amy depots polluted with TNT.

Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds Based on Silicon Nanoparticles (실리콘 나노 입자를 이용한 니트로방향족 화합물의 탐지)

  • Song, Jinwoo
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 2009
  • Synthesis and characterization of alkyl-capped nanocrystalline silicon (R-n-Si) have been achieved from the reaction of silicontetrachloride with magnesiumsilicide. Surface of silicon nanocrystal has been derivatized with various alkyl groups (R=methyl, n-butyl, etc.). Silicon nanoparticles have been also obtained by the sonication of luminescent porous silicon. Former exhibits an emission band at 360 nm, but latter exhibits an emission band at 680 nm. In this study very sensitive detection of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene), NB (nitrobenzene), and PA (picric acid) has been achieved in gas phase with porous silicon using photoluminescence quenching of the silicon crystallites as a transduction mode. Porous silicon are electrochemically etched from crystalline silicon wafers in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. We have characterized these silicon nanoparticles by Luminescence Spectrometer (LS 55).

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토착미 생물을 이용한 TNT(2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene)의 생물학적분해

  • 배범한;유경민;장윤영;이인숙
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 2002
  • Microorganisms were isolated from military shooting site. Aerobic batch reactor and resting cell condition experiments were carried out using isolated microorganisms. Experiments were examined at room temperature on shaker and ten-roll mixer. During 10 days of reaction time, TNT was degraded 15.51 ~ 22.47 mg/L from initial concentration(31$\pm$1 mg/L) by aerobic batch reactor. Aerobic resting cell condition experiments were carried out ill phosphate buffer with 58($\pm$1) mg/L TNT at pH of 6.0($\pm$0.2). TNT was degraded 67.8% of initial concentration. The mai or component was found 4-ADNT(4-Aminodinitrotoluene).

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Treatment of TNT and Parathion Using Constructed Wetland Microcosms

  • Choi, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Se-Kyung;Oh, Se-Hee;Lee, Eun-Sook;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to investigate the removal of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and parathion in the batch and the continuous constructed wetland microcosms consisting of marsh and pond. The batch system study showed that TNT was almost reduced in the marsh and pond system within 20 days and parathion was within 8 days. The major reductive metabolites of TNT includes 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (24DANT) >2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (26DANT) >4-diamino-2,6-nitrotoluene(4ADNT) > 2-diamino-4,6-nitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the concentrations of these metabolites were decreased during further operation. The generation rates of 4-nitrophenol, the major metabolite of parathion, were 82% and 15% in the bottom of marsh and pond system, respectively. In the continuous system study, although TNT/parathion degradation pattern was similar to the batch's, marsh-pond system showed the most stable TNT/ parathion removal among various continuous reactor combinations.

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Effect of C/N Ratio on Composting Treatment of TNT-Contaminated Soil

  • In, Byung-Hoon;Park, Joon-Seok;NamKoong, Wan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.578-584
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    • 2006
  • This research was conducted to estimate the effect of C/N ratio control on composting of TNT (2,4,6 trinitrotoluene)-contaminated soil. Glucose or acetone was selected to control C/N ratio of the contaminated soil. The C/N ratios of the controlled experiment and no controlled one were 26.0 and 6.6, respectively. During 45days, the degradation efficiency (96.0 or 91.8%) of acetone or glucose C/N ratio controlled soil was higher than that (78.4%) of no C/N ratio controlled case. The first order degradation rate constant of glucose or acetone C/N ratio control was 0.0641 or 0.0820/day. This constant was over twice 0.0356/day of no C/N ratio control. The C/N ratio control with glucose or acetone also showed a rather high $CO_2$ evolution than that without C/N ratio control. It was proven that C/N ratio control for composting of TNT-contaminated soil improved the treatment efficiency.

Determination of Optimum Operating Parameters for Enhanced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soils Contaminated with TNT (TNT 오염토의 염기성 가수분해 효율 향상을 위한 최적 운전인자 도출)

  • Lee, Hwan;Choi, Jae-Heon;Lee, Cheol-Hyo;Kim, Ju-Yup
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2015
  • Nitro-aromatic Compounds (NACs) of explosives are structurally non-degradable materials that have an adverse effect to humans and ecosystems in case of emissions in natural due to the strong toxicity. In this study, batch test in the laboratory-scale has been conducted to find some process parameters of alkaline hydrolysis by considering the characteristics of NACs which are unstable in a base status and field application evaluation have been performed on the batch test results. Based on the experimental results of both laboratory and pilot-scale test, the optimum conditions of parameters for the alkaline hydrolysis of soils contaminated with explosives were pH 12.5, above the solid-liquid ratio 1 : 3, above the room temperature and 30 minute reaction time. In these four process parameters, the most important influencing factor was pH, and the condition of above pH 12.0 was necessary for high contaminated soils (more than 60 mg/kg). In the case of above pH 12.5, the efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis was very high regardless of the concentrations of contaminated soils. At pH 11.5, the removal efficiency of TNT was increased from 76.5% to 97.5% when the temperature in reactor was elevated from room temperature to 80℃. This result shows that it is possible to operate the alkaline hydrolysis at even pH 11.5 due to increased reaction rate depending on temperature adjustment. The results found in above experiments will be able to be used in alkaline hydrolysis for process improvement considering the economy.

