• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thermodynamic parameters

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Thermodynamics of the Micellization of Cetylpyridinium Bromide in Some Aqueous Alcohol Solutions (몇 가지 알코올-수용액에서 Cetylpyridinium Bromide의 미셀화의 열역학적 성질)

  • Chung Jong-Jae;Lee Sang-Wook;Choi Joon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1993
  • The effects of added alcohols on the critical micelle concentration(CMC) of cetylpyridinium bromide(CPB) were investigated by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer at the temperature range of 8∼45$^{\circ}C$. The CMC of CPB was increased with the addition of methanol in the whole temperature region studied, while decreased with the addition of ethanol and propanol. The increase of CMC with the addition of methanol may be attributable to the increasing solvent power of the methanol-water mixture, because methanol was scarcely solubilized into the palisade layer of the micelle of CPB. The decrease of CMC with the inclusion of ethanol and propanol may be derived from the solubilization of alcohols into the micelles. On the other hand, the CMC was decreased with the temperature rise in the low-temperature region below about 25$^{\circ}C$, and the CMC was increased in the high-temperature region above that. The thermodynamic parameters (${\Delta}G_M^{\circ},\;{\Delta}H_M^{\circ},\;and\;{\Delta}S_M^{\circ}$) of the micellization of CPB were obtained in some aqueous alcohol solutions. In the whole temperature region (8∼45$^{\circ}C$), the values of ${\Delta}G_M^{\circ}$ were negative, while those of ${\Delta}S_M^{\circ}$ were positive. And in the temperature region below about 25$^{\circ}C$ the ${\Delta}H_M^{\circ}$ values were positive, while in the temperature region above that the values were negative.

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Studies on the Coordination of Acetamide to Rare Earth Metal Ion (Ln(II) (희토류 금속이온 (Ln(III))과 Acetamide 사이의 상호작용에 대한 연구)

  • Sang-Won Lee;Jeonga Yu;Chang-Ju Yoon;Yoo-Hyek Jun;Young-Sang Choi
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 1992
  • The $2{\nu}_{C=0}$ + amide III combination band spectrum of acetamide (AA) was obtained in very dilute solutions of AA+lanthanide shift reagents (LSR) in carbon tetrachloride over the range of $15^{\circ}$ to $45^{\circ}C$. It was found that only 1 : 1 AA-LSR complex is formed by the interaction between carbonyl oxygen of AA and central metal ion(Ln(Ⅲ)) in LSR. The thermodynamic parameters for Ln(III)${\cdot}$O=C bond were determined by computer analysis of concentration and temperature dependent spectra. ${\Delta}H^{\circ}$ for the coordination of AA to Eu$(dpm)_3$, Yb$(dpm)_3$, and Pr$(dpm)_3$ have been found to be -39.1, -28.4, and -25.5 kJ/mol, respectively. It has shown that this type of ion-dipole interaction is more than twice stronger compared to the dipole-dipole interaction in the amide linkage, and largely depending on the steric hindrence effect by the bulky dpm groups around central metal ion (Ln(III)) rather than the ionic potential effect of central metal ion itself.

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Adsorption Thermodynamics of Polyamidoamide Epichlorohydrin Polymer in an Aqueous Fibrous Suspension (섬유 현탁액내 PAE 고분자 흡착의 열역학적 고찰)

  • Sung-Hoon Yoon;Kwang-Suk Joo;Tae-Won Lee;Kun-Han Kim;Byung-Bin Park
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2003
  • This study was to examine the thermodynamic features of polyelecrolytic adsorption of polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin(PAE) in a papermaking wet-end. The PAE adsorption experiments were conducted in a stirred jar containing an aqueous fibrous suspension and evaluated in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich parameters. The electrokinetic property of a stock was examined by measuring the zeta potential of each colloidal suspension. The polyelectrolytic PCD titration was employed to determine the adsorbed amounts of PAE polymer. The zeta potential of a stock, being varied significantly depending upon the addition of PAE polymer, showed initially a sharp increase and later an exponential decay as a function of time . The PAE adsorption exhibited a pseudo-Langmuir adsorption behavior at$20^{\circ}C$ , whereas its Freundlich power(v) increased in a proportional way at an elevated temperature. The train numbers calculated on the basis of adsorption thermodynamics were 7 to 8. The length of the extended loop of PAE was calculated as 215 nm at $20^{\circ}C$ and increased at a rate of 9% at every $10^{\circ}C$ rise in temperature. The PAE adsorption was proven to be an exothermic physisorption with the estimated adsorption enthalpy of -27 to -29 kJ/mol.

