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Effect of Air Circulation Velocity on the Rate of Lumber Drying in a Small Compartment Wood Drying Kiln (소형 목재인공건조실에 있어서 공기순환속도가 목재건조율에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Byung-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.5-7
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    • 1974
  • 1. This study indicates that above the fiber saturation point the drying rate can be increased with increasing the velocity of the air circutation, i.e., the drying rate of sample boards is proportional to the air velocity, but below the fiber saturation point, the effect of the velocity of air circulation is very low as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. 2. Under the controlled temperature and humidity in the kiln, the more the sample boards have moisture, the higher drying rate of it can be obtained. In other words, this means that even though in the case of drying various moisture content of wood, at the final drying stage, approximately the same percentage of moisture content of wood can be secured by employing the higher velocity of air circulation. 3. This study shows that the rate of drying in kiln changes distinctly at the fiber saturation point, i, e., above the fiber saturation point, the drying curve shows concave aginst the X axsis, but below the fiber saturation point, in the range from 30 percent of moisture content to 20 percent of moisture content, the curve shows convex as shown in Fig. 3. As the drying progresses, however, the drying curve shows concave again below 20 percent of moisture content. This means that inflection point of drying curve may be located clearly at the fiber saturation point, i.e., 30 percent of moisture content. As mentioned above, the 30 percent of moisture content of wood at which the inflectional point appears can be recognized as a critical point, i. e., the fiber saturation point at which all free water was removed from wood. The existence of inflectional point indicates that the evaporation of hygroscopic water in a cell wall is more difficult than the evaporation of free water in a cell cavity and the minor space of cell wall. The convex curve in the range of moisture content from 30 percent to 20 percent means that the evaporation of capillary condensed water has a tendency of the same rates of drying approximately, but as approaching to the 20 percent of moisture, the transfusion of moisture from wood becomes difficult because of having less moisture in cell wall. Below 20 percent of moisture content, the drying curve shows concave again, which means that it is difficult to remove the moisture located nearer to the surface of cellulose molecules and the surface bound water. These relations were revealed in Fig. 4. In comparison AC curve which does not have the two inflection points with BD curve which has two inflection points, i.e., Band D, they are mentioned already, by existence of the inflection points, the curve BD shows that the change of drying rate in the interval from 20 percent of moisture content to 30 percent of moisture content is not greater than in the case of the curve AC in the same interval. At the inflection point of 30 percent of moisture content, it can be noticed that the changing of the drying rate is very conspicuous. This phenomenon also can be recognized, as it is noticed by the Fig. 3, the drying rate from green to 30 percent of moisture content is very great. But the inclination of the curve is very slow from 30 percent of moisture content to 20 percent of moisture content, i.e., the inclination of the curve becomes almost horizontal lines. Acknowledgments Gratitude is expressed to Fred E. Dickinson, Professor of 'Wood Technology, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, USA for his suggestion to carry out this study.

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Soil Moisture Influence on Growth of Cover Vegetations and Water Economy (토양수분(土壤水分)이 피복용식물(被覆用植物)의 생장(生長) 및 수분경제(水分經濟)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Soo Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-32
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    • 1977
  • This study has been made to find out more effective way of vegetation establishment on severely denuded forest land from the viewpoint of soil moisture regimes. Various environmental factors were measured to estimate soil moisture conditions of different sites. Soil moisture influence on growth of over vegetations, water requirement and drought resistance were analyzed. The efficiency of water use was also reckoned at different fertility levels and different soil moisture conditions. This research is composed of field experiment and green house experiment. Field experiment includes height growth, survival and coverage analysis of cover vegetations (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Lespedeza bicolor Turcz, Arundinella hirta Tanaka var. ciliare Koidzumi.) with 4 fertility level treatments on 3 slopes (Steep: $37^{\circ}$, Moderate: $25^{\circ}$, Gentle; $17^{\circ}$) during dry season (1 April-30 June) and wet season (1 July-10 September). At the same time temperature, relative humidity and precipitation were measured to understand the environmental changes. Soil moisture conditions were measured with soil moisture meter with 24 soil cells. Green house experiment comprised height, fresh weight and dry weight measurements of cover vegetations with 4 fertility levels and 3 moisture conditions for 70 days. The results extracted from experiments are as follews. 1. Cover vegtations have 3 patterns of water requirement at the early stage of growth. a) Robinia type has high water requirement and weaker drought resistance. b) Lespedeza type has low water requirement and stronger drought resistance. c) Arundinella type has moderate water requirement and weaker drought resistance. 2. The vegetations have different optimum fertility levels in different soil moisture supply condition. a) Robinia needs a low fertility level in dry condition and a high level in wet condition. b) Lespedeza needs only low fertility level in all conditions. c) Arundinella needs a low fertility level in dry condition and a high level in wet condition. 3. The efficiency of water use (Water/1g dry weight) by fertility levels is different from one another. Robinia and Arundinella have a good efficiency at low fertility level in dry condition and at high fertility level in wet condition. Lespedeza has a good efficiency at low fertility level in all conditions. 4. $P_2O_5$ requirement of Robinia and Lespedeza is high, but that of Arundinella is low. Soil moisture condition has a great influence on $P_2O_5$ absorption in dendued forest land. Once Vegetations are established on suitable sites with optimum fertitity level according to different moisture condition, even the small amount of soil water in denuded land can he used with high efficiency and the effect of fertility treatment can be maximized.

