Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics and changes of elderly households in rural area. The elderly were classified as elderly living alone, elderly couple living together, and elderly living with their children. Data from the survey of Ministry of Health and Welfare conducted in 1998, 2008, 2017 were used for the analysis. The subjects of the study included a sample of 9,401 respondents who represent aged 65 or more in Korea. The result of analysis was as follows; First, over the past 20 years, there has been no significant difference in the composition of the sexes of elderly in rural area, and aging is becoming more serious. Second, elderly living with children continue to decrease, and elderly couple are increasing. The number of elderly living alone is on the increase, but it tends to decrease in 2017. Third, the proportion of houses in elderly households is still very high, but it is gradually decreasing and the proportion of apartments is increasing. Fourth, the frequency of communication with children tended to increase slightly in all household types, while the frequency of encounter decreased slightly in 2008 and then increased in 2017. Fifth, the health status and economic status of the elderly have been gradually improved over the past 20 years. Finally, the emotional support in all elderly households is maintained constantly, but the instrumental support is gradually weakened.
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary habits and seasonal variation and diversity of food intakes of elderly women living alone as compared to those of elderly women living with family in a rural area. Forty nine elderly women living alone and forty one elderly women living with family who reside in Goryeong-gun, Gyeongbuk, were interviewed using questionnaires in summer 2005, and their food intakes were assessed secondly in winter and thirdly in spring 2006. The average ages were 74.7 years for elderly living alone and 72.8 years for elderly living with family. Tooth status and bone fracture experience were similar between the groups. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disease was 61.2% and that of circulatory disease was 32.7% of the subjects. Average of total score of mental depression of the subjects was 5.94 out of 12 points, and it was not significantly different between the two groups. Skipping meals was more frequent and mealtime was more irregular in the elderly women living alone as compared with the elderly women living with family. Consumption of dietary supplements was also less in the elderly women living alone. Food intakes by the elderly women living alone tended to be lower than those by the elderly women living with family. Dietary diversity score was significantly lower with the elderly women living alone as compared with the elderly women living with family only in summer (p < 0.01). Percentages of the subjects who have taken meat group and vegetable group were significantly lower in the elderly living alone compared with the elderly living with family during summer. Therefore, it is necessary to develop food assistance or supporting program suited for the season within a community for elderly women living alone.
This research was designed to compare the health condition and the quality of life of the elderly inpatients with those of the normal elderly people. The subjects of study were 482 elderly inpatients and 304 normal elderly people. The research was conducted in July and August using the instrument WHOQOL. The results of the research are as follows: For the level of health, it was recognized that male was healthier than female, having higher the education, living in the city rather than in the rural, keeping the normal life than being in the hospital. There were little difference in the past medical histories of the elderly inpatients and the normal elderly people. As to the diseases currently under the treatment, there were some difference between the elderly inpatients and the normal elderly people but the tendency was similar in the kinds and the frequencies. As to the recognition for the quality of life between the elderly inpatients and the normal elderly people based on the records reflected on each of the domains of WHOQOL, the normal elderly people more positively recognized in the overall quality of life and the following domains: physical, psychological, level of independence, and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs. The normal elderly people more positively recognized especially in the level of independence domain (mobility, activities of daily living, dependence on medication or treatments, working capacity). In the social relationships domain only the sexual activity was significant and the normal elderly people more positively recognized. The elderly inpatients showed the correlation of over 0.5 in the overall quality of life and the following domains: environment, social relationships, physical, psychological, level of independence. It was over 0.6 in the physical domain and the domains of psychological and level of independence. and the psychological domains of level of independence and social relationships. For the points of overall quality of life, it had no correlation with hospitalization but the health condition, residential district, occupation, and taste exerted a significant effect. As a result of separate analyses of the elderly inpatients and the normal elderly people, the health condition and the age only were the common variable which would exercise a significant effect. Besides, the primary factors which would exercise the quality of life were the occupation and taste for the elderly inpatients, and the residential district and source of income for the normal elderly people. In conclusion, it is first and foremost important to improve the standard of health for the overall quality of life for the elderly people, regardless of hospitalization. Therefore, a plan must be urgently drawn up for revitalization of the health promoting projects for the elderly people and the public health projects for the elderly people, and the investment must be increased for settlement of health problems of the elderly people.