Studies on the Complexes of Lanthanide ion with Multidentate Ligand (I). Determination of Thermodynamic Parameters with Solution Calorimetric Method in Nonaqueous Solvents (란탄족 원소의 여러자리 리간드 착물에 관한 연구 (제 1 보) 물아닌 용액에서 용액열량계에 의한 열역학적 함수결정)

  • Sam-Woo Kang;Won-Hae Koo;Soo-Min Lee;Chang Choo-Hwan;Moo-Yol Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 1989
  • Log K, ${\Delta}$H and ${\Delta}$S for the complexation of $La^{3+},\;Ce^{3+}$ and $Eu^{3+}$with various multidentate ligand containing crown ether, diaza crown ether and diamine ether have been determined in methanol and acetonitril solutions at $25^{\circ}C$ by solution calorimetric titration method. The greater stability constant of $La^{3+}$-15C5 than those of 18C6 diaza [2.2] in methanol are discussed in terms of the size of metal ion and the ligand cavity and of metal ion solvation. The stabilities of $Ce^{3+}$ and $La^{3+}$ ion complexes with a various multidentate ligand in acetonitril are in the order of (diamine ether)<18C6<15C5$Ce^{3+}$, $La^{3+}$ and $Eu^{3+}$-diaza [2.2] complexes in acetonitril are increased with the following order: $Eu^{3+}$ < $La^{3+}$ < $Ce^{3+}$, that is increasing order of the optimum size and of the charge density of metal ion.

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Characteristics and Parameters for Adsorption of Carbol Fuchsin Dye by Coal-based Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Thermodynamic (석탄계 활성탄에 의한 Carbol Fuchsin의 흡착 특성과 파라미터: 동력학 및 열역학)

  • Lee, Jong Jib
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2021
  • Adsorption characteristics of carbol fuchsin (CF) dye by coal-based activated carbon (CAC) were investigated using pH, initial concentration, temperature and contact time as adsorption variables. CF dissociates in water to have a cation, NH2+, which is bonded to the negatively charged surface of the activated carbon in the basic region by electrostatic attraction. Under the optimum condition of pH 11, 96.6% of the initial concentration was adsorbed. Isothermal adsorption behavior was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. Langmuir's equation was the best fit for the experimental results. Therefore, the adsorption mechanism was expected to be adsorbed as a monolayer on the surface of activated carbon with a uniform energy distribution. From the evaluated Langmuir's dimensionless separation coefficients (RL = 0.503~0.672), it was found that CF can be effectively treated by activated carbon. The adsorption energies determined by Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were E = 15.31~7.12 J/mol and B = 0.223~0.365 kJ/mol, respectively. Therefore, the adsorption process was physical (E < 20 J/mol, B < 8 kJ/mol). The experimental result of adsorption kinetics fit better the pseudo second order model. In the adsorption reaction of CF dye to CAC, the negative free energy change increased as the temperature increased. It was found that the spontaneity also increased with increasing temperature. The positive enthalpy change (40.09 kJ/mol) indicated an endothermic reaction.