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Mechanical and Operational Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Rice Polishing Machines (정미기의 능률에 미치는 기계적 요인및 작동조건에 관한 연구)

  • 노상하;최재갑
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.17-48
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    • 1976
  • In analyzing the operational characteristics of a rice whitening machine, the internal radial pressure of the machine was measured using strain gage equipment. Changes in cylinder and feed screw configurations, screen type, cylinder speed and counter-pressure levels were examined to determine their impact on the quality and quantity of milled rice and the performance of the machine. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The internal radial pressure in the whitening chamber varied with the surface condition of the grain being processed. During the first or second pass through the machine, pressure was relatively low, reached a maximum after two to three passes with combinations I and II, three to six with combination III and then began to fall. 2. The pitch of the feed screw and the size of the feed gate opening which determine the rate of entry of grain into the whitening chamber, appeared to be the most important factor aff-::cting the degree of radial pressure, quality and quantity of milled rice and the efficiency of the machine. Using a feed screw with a wide pitch (4.8cm), radial pressure was relatively high and head rice recovery ratio \vere quite low. In this case capacity and machine effic\ulcorneriency were much higher than obtained when using a feed screw with a narrow pitch (2.3cm). Very significant responses in radial pressure, head rice recovery rates and machine capacity were observed with changes in cylinder speed and counter-pressure levels when using the wide pitch feed screw. 3. The characteristics of the screen which surrounds the whitening chamber had an important effect on whitening efficiency. The existence of small protuberances on the original screen resulted in significant increases in both machine capacity and efficiency but without a significant decrease in head rice recovery or development of excessive radial pressure. Further work is required to determine the effects of screen surface conditions and the shape of the cylinderical steel roller on the rate of bran removal, machine efficiency and recovery rates. The size of the slotted perforations 0:1 the screen affects total milled rice recovery. The opening size on the original screen was fabricated to accommodate the round shape of Japonica rice varieties but was not suitable for the more slender Indica type. Milling Indica varieties with this screen resulted in a reduction in total milled rice recovery. 4. An increase in cylinder speed from 380 to 820 rpm produced a positive effect on head rice recovery for all machine combinations at every level of counter-pressure used in the tests. Head rice recovery was considerably lower at 380rpm using a wide screw pitch when compared to the results obtained at speeds from 600 to 820 r.p.m. The effects of cylinder speed On radial pressure, capacity and machine efficiency showed contrasting results, depending on the width of the feed screw pitch. With a narrow feed screw pitch (2.3cm), a direct proportional relationship was observed bet\ulcornerween cylinder speed and both radial pressure and machine efficiency. In contrast, using a 4.8 centimeter pitch feed roller produced a series of inverse relationships between the above variables. Based on the results of this study it is recommended when milling Indica type long grain rice varieties that the cylinder speed of the original machine be increased from 500-600 rmp up to a minimum of 800 rpm to obtain a greater abrasive effect between the grain and the screen. The pitch of the feed screw should be also reduced to decr\ulcornerease the level of internal radial pressure and to obtain higher machine efficiency and increased quality of milled rice with increased cylinder speeds. Further study on the interaction between cylinder speed and feed screw pitch is recommended. 5. An increase in the counter pressure level produced a negative effect On the head rice recovery with an increase in radial pressure, capacity, and machine efficiency over all combinations and at every level of cylinder speed. 6. Head rice recovery rates were conditioned primarily by the pressure inside the whitening chamber. According to the empirical cha racteristics curve developed in this study, the relationships of head rice recovery ($Y_h$) and machine capacity ($Y_c$/TEX>) to internal radial pressure ($X_p$) followed an inverse quadratic function and a linear function respectively: $$Y_h^\Delta=\frac{1}{{1.4383-0.2951X_p^\ast+0.1425X_p^{\ast\ast}}^2} , (R^2=0.98)$$ $$Y_c^\Delta=-305.83+374.37X_p^{\ast\ast}, (R^2=0.88)$$ The correlation between capacity and power consumption per unit of brown rice expressed in the following exponential function: $$Y_c^\Delta=1.63Y_c^{-0.7786^\{\ast\ast}, (R^2=0.94)$$ These relationships indicate that when radial pressure increases above a certain range (1. 6 to 2.0 kg/$cm^2$ based On the results of the experiment) head ricerecovery decrea\ulcornerses in a quadratic relation with a inear increase in capacity but without any decrease in power consump tion per unit of brown rice. On the other hand, if radial pressure is below the range shown above, power consumption increases dramatically with a lin\ulcornerear decrease in capacity but without significant increases in head rice recovery. During the operation of a given whitening machine, the optimum radial pressure range or the correct capacity range should be selected by controlling the feed rate and/or counter-pressure keeping in mind the condition of the grain, particulary the hardness. It was observed that the total number of passes is related to radial pessure level, feed rate and counter-pressure level. The higher theradial pressure the fewer num\ulcornerber of pass required but with decreased head rice recovery. In particular, when using high feed rates, the total number of passes should be increased to more than three by reducing the counter-pressure level to avoid decreaseases in head rice recovery (less than 65 percent head rice recovery on the basis of brown rice) at every cylinder speed. 7. A rapid rise in grain temperature seemed to have a close relationship with the pressure generated inside the whitening chamber and, subsequently with head rice reco\ulcornervery rates. The higher the rate of increase, the lower were the resulting head rice recoveries.

