• Title, Summary, Keyword: Temperature

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Characteristics of soil respiration temperature sensitivity in a Pinus/Betula mixed forest during periods of rising and falling temperatures under the Japanese monsoon climate

  • Oe, Yusuke;Yamamoto, Akinori;Mariko, Shigeru
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2011
  • We studied temperature sensitivity characteristics of soil respiration during periods of rising and falling temperatures within a common temperature range. We measured soil respiration continuously through two periods (a period of falling temperature, from August 7, 2003 to October 13, 2003; and a period of rising temperature from May 2, 2004 to July 2, 2004) using an open-top chamber technique. A clear exponential relationship was observed between soil temperature and soil respiration rate during both periods. However, the effects of soil water content were not significant, because the humid monsoon climate prevented soil drought, which would otherwise have limited soil respiration. We analyzed temperature sensitivity using the $Q_{10}$ value and $R_{ref}$ (reference respiration at the average temperature for the observation period) and found that these values tended to be higher during the period of rising temperature than during the period of falling temperature. In the absence of an effect on soil water content, several other factors could explain this phenomenon. Here, we discuss the factors that control temperature sensitivity of soil respiration during periods of rising and falling temperature, such as root respiration, root growth, root exudates, and litter supply. We also discuss how the contribution of these factors may vary due to different growth states or due to the effects of the previous season, despite a similar temperature range.

Temperature Control Improvement of Pressure Heating Roller for Flexible Flat Cable Production (Flexible Flat Cable 생산성 향상을 위한 가압용 히팅롤러의 온도제어개선)

  • Kim Jae Hak;Lee Ho Jung;Chun Keyoung Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2005
  • Pressure heating rollers with temperature control were mounted to a flat cable laminating machine (FCLM). Pressure heating rollers should be heated up to the setting temperature $(175^{\circ}C)$ and kept on to producing good quality flexible flat cables (FFC). Existing Pressure heating rollers took more than 70minutes to the setting temperature and did not keep on the setting temperature in production. Temperature controller, electric power controller, material and diameter of rollers and heat capacities were changed to improve the temperature control of the pressure heat rollers for better production of the FFC. Thus, the reaching time to the setting temperature (RT), temperature stability time (TST) and temperature hunting (TH) were measured and compared with the existing pressure rollers case. The RT of A roller was shortened by 50minutes, and B roller was shortened by 15minutes. The TST of A roller was shortened by 13minutes, and B roller was shortened by 15minutes. The THs of both A and B rollers were settled up to ${\pm}5^{\circ}C$. Finally, the productivity of the FCLM and the quality of the FFC were increased.

Particle Size Analysis of Lead Aerosol with the use of 2730ppm Lead Nebulizing Solution for Inhalation Toxicology Study (흡입독성 연구를 위한 2730ppm 납 네뷸라이징 용액에서 발생된 에어로졸의 입경분석)

  • Jeung Jae Yeal;Kang Sung Ho;Kim Sam Tae;Lee Eun Kyoung;Song Young Sun;Lee Ki Nam
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.518-524
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    • 2003
  • Ultrasonic nebulizer with the application of new engineering methodology and the design of electronic circuit was made for lead inhalation toxicology study and 2730ppm lead nebulizing solution was used to generate lead aerosol. After modification of source and inlet temperatures, the results of particle size analysis for lead aerosol were as following. The highest particle counting for source temperature 20℃ was 39933.66 in inlet temperature 100℃ and particle diameter 0.75tLm. The highest particle counting for source temperature 50℃ was 39992.71 in inlet temperature 250℃ and particle diameter 0.75μm. The highest particle counting for source temperature 70℃ was 37569.55 in inlet temperature 50℃ and particle diameter 0.75μm. The ranges of geometric mean diameter(GMD) were 0.754-0.784μm for source temperature 2℃, 0.758-0.852μm for source temperature 50℃, and 0.869-1.060μm for source temperature 70℃. The smallest GMD was 0.754μm in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃, and the largest GMD was 1.060μm in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 250℃. The ranges of geometric standard deviation(GSD) were 1.730-1.782 for source temperature 20℃, 1.734-1.894 for source temperature 50℃, and 1.921-2.148 for source temperature 70℃. The lowest GSD was 1.730 in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃, and the highest GSD was 2.148 in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 250℃. Lead aerosol generated in this study was polydisperse. The ranges of mass median diameter(MMD) were 1.856-2.133μm for source temperature 20℃, 1.877-2.894μm for source temperature 50℃, and 3.120-6.109μm for source temperature 70℃. The smallest MMD was 1.856μm in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃, and the largest MMD was 6.109μm in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 250℃. Slight increases for GMD, GSD, and MMD values were observed with same source temperature and increase of inlet temperature. MMD for inhalation toxicology testing in EPA guidance is less than 4μm. In this study, source temperature 20℃ and 50℃ with inlet temperature from 20℃ to 250℃ were conformed to the EPA guidance, but inlet temperature 20℃ and 50℃ for source temperature 70℃ were conformed EPA guidance. MMD for inhalation toxicology testing in OECD and EU is less than 3μm. In this study, source temperature 20℃ and 50℃ with inlet temperature from 20℃ to 250℃ were conformed to the EPA guidance, but none for source temperature 70℃.