Interactions between Water-Soluble Polyparacyclophanes and Drugs (III) -Complex Formation of Water-Soluble Polyparacyclophanes with Fluorescent Hydrophobic Naphthalene Derivatives in Aqueous Solution- (수용성 폴리파라시클로판류와 약물과의 상호작용(제 3보)-수용액 중 수용성 폴리파라시클로판류와 형광 소수 나프탈렌 유도체류와의 복합체 형성-)

  • Chun, In-Koo;Lee, Min-Hwa
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 1989
  • Complex formation of water-soluble polyparacyclophanes bearing two diphenylmethane or two diphenyl ether skeletons with l-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) and 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) was investigated quantitatively to develop useful host compounds comparing with ${\alpha}\;-\;and\;{\beta}-cyc1odextrins$$({\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-CyDs$) in aqueous solution. Benesi-Hildebrand type analysis of the fluorescent intensity showed that the dissociation constants (Kd) of paracyclophane-ANS complexes were $1.55\;{\times}\;10^{-4}M$ for 1,6,20,25-tetraaza[6.1.6.1]paracyclophane(CPM 44) and $1.23\;{\times}\;10^{-4}M$ for 1,7,21,27-tetraaza[7.1.7.1]paracyclophane (CPM 55), and those of paracyclophane-TNS complexes were $6.99\;{\times}\;10^{-6}M$ for CPM 44 and $6.23\;{\times}\;10^{-5}M$ for CPM 55, in 1:1 molar ratio. On the other hand, the Kd values of 1,7,21,27-tetraaza-14,34-dioxa[7.1.7.1]paracyclophane (CPE 55)-ANS, 1,8,22,29-tetraaza-15,36-dioxa[8.1.8.1]paracyclophane (CPE 66)-ANS, CPE 55-TNS, CPE 66-TNS complexes were $1.75\;{\times}\;10^{-3}M$, $3.07\;{\times}\;10^{-3}M$, $3.75\;{\times}\;10^{-3}M$ and $2.15\;{\times}\;10^{-3}M$, respectively. On the contrary, the Kd values of ${\alpha}-CyD-ANS$, ${\beta}-CyD-ANS$, ${\alpha}-CyD-TNS$ and ${\beta}-CyD-TNS$ complexes were found to be $3.98\;{\times}\;10^{-2}M$, $1.05\;{\times}\;10^{-2}M$, $1.38\;{\times}\;10^{-2}M$ and $3.52\;{\times}\;10^{-4}M$, respectively. These results mean that the complexation of CPMs with ANS or TNS is by 5.6-1,975 fold stronger than that for ${\alpha}-or\;{\beta}-CyDs$, and the complex formation of CPEs with ANS or TNS is nearly same as or somewhat stronger than that for ${\alpha}-or\;{\beta}-CyDs$. From the Kd values determined at different temperatures, thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the complexation was found to be a spontaneous exothermic reaction. The effects of pH on Kd values of CPM 44-ANS, and CPM 55-ANS complexes were negligible in the range of pH 1.2-1.8. However, the Kd values of these complexes increased significantly with increasing ionic strength.

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Thermal-Denaturation of File Fish Myofibrillar Protein and Protective Effect of Sucrose, Sorbitol and Amino Acids (말쥐치 근원섬유단백질의 열안정성과 및 가지 첨가제의 영향)

  • CHOI Young-Joon;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.455-463
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    • 1985
  • Thermal-denaturation of myofibrillar protein of dorsal skeletal muscle from file fish was investigated by measuring denaturation constant($K_D$) and thermodynamic parameters at various temperatures. The protective effects of sucrose, sorbitol and amino acids when added individually or combined were also discussed. The denaturation rate as reflected in inactivation of myofibrillar protein Ca-ATPase was followed the first order reaction. The $K_D$ values at $25^{\circ}C,\;30^{\circ}C,\;and\;35^{\circ}C$ were $19.52{\times}10^{-5},\;112.25{\times}10^{-5},\;and\;247.20{\times}10^{-5}$, respectively. The activation energy of the reaction at $30^{\circ}C$ was 43 kcal/mole. The protective effects of sucrose, sorbitol, glycine, alanine and Na-glutamate were increased with the concentration but the effects of sorbitol and Na-glutamate decreased beyond 1.0 mole. Basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine did not revealed any protective effect on the thermal denaturation. In case of mixed addition, the effects of Na-glutamate to glycine, sorbitol to glycine, and sorbitol to sucrose or sorbitol to Na-glutamate were enhanced 1.2 to 7.0 times as much as that of control (ratio of mixing; 1:1, range of concentration; 0.5 to 1.25 mole). Under the frozen condition at $-20^{\circ}C$, two mixtures such as Na-glutamate to glycine and sorbitol to sucrose apparently revealed the protective effects.