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Ecological Studies on the Burned Forest - On the Germination of Remained Seed on Burned Area - (산화적지(山火跡地)의 생태학적(生態學的) 연구(硏究) - 산화후(山火後)의 잔여종자(殘餘種子) 발아율(發芽率)에 대(對)하여 -)

  • Kim, Ok Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 1970
  • Forest fires often destory forests that have taken years to grow in a few minutes. Forest fire therefore, is an important problem in forest management and have caused heavy losses to the nations economy. In order to resolve this problem many investigations have been made in many countries. However, ecological studies on the forest after accidental fire have not yet been made in Korea. In order to conduct such a study, a burned area on Mt. Samak which is located at Dukduwon-ri, Seo-myon, Chunsung-gun, Kangwon-do, was chosen as experimental plot in 1967. The remaining seeds were collected from the burned area, and investigations on their germination rate and their productivity were made comparing to those of the seeds of undemaged area, and following results were obtained. 1. The number of seed collected from the control plots were 740 while it was 537 from the test plots (Table 3, 4). It was considered that this difference between burned and unburned area was mainly due to the fact that some of the seeds had been burnt by the fire, and the unfavorable environmental conditions in the burned area was also considered to be a reason. In the germination rate in the control plots showed 28.1% while it was 3.2% in the test plots. This difference was considered to be due to complete loss of viability of the seed by burning and high heat. 2. In the test plots, sixteen seeds of the Alnus japonica were collected and six of these seeds germinated (index number 100) which was the highest germination rate among the species of collected seeds. From these results, it was considered that a high temperature (above $150^{\circ}C$) caused reduction of the germination rate (Quadrat. 1.2). Seeds of Carex lanceolata var. Nana, were appeared much more in the higher plots than in the lower plots and it seemed to be due to the fact that the forest floor plants were much more abundant in the lower plots than in the higher plots which is covered with shrubbery. And some small seeds midght be able to avoid the effect of fire being burried in the soil or under the gravel. 3. With Pinus densiflora, 43 seeds were collected, and 11 of these germinated in the control plots. However in the test plots, 11 seeds were collected and no seed germinated. This shows that the Pinus densiflora was the weakest in resisting to heat among the observed species in this study. 4. Without exception the germination rate showed a higher index in the herbs than in the woody plants and it is believed that the herbs produced more seed than the wood plants because of the abundance of herbs colony.