At present, interest in the welfare of the elderly (persons over sixty-five years of age), including their dietary status, is high. Nutrition and dietary status have been investigated for both the institutionalized and non-institutionalized (independent-living) elderly in foreign country. But the dietary status of institutionalized elderly has not been investigated. Therefore, the dietary status of institutionalized elderly has been studied and compared with that of non-institutionalized elderly in the same geographic area. Three-day dietary records were obtained from fourty-five institutionalized elderly residents (twenty-five men and twenty women) and thirty two elderly living at home (sixteen men and sixteen women) in Taegu area. All nutrient intakes of the elderly women living at home and all nutrient intakes except energy intakes of the elderly men living at home were significantly higher than those of the residents of the institutionalized facilities. (p<0.005) The values of height, weight, chest circumference, and sitting height except head circumference of female elderly living in institutionalized facilities is significantly lower than those of elderly living at home. (p<0.005) In the case of men, the values of height and chest circumference of elderly living in institutionalized facilities is significantly lower than those of elderly living at home. (p<0.05)
Journal of The Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture
Purpose : Balanced meal service is very important for the elderly to maintain good physical health. Good food and comfortable dining environment is also important for the elderly to prevent emotional depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate current problems of dining space in Korean elderly welfare facility. De-institutionalizing dining environment of elderly welfare facility will bring more meaningful social interactions among elderly users. Methods : Through literature research and case studies of welfare centers in the US and Japan, Elderly Dining Space Checklist was developed. Dining spaces of 11 welfare facilities in Seoul was analyzed by this checklist. It was administered by interior designers as well as facility staffs to achieve more credible results. Questionnaire for the elderly users of those dining space also prosecuted to broaden knowledge for creating improved environment. Results : Dining spaces of elderly welfare centers are lack of privacy and furnitures are not comfortable enough for the general users as well as wheelchair users. Elderly dining space users are seeking more private and comfortable spaces for the social communications. Implications : Dining environment for the elderly in Korea should develop more de-institutionalized design concepts.
The purpose of this study was to explore and compare health-promoting behaviors and its relationships with associated variables between Korean elderly and Korean-American elderly. Study instruments were questionnaire that consisted of socioeconomic characteristics, health-promoting lifestyle patterns. self-esteem and self-efficacy. Data were collected from convenient sample of 150 Korean elderly and 110 Korean-American elderly recruited from senior centers. Collected data were analyzed by t-test. ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficients. The results are followings : 1. In religion, $32.7\%$ of Korean elderly were protestant. while $32.7\%$ of Korean-American. elderly were protestant. $61.3\%$ of Korean elderly were living with their children, and only $17.3\%$ of Korean-American elderly were living with their children. 2. There was no significant difference in the mean HPLP score in two groups. but Korean elderly showed higher practices in health responsibility. exercise. and stress management than that of Korean-American elderly. The subjects showed the highest practices in nutrition(3.14. 3.01), and the lowest practices in exercise (2.14, 1.92). 3. The mean HPLP score of Korean elderly was 2.63, showing significant relationships with age. education and economic status. the score of Korean-American elderly was 2.54, showing significant relationships with education. 4. Self-esteem score of Korean elderly was 2.72 and Korean-American elderly was 2.73. there was no significant difference in two groups. The score of self-esteem of Korean-American elderly was showing significant relationships with presence of spouse. 5. Self-efficacy score of Korean elderly was 3.27 and Korean-American elderly was 3.21. there was no significant difference in two groups. The score of self-efficacy of both groups were showed significant relationships with education. 6. The HPLP of Korean and Korean-American elderly showed(r=.24. r= .49) positive correlations with self-esteem had positive correlations with self-efficacy(r=.42. r=.28). To draw concrete resolution for health promotion of Korean and Korean-American elderly. this study suggests followings for future research : 1. Nursing interventions enhancing exercise and stress management of the elderly must be provided. Especially developing and adopting feasible exercise programs for Korean-American elderly is highly needed. 2. Identifying the influences of culture on their practices of health-promoting lifestyle patterns among Korean. Korean-American and other racial elderly groups.