Effects of Fouling and Scaling on the Retention of Explosives in Surface Water by NF-the Role of Cake Enhanced Concentration Polarisation (지표수 조건의 나노여과공정에서 파울링 및 스케일링이 화약류 물질 잔류에 미치는 영향 연구 - 케익층 형성 및 농도분극 영향 분석)

  • Heo, Jiyong;Han, Jonghun;Lee, Heebum;Lee, Jongyeol;Her, Namguk
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2015
  • The combined impact of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) fouling and inorganic ($CaSO_4,Ca_3(PO_4)_2$) scaling on the retention of TNT (2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine) and HMX (1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetrazocane) explosive contaminants by nano-filtration membrane were studied, since organic fouling and salt scaling are the major limitations for membrane filtration. Results reported here indicate that DOM fouling layer with a humic acid does not necessarily lead to an immediate loss of permeate flux but can result in a severe impact on the flux loss when both humic acid and inorganic scaltants were presented simultaneously. The $Ca_3(PO_4)_2$ mixed with humic acid showd most sever flux loss (42%) compared to that of only humic acid presence (8%). It could be a result that the scaling formation of the NF membrane was dominated by cake layer formation of DOM and it was along with pore blocking by the formation of crystals inside the porous active matrix of the NF membrane. In addition, these results indicated that the membrane selectivity of the explosives retention trended correlated with respect to increasing explosives size (listed by MW) based on greater steric interactions and followed the order (MW, g $mol^{-1}$; removal, %): HMX (296.15; 83%) ${\gg}$ RDX (222.12; 49%) ≋ TNT (227.13; 32%). Because the scaling and fouling layer could lead to a additional cake-enhanced concentration polarisation effect, the retention of explosives with the presence of humic acid in the feed solution and inorganic scaling formation on top of an organic fouling layer do not differ substantially retention from that of pure DI feed and NaCl solution.

Development of Analytical Methods for Micro Levels of Naphthalene and TNT in Groundwater by HPLC-FLD and MSD (HPLC-FLD와 MSD를 이용한 지하수 중 나프탈렌 및 TNT의 미량 분석법 개발)

  • Park, Jong-Sung;Oh, Je-Ill;Jeong, Sang-Jo;Choi, Yoon-Dae;Her, Nam-Guk
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2009
  • Naphthalene and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) are defined by U.S. EPA as possible carcinogenic compounds known to have detrimental effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human body. There are, however, few researches on methods of analyzing micro-levels of naphthalene and TNT dissolved in groundwater. This study introduces and evaluates the newly developed analytical methods of measuring naphthalene and TNT in groundwater by using HPLC-FLD (Fluorescence detector) and MSD (Mass detector). The MDL, LOQ and salt effect of these methods, respectively, are compared with those of conventional methods which use HPLC-UV. For the analysis of naphthalene, HPLC-FLD was set in the maxima wavelength (Ex: 270 nM, Em: 330 nM) obtained from 3D-Fluorescence to be compared with HPLC-UV in 266 nM wavelength. The MDL ($0.3\;{\mu}g/L$) and LOQ ($2.0\;{\mu}g/L$) of naphthalene by using HPLC-FLD were approximately 80 times lower than those analyzed by HPLC-UV (MDL: $23.3\;{\mu}g/L$, LOQ: $163.1\;{\mu}g/L$). HPLC-MSD were used in comparison with HPLC-UV in 230 and 254 nM wavelength for the analysis of TNT. The MDL ($0.13\;{\mu}g/L$) and LOQ ($0.88\;{\mu}g/L$) of TNT analyzed by using HPLC-MSD were approximately 130 times lower than those obtained by using HPLC-UV in 230 nM (MDL: $16.8\;{\mu}g/L$, LOQ: $117.5\;{\mu}g/L$). The chromatogram of TNT analyzed by using HPLC-UV in 230 nM displayed elevated baseline as the concentration of ${NO_3}^-$ increases beyond 21 mg/L, while the analysis using HPLC-MSD did not demonstrate any change in baseline in presence of ${NO_3}^-$ of 63.7 mg/L which is 3.5 times higher than average concentration in groundwater. In conclusion, HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MSD may be used as suitable methods for the analysis of naphthalene and TNT in groundwater and drinking water. These methods can be applied to the monitoring of naphthalene and TNT concentration in groundwater or drinking water.