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PROPAGATION OF THE BLUE CRAB, PORTUNUS TRITUBERCULATUS (MIERS) (꽃게 Portunus trituberculatus (MIERS)의 종묘 생산에 관한 연구)

  • PYEN Choong-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 1970
  • The author succeeded in rearing the young blue crab from the first stage of zoe ato the true crab shape, and during this time he observed their growth and metamorphosis. The relationships between the number of eggs carried by female crabs (E) and the carapace width (C) and body weight (W) are shown as follows: E= 27.9049C-281.8155, E=0.5682 W-116.4606. There are five zoeal stages and a megalopa in the complete larval development of the blue crab. Water temperature in rearing aquaria ranged from 21.4 to $25.2^{\circ}C$. The duration of each zoeal stage was two days on the average. After the fifth moulting, the zoea becomes megalopa and 5 to 6 days later the megalopa moults and develops into the first stage of adult crab shape. The carapace width of megalopa measured about 1.70 mm and the carapace length, from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior dorsal margin of the carapace, was about 2.78 mm on the average. The carapace width and length of the first crab, 18 days after hatching, measured about 4.48 mm and 2.62 mm respectively. After two days, the first crab moulted and grew into the second crab with about 6.47 mm in carapace width and 4.66 mm in carapace length. The larval rearing in the outdoor tank shelved better results than in the indoor aquarium. The highest mortality occurred when the first stage of zoea moulted into the second stage. Percentage of crabs which survived, from the first crab to the ninth crab stages, was about $55\%$. The relationships between rearing days (D) and the carapace width (C), carapace length (L) and body weight (W) of the crab stages during 40 days of rearing are shown as follows. Carapace width, Indoor: C=1.1250D+1.7227 Outdoor C=1.3465D -0.2449 Carapace length, Indoor: L=0.6654D+1.6712 Outdoor: L=0.7893D+0.6919 Body Weight, Outdoor: $$W=1.15e^{0.12423D}$$ Indoor: $$W=6.759\times10^{-2}D^{1.2598}$$ (9-19 day old crabs) Outdoor: $$W=4.136\times10^{-2}D^{1.6024}$$ (21-40 day old crabs) During the crab stage, the following relationships between the number of moulting times and the carapace width (C), carapace length (L) and body weight (W) were found as follows: $$C=5.2e^{0.28119N}$$ $$L=3.65e^{0.26372N}$$ $$W= 0.14e^{0.7037N}$$ The relationships between the carapace length (L) and the carapace width (C) and body weight (W) of the crab stages are shown as follows: Carapace length, mm Formula 2.62-27.17 L=1.6864C-1.0387 7.47-18.53 $$W=9.367\times10^{-5}C^{3.5567}$$ 22.11-27.17 $$W=3.406\times10^{-5}C{3.8571}$$