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Chemical Reactivity between Ni(II)-Macrocycle Complex Ions ($NiL_m{^{2+}}$) and $CN^-$ (Ni(II)-거대고리 리간드 착이온 ($NiL_m{^{2+}}$) 과 $CN^-$ 이온간의 반응성)

  • Yu-Chul Park;Jong-Chul Byun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.334-343
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    • 1987
  • The Chemical reactions between $NiL_m{^{2+}}\{$Ni(rac-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;Ni(meso-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;Ni(1[14]4-diene)^{2+},\;{\alpha}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;{\beta}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;and\;Ni(meso-[14]-decane)^{2+}$}\and\ CN^-$ ion were studied by the spectrophotometric method. The equilibrium constants (K_1$) for the 1:1 complex ion, $[NiL_m(CN)]^+\;with\;NiL_m{^{2+}}\;and\;CN^-$ ion were determined in the range of 3 to $25^{\circ}C$. The $K_1\;for\;Ni(rac-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;Ni(meso-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;Ni(1[14]4-diene)^{2+},\;{\alpha}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;{beta}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;and\;Ni(meso-[14]-decane)^{2+}\;at\;15^{\circ}C$ was 4.7, 5.3, 6.2, 7.5, 9.4, and 9.8, respectively. The values of $K_1$ decreased with increasing temperature. From the temperature effect on equilibrium constant ($K_1$), thermodynamic parameters $({\Delta}H^{\circ},\;{\Delta}S^{\circ},\;{\Delta}G^{\circ})$ for reaction were evaluated and the reaction of $NiL_m{^{2+}}\;and\;CN^-$ ion was exothermic. $NiL_m{^{2+}\;reacts\;with\;CN^-$ ion to give $Ni(CN)_4{^{2-}}$ ion and macrocyclic ligand $(L_m)$. The kinetics of formation of the $Ni(CN)_4{^{2-}}$ ion of varying the $[CN^-],\;[HCN],\;and\;[OH^-]$ have been investigated at 3∼$25^{\circ}C\;and\;0.5M\;NaClO_4$. Maintaining a constant $[CN^-],\;k_{obs}/[CN^-]^2$ increases linearly with increasing [HCN]. In the presence of large quantities of $[OH^-],\;k_{obs}/[CN^-]^2$ also increases linearly with $[OH^-]$. From the temperature effect on kinetic constant (k_{obs})$, parameter of activation $({\Delta}H^{\neq},\;{\Delta}S^{\neq})$ of reaction of $NiL_m{^{2+}}\;with\;CN^-$ ion were determined. For the $Ni(rac-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;Ni(meso-1[14]7-diene)^{2+},\;{\alpha}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;{\beta}-Ni(rac-[14]-decane)^{2+},\;and\;Ni(meso-[14]-decane)^{2+}\;series\;{\Delta}H^{\neq}$ gradually decrease as the d-d transition energy, $ν(cm^{-1})$ decrease. And the reaction of the five $NiL_m{^{2+}}\;with\;CN^-$ ion take place by way of equal paths.

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Development of Mixed-bed Ion Exchange Resin Capsule for Water Quality Monitoring (수질 중 질소와 인 모니터링을 위한 혼합이온교환수지 캡슐의 개발)

  • Park, Chang-Jin;Kim, Dong-Kuk;Ok, Yong-Sik;Ryu, Kyung-Ryul;Lee, Ju-Young;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Yang, Jae-E
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.344-350
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to develop and assess the applicability of mixed-bed ion exchange resin capsules for water quality monitoring in small agricultural watershed. Recoveries of resin capsules for inorganic N and P ranged from 96 to 102%. The net activation energies and pseudo-thermodynamic parameters, such as ${\Delta}G^{o\ddag},\;{\Delta}H^{o\ddag},\;and\;{\Delta}S^{o\ddag}$ for ion adsorption by resin capsules, exhibited relatively low values, indicating the process might be governed by chemical reactions such as diffusion. However