The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in elderly's dating experience and related variables. 427 elderly of age 65 or older participated. The results are as follows. 1. 80% of widowed elderly had no dating experience, and far more elderly men than women had dating experience. 2. Attitudes towards dating, of both elderly themselves and their children, had influence on the elderly's dating experience, regardless of gender. This indicates that the elderly's own acceptance and their children's positive attitude are important to the elderly's dating experience. 3. Gender differences were found in influences of living arrangement (whether they lived with their children or not), economical reasons, and personality factors. These variables proved significant only for the elderly men. More elderly men who did not live with their children than the elderly men who did had experienced dating, and economical reasons along with personality factors proved to be obstructive for elderly men's dating life.
Chong, Sang Min;Choi, Jai sung;Lee, Jong hak;Min, Dong Chan
International Journal of Highway Engineering
PURPOSES : Because elderly drivers are more prone to becoming confused when approaching an urban intersection and thus may yield prolong judgment and decision times than non-elderly drivers, to increase the comfort and safety of the intersection environment for elderly drivers, this study applied autonomous driving tests at an urban intersection to examine their driving characteristics. METHODS : To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of driving features, this study collected drive data of non-elderly drivers and elderly drivers via an autonomous experiment using OBD2 and an eye-tracker, in addition to performing a literature review on the measured visibility range of elderly drivers at intersections. This literature review was conducted considering the general knowledge of elderly drivers having relatively reduced visibility. Additionally, as they are commonly more vulnerable, this study analyzes characteristics of elderly drivers as compared to those of non-elderly drivers. CONCLUSIONS : The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) the peripheral visible distance of elderly drivers is reduced as compared to that of non-elderly drivers; 2) elderly drivers approach and proceed through intersections at slower speeds than non-elderly drivers; and 3) elderly drivers yield increased driving distances when performing a right or left turn as compared to non-elderly drivers as a result of their reduced speed and acceleration and larger turning radii relative to non-elderly drivers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-friendly values of the elderly. Specific objectives of this study were 1) to survey the eco-friendly levels of the elderly, 2) to find out related variables of the eco-friendly values of the elderly 3) to suggest to develop the eco-friendly values of the elderly for volunteer activity of environmental problem solutions. Two hundred eight elderly persons in the region of Cheong-ju(Chung-cheong Buk Do) were selected, and questionnaire was utilized for collecting data. The results were as follows: The eco-friendly levels of the elderly were relatively high and differed significantly according to educational level, health status, religion, participating volunteer activity and life satisfaction. The significant independent variables influencing the eco-friendly values of the elderly were educational level, health status, religion, participating volunteer activity, and life satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, voluntarism of the elderly provides the solution of environmental problem and life satisfaction, self development for the elderly.
In this study, nutrient intake status and energy expenditure were examined to investigate the nutritional status of the elderly in a rural community. The results obtained by questionaries, the 24 hour recall method, and time-diary were as follows: The elderly men surveyed were 73.8 years old, on the average. The elderly women surveyed were 73.5 years old, on the average. The proportion of the elderly with diseases was 51.9%. Most of the subjects (86.1%) had a regular meal pattern of consuming three meals a day. The average daily energy intake of the rural elderly was much lower than the Korean RDA. The dietary assessment data showed that each energy intake of the males and the females was 79.5% and 84.3% of the RDA, respectively. The dietary intake of Ca, Fe, niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin was lower than the Korean RDA, and that of P and Vitamin C was adequate. The Fe intake was significantly different with respect to age and sex (p < 0.05). Although, in both elderly men and elderly women it decreased with age, the elderly men's intake was lower than the elderly women's. The heights of the elderly men and the elderly women was 159.7 cm and 147.5 cm, respectively, and the weights were 60.0 kg and 52.2 kg, respectively, and the BMI was in the moderate range. Heights significantly decreased with age (p < 0.05). According to daily living schedules, leisure time (11.0 hour) was the longest, physiological time (9.6 hours) was next, and work time (3.4 hours) was the shortest. Energy expenditure significantly decreased with age (p < 0.01). Energy intake also decreased with aging. Energy balance (energy expenditure/energy intake) was 93.4% in elderly men and 104.0% in elderly women. Especially, in elderly men in the 65 to 74 age range, the energy balance was the lowest, and the nutrient intake was also much lower than that of elderly women.
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