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The Study on the Effect to the Yields with the Intermediate Cutting Periods of Mulberry Branch and at the Picking Levels of Leaf Remains in Autumn (추잠기 중간벌채시기 및 잔조에서의 적엽정도가 뽕의 수량에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김문협;김호락;최하자
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.81-94
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    • 1971
  • This research is conducted to study the effect to rebbuding, death atop, yielding and occurrence of twig blight disease with the interemediate cutting periods of mulberry branch and at the picking levels of leaf remains in autumn. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Re-budding branches are decreased with delaying of interval cutting period, and that more leaves remained lesser both re-budding branches and buds are observed. Therefore, it is better that leaves remained are placed on the upper part of branch, practically with 3-5 leaf remains. It has decreased re-budding branches, in case cutting is conducted in Sept. 20 with picking leaving 3-5 leaf on. 2. With regard that all picking increases the percentage of death atop of the branch and upper half part picking increases slightly over the other treats. Although it seems unlikely to be different in the other treats with cutting period, exception of all picking, it is elucidated better that the all picking after cutting in Sept. 15 represents unusually high, seemingly effected by the temperature contition preferable to the life of twig blight disease along with the lack of branch nutrition caused by the all picking. 3. In view of yielding, it has no difference in autumn yielding with cutting period, but more picking levels of leaf remains, more yielding. In spring yield, both no picking and all picking is the lowest, in spite of cutting period. Each treat produces high yielding except the no picking if rutting is done in Sept. 15 and Sept. 20, respectively; otherwise it is done earlier or later, each treat produces low yielding. It is suggested that yielding ability in following spring affected by the autumn picking because all picking treats represent lower yielding ability than no picking ones except of cutting in Sept. 15 and Sept. 20. With respect to total yield in spring and autumn, it is represented that other treats, among which cutting in Sept. 15 and Sept. 20 is especially high, produce higher yielding than both no picking and all picking. But no difference seemed in leaf remained treats. In these respects, it may be concluded that 3-5 leaf remains after the interval cutting in Sept. 15 to Sept. 20 increases the yielding throughout two seasons and it is suggested that 3-5 leaf remains after cutting in Sept. 5 to Sept. 10 has no difference with no picking and cutting after that day. 4. Diseases in the branch remained are twig blight, massaria-bye, and Die-back, of which twig blight attacks tremendously and slight ouurence in messaria-byo and Die-back. In ouurence of twig blight, it is appeared much in all picking and seasonal occurence high in Sept. 15 with 92.9, and in Sept. 30 with 100 as index, respectively. Also it occurs ,considerably in upper part picking but little occurrence in no picing. 5. It is considered that negative correlation among re-budding percentage. No. of re-budding leaf, and spring yielding is found, seemingly without heavy correlation at -0.42, and -0.27, respectively. However, death atop of branch and occurence of twig blight has little correlation with spring yield. On the other hand, positive correlation highly appeared with the correlation coefficient at 0.8 between occurence of twig blight and death atop of branch.

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Processing of Water Activity Controlled Fish Meat Paste by Dielectric Heating 1. Formulation and Processing Conditions (내부가열을 이용한 보장성어육(고등어) 연제품의 가공 및 제품개발에 관한 연구 1. 원료${\cdot}$첨가물의 배합 및 가공조건)

  • LEE Kang-Ho;LEE Byeong-Ho;You Byeong-Jin;SUH Jae-Soo;JO Jin-Ho;JEONG In-Hak;JEA Yoi-Guan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 1984
  • As an effort to expand the utilization of mackerel which has been thought disadvantageous to processors due to the defects in bloody dark color of meat, high content of lipid, and low stability of protein, and to develope a new type of product, so called, preservative fish meat paste, the processing method was studied in which dielectric heating was applied by means of cooking, pasteurization, dehydration, and control of water activity. The principle of this method is based on that dielectric heating can initiate a rapid dispersion or displacement of moisture in the meat tissue so that the level of water acivity can be controlled by dehydration with hot air meanwhile the product is cooked, pasteurized, and texturized. And the product is finally heated with electric heaters and vacuum sealed to stabilize water activity and storage stability. In present paper, a formula for preparing the fish meat-stach paste, the conditions of dielectric heating and dehydration, shape and size of the product, and other parameters were tested to optimize the process operation. A formula of the fish meat-starch paste to provide proper textural properties and water activity was $10\%$ starch, $1.5\%$ salt, $3\%$ soybean, $0.6\%$ MSG, $2\%$ sucrose, and $3\%$ sorbitol against the weight of fish meat. A proper shape and size of the product to avoid foaming and case hardening during heating was sliced disc of 8 cm $diameter{\times}0.8$ cm thickness or $10{\times}10$ cm square plate with 1.0 cm thickness. The disc shape was recommended because it resulted more uniform heating, minimum foaming and case hardening. And it was also advantageous that disc was simply provided when the fish meat disc was stuffed in the same, solidified in boiling water for 2 to 3 minutes, and sliced. Condition of dielectric heating was critical to decide the levels of sterility, water activity, and textural property of the product. The temperature at the center of the meat disc slices was raised up to $95^{\circ}C$ in 1.5 minutes so that continuous exposure to microwave caused expanded tissue and hardening ending up with a higher water content. Heating for 5 to 6 minutes was adequate to yield the final water activity of 0.86 to 0.83(35 to $40\%$ moisture). It is important, however, that heating had to be done periodically, for instance, in the manner of 2.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.0 minute to give enough time to displace or evaporate moisture from the meat tissue. The product was dehydrated for 2 to 3 minutes by hot air of $60^{\circ}C$, 3 to 5m/sec and finally exposed to electric heaters for 5 to 6 minutes until the surface was roasted deep brown. These conditions of heating and dehydration resulted in a complete reduction of total plate count from an initial count of $5.3{\times}10^6/g$ to less than $3{\times}10^2/g$. General composition of the product was $40.1\%$ moisture, $20.8\%$ protein, $17.4\%$ lipid, $16.2\%$ carbohydrate, and $5.5\%$ ash. Textural properties revealed folding test AA, hardness 42, cohesiveness 0.53, toughness 4.6, and elasticity 0.8.