Particle Size Analysis of Cadmium Aerosol for Cadmium Inhalation Toxicology Study (766ppm Cadmium Nebulizing Solution) (카드뮴의 흡입독성 연구를 위해 설계된 에어로졸 발생장치에서 발생된 카드뮴 에어로졸의 입경분석(766ppm 카드뮴 네뷸라이징 용액))

  • Jeung Jae Yeal;Milton Donald K.;Kim Tae Hyeung;Lee Jong Young;Jahng Doo Sub;Kang Sung He;Song Young Sun;Lee Ki Nam
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1035-1041
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    • 2002
  • Ultrasonic nebulizer with the application of new engineering methodology and the design of electronic circuit and 766ppm Cd nebulizing solution were used to generate cadmium aerosol for inhalation toxicology study. The results of particle size analysis for cadmium aerosol were as following. The highest particle counting for source temperature 20℃ was 43.449 x 10³ in inlet temperature 250℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The highest particle counting for source temperature 50℃ was 43.211 x 10³ in inlet temperature 100 ℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The highest particle counting for source temperature 70℃ was 41.917x10³ in inlet temperature 250℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The ranges of geometric mean diameter(GMD) were 0.677-1.009㎛ in source temperature 20℃, 0.716-0.963㎛ in source temperature 50℃, and 0.724-0.957㎛ in source temperature 70℃. The smallest GMD was 0.677㎛ in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃. and the largest GMD was 1.009㎛ in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃. The ranges of geometric standard deviation(GSD) were 1.635-2.101 in source temperature 20℃. 1.676-2.073 in source temperature 50℃, and 1.687-2.051 in source temperature 70℃. The lowest GSD was 1.635 in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃, and the highest GSD was 2.101 in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 200℃. Aerosol generated for cadmium inhalation toxicology study was polydisperse aerosol. The ranges of mass median diameter(MMD) were 1.399-5.270㎛ in source temperature 20℃. 1.593-4.742㎛ in source temperature 50℃, and 1.644-4.504㎛ in source temperature 70℃. The smallest MMD was 1.399㎛ in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 20℃, and the largest MMD was 5.270㎛ in source temperature 20℃ and inlet temperature 200℃. Increasing trends for GMD, GSD, and MMD were observed with same source temperature and increase of inlet temperature. MMD for inhalation toxicology testing in EPA guidance is less than 4㎛. In our results. inlet temperature 20 and 50℃ in source temperature 20℃, and inlet temperature 20 to 150℃ in source temperature 50 and 70℃ were conformed to the EPA guidance. MMD for inhalation toxicology testing in OECD and EU is less than 3㎛. In our results, inlet temperature 20 and 50℃ in source temperature 20, 50, and 70℃ were conformed to the OECD and EU guidance.

A Study on the Oil Temperature Control Errors of Precision Oil Coolers (정밀 오일냉각기의 오일온도 제어오차에 관한 연구)

  • 이상호;이찬홍;김갑순
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.451-454
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    • 2003
  • The Oil Coolers is very important unit for the stable thermal performance in machine tools, semiconductor equipments and high precision measuring systems. To select a proper oil cooler for the temperature control of core unit in a machine, not only cooling ability but also static and dynamic sensitivity of temperature sensors are considered. In this paper, the relationship between cooling ability and inflow oil temperature is identified. The cooling ability is increased with the increase of inflow oil temperature. The oil temperature control errors of a cooler are influenced by mainly sensitivity of temperature sensors and heating velocity in a machine. The validity of error cause analysis for temperature control is proved by real cooling experiments with inflow and outflow temperature sensors.

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Temperature Coefficient of Reactioity (원자로의 반응도와 온도계수)

  • 노윤래
    • 전기의세계
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1966
  • The stability and safety of operation of a reactor is determined mainly by the sign and magnitude of its reactivity responses to temperature changes. Reactors are subject to temperature fluctuations due to the changes in reactor power and ambient temperature. These temperature fluctuations cause reactivity disturbances through changes in the nuclear and physical properties of the core. Because of these important phenomena by the temperature effects, a large portion of study and testing on a reactor design has been conducted. In this experiment the overall temperature coefficient of the TRIGA MARK-II reactor is measured. The basic procedure is to change the tgemperature of the water moderator, and from the movements of a newly recalibrated control rod(this is necessary due to the effects of fuel burn-up and control rod depression) required to mintain criticality, the reactivity worth of the temperature change is determined. From this measurement, the overall temperature coefficient seems to be smoothly varying, almost a linear function of temperature, and a value of approximately -0.267${\c}$/$^{\circ}C$ can be obtained for an average temperature range from $17.6^{\circ}C$ to $32.5^{\circ}C$.

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Dynamic Temperature Sensitivity of Temperature Sensors for the Oil Coolers (오일 냉각기용 온도센서의 동적 온도 민감도에 관한 연구)

  • 이찬홍;이상호;박효찬
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2003
  • In this Paper, the dynamic temperature sensitivity and mu. temperature measurement errors of oil and air sensor in oil cooler are evaluated to predict design validity of sensors under special oil and atmosphere temperature changes. The temperature tracking of oil sensors for periodic temperature changes is simulated by obtaining thermal response coefficient from experiment. By this method, it is possible to design the optimal sensors with the admitted temperature measurement errors.

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A Study on Autoignition of Fish Meal with Change of Ambient Temperature (주위온도 변화에 따른 어분의 자연발화에 관한연구)

  • 목연수;최재욱
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 1992
  • Spontaneous ignition charactenstics for fish meal were observed by performing experiments at constant ambient temperature and varying the ambient temperature sinusoidally. As the results of the experiments at a constant ambient temperature, the critical spontaneous ignition temperature of the sample for large, intermediate and small vessels was 170.5$^{\circ}C$, 177.5$^{\circ}C$ and 188.5$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The critical spontaneous ignition temperature decreased as the sample vessel size increased. Apparent activation energy of used fish meal calculated from the Frank-Kamenetskii's thermal ignition theory was 37.60Kcal/mol. In case of varying the ambient temperature sinusoidally, the amplitudes of temperature were 1$0^{\circ}C$, 2$0^{\circ}C$ and 3$0^{\circ}C$ respectively with the period in each amplitude 1hr, 2hrs and 3hrs. The results showed that the critical spontaneous ignition temperatures at the varied amplitudes of temperature were lower than that at the constant anbient temperature and increased as the amplitude increased. At the same amplitude, the critical spontaneous ignition temperature increased with the period.

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A Study on Autoignition of Granulated Activated Carbon with Change of Ambient Temperature (주위온도 변화에 따른 입상활성탄의 자연발화에 관한 연구)

  • 목연수;최재욱
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1992
  • Sponataneous ignition characteristics for granulated activated carbon were observed by performing experiments at constant ambient temperature and varying the ambient temperature sinusoidally. In case of varying the ambient temperature sinusoidally, the amplitudes of temperature were 5$^{\circ}C$, 1$0^{\circ}C$ and 15$^{\circ}C$ respectively, and the period in each amplitude was varied at an interval of 30minutes from zero to 3hours. As the results of experiments at a constant ambient temperature, the critical spontaneous ignition temperature of the sample decreased as the sample vessel size increased. Apparent activation energy of the sample calculated from the Frank-Kamenetskii's thermal Ignition theory was 38.82[kca1/mo1] In case of varying the ambient temperature sinusoidally, the critical spontaneous ignition tempera-ture was lower than that at the constant ambient temperature, and the minimum critical spontaneous ignition temperature decreased with the amplitude of heating sinusoidal curve. At the same amplitude, the critical spontaneous ignition temperature decreased until it reached the minimum point and then in-creased as the period increased.

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Correlative Changes between Photosynthetic Activities and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Wheat Chloroplasts Exposed to High Temperature

  • Young-Nam Hong
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 1994
  • Correlative changes between photosynthetic O2 exchange rates and room temperature Chl fluorescence were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chloroplasts treated with high temperature for 5 min. With increasing treatment temperature, photosynthetic O2 evolution rate mediated by PSII was decreased, showing 50% inhibition at 38$^{\circ}C$ (I50). But PSI activity measured by O2 uptake rates was stimulated as a function of increasing temperature. Dark level fluorescence (Fo)-temperature (T) analysis showed that fluorescence rising temperature (Tr), critical temperature (Tc), and peak temperature (Tp) was 38, 43, and 52$^{\circ}C$, respectively. Quenching analysis of Chl fluorescence showed that both the oxidized fraction of plastoquinone (qQ) and degree of thylakoid membrane energization (qNP) increased up to 4$0^{\circ}C$ and then declined dramatically. These results suggest that Tr is correlated with temperature showing a 50% of inhibition of photosynthesis and under mild high temperature stress, qNP is worth regarding as indicator for heat-induced damage of photosynthesis.

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