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Epidemiology and Control of Rice Blast in Korea (한국(韓國)에서의 도열병(病) 발생(發生), 만연(蔓延)과 그 방제(防除))

  • Park, Jong Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.356-369
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    • 1985
  • In Korea, inevitable researches for the blast control exactly started from 1927 by the organization of Office of Rural Development with the local extensive outbreak of panicle blast at Jeonlla Buk-Do Province in 1926. At present, the rice blast is still one of the most destructive and widespread diseases in spite of considerable contributions by rice scientists, particularly plant pathologists during last 55 years in Korea. Rice blast control and management are very difficult because of the marked variability in pathogenicity of the blast fungus. From the results obtained through the disease surveys during last 70 years, different 3 prevalence type of blast such as bimodal leaf-blast type, bimodal panicle-blast type and bimodal continual blast type were recognized. In generally speaking, pattern of blast outbreak is said to be characterized by severe outbreak of panicle blast after slight outbreak of leaf blast with discontinuity between leaf and panicle blast. So we have to pay much attention for successful management of panicle blast giving direct influence to rice yield. Main factors induce blast epidemic were pointed out to be breakdown of the disease resistance, nutritional unbalance such as excess application of nitrogen, delay of transplantation and longspell of rain fall by extensive surveys and researches on blast during last 70 years in Korea. The fact some of Japonica varieties such as Kokuryomiyako, Tamanishiki, Ginbozu and Pungok belong to varietal group A had been cultivated with extensive acrage over 30 years in this country should be mentioned by Korean rice scientists. Differences in field resistance between varieties in the same group are detectable and apparently small but sometimes epidemiologically significant differential effects may be found out in case of blast. Much more attention should be payed to accumulate the knowledges on field resistance for successful management of blast. Excess application of nitrogen is more effective to outbreak of panicle blast than that of leaf blast of IR varieties. In comparatively low level application of nitrogen infection rate of panicle blast of IR varieties is considerably high. Low temperature effects on outbreak of blast is very great. It results in remarkable increase of the inoculum potential on the leaf lesions and infection of panicle blast in leaf sheathes of IR varieties during the booting stage. In economic point of view, it is concluded that 5 times sprays of effective fungicides including 3 times before and 2 times after heading is good enough to control blast. We have experienced no one of control measures for blast is superior to all others. The integrated control measures was established as guideline of blast control around 1950 in Korea. This guideline must be helpful for rice growers as long as rice growing continue.

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Studies on Dry Matter Yields , Chemical Composition and Net Energy Accumulation in Three Leading Temperate Grass Species I. Influence of meteorolgical factors on the dry matter productivity and net energy value under different cutting management (주요 북방형목초의 건물수량 , 화학성분 및 Net Energy 축적에 관한 연구 I. 기상환경 및 예취관리에 따른 건물 및 에너지 생산성 변화)

  • F. Muhlschlegel;G. Voigtlander
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 1986
  • The experiments were carried out to study the influence of meteorological factors and cutting management on dry matter accumulation and net energy value in orchardgrass (Dactlylis glomerata L.) cv. Potomac and Baraula, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cv. Reveille and Semperweide and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) cv. Cosmos 11 and N.F.G.. The field trials were designed as a split plot design with three cutting regimes of 6-7 cuts at grazing stage, 4-5 cuts at silage stage and 3 cuts at hat stage in Korea and West Germany from 1975 to 1979. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Productivity of orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue were mainly affected by cutting systems and meteorological factors, especially air temperature, rainfalls, solar radiation and their interactions. In West Germany, cutting frequency was to be found asan most important factor influenced to dry matter yield and net energy value. 2. Orchardgrass, taken as average of all experimental sites in Korea, produced high yield of 875 kg/10 a in dry matter, which was as much as 32% and 27% higher than those of perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue, respectively. The annual dry matter yields of orchardgrass from 1976 to 1977 were shown a little variation. Dry matter yields in Freising and Braunschweig in West Germany were increased in all grass species continuously. 3. Orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue showed different response to cutting frequency. The highest dry matter yields were found under 3 cuts at hay stage for orchardgrass and 4-5 cuts at silage stage for perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue. In West Germany, dry matter yields, as average of all grass species under different cutting systems, were 1326 kg, 1175 kg and 1098 kg/10a for 3 cuts, 4-5 cuts and 6-7 cuts, respectively. 4. Chemical composition and net energy concentration of temperate grasses were influenced by cutting managements. The highest yields of digestible crude protein were obtained under 6-7 cuts at grazing stage both in Korea and West Germany. In net energy yields, 3 cutting system produced the highest yield with 694 (orchardgrass), 665 (perennial ryegrass) an 623 kStE/10 a (meadow fescue). However, frequent cutting at grazing and silage stage produced higher yields than 3 cuts at hay stage in Cheju, Suweon and Taekwalyong.

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STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF ANTARCTIC KRILL 2. Processing of Paste Food, Protein Concentrate, Seasoned Dried Product, Powdered Seasoning, Meat Ball, and Snack (남대양산 크릴의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • PARK Yeung-Ho;LEE Eung-Ho;LEE Kang-Ho;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung;KIM Se-Kweun;KIM Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.65-80
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    • 1980
  • Processing conditions of the krill products such as paste food, krill protein concentrate, seasoned dried krill, powdered seasoning, meat ball, and snack have been examined and the quality was evaluated chemically and organoleptically. In the processing of paste food, krill juice was yielded $71\%$ and krill scrap $29\%$. The yields of paste and broth from the krill juice showed $53\%$ and $43\%$, respectively. In amino acid composition of the krill paste, proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, and leucine were abundant, while histidine, methionine, tyrosine, serine and threonine were poor. The optimum condition for solvent extraction in the processing of krill protein concentrate was the 5 times repetitive extraction using isopropyl alcohol at $80^{\circ}C$ for 5 mins. The yield of krill protein concentrate when used fresh frozen materials was $10.2\%$ in isopropyl alcohol solvent and $8.8\% in ethyl alcohol, and when used preboiled frozen materials, the yield was $13.0\%$ in isopropyl alcohol and $11.8\%$ in ethyl alcohol. Amino acid composition of krill protein concentrate showed a resemblance to that of fresh frozen krill meat. In quality comparison of the seasoned dried krill, hot air dried krill was excellent as raw materials and sun dried krill was slightly inferior to hot air dried krill, but preboiled frozen krill showed the poorest quality. The result of quality evaluation for seasoning made by combination of dried powdered krill, parched powdered sesame, salt, powdered beef extract, monosodium glutamate, powdered red pepper and ground pepper showed that the hot air dried krill was good in color and sundried krill was favorable in flavor. When krill meat ball was prepared using wheat flour, monosodium glutamate and salt as side materials, the quality of the products added up to $52\%$ of krill meat was good and the difference in quality upon the results of the organoleptic test for raw materials was not recognizable between fresh frozen and preboiled frozen krill. In the experiment for determining the proper amount of materials such as dried Powdered krill, $\alpha-starch$, sweet potato starch, sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, glycine, potassium tartarate, ammonium bicarbonate, and sodium bicarbonate in processing krill snack, sample B(containing $7.7\%$ of dried powdered krill) and sampleC (containing $10.8\%$ of dried powdered krill) showed the most palatable taste from the view point of organoleptic test. Sweet potato starch in testing side materials was good in the comparison of suitability for processing krill snack. Corn starch and kudzu starch were slightly inferior to sweet potato starch, while wheat flour was not proper for processing the snack. In the experiment on frying method, oil frying showed better effect than salt frying and the suitable range of frying temperature was $210-215^{\circ}C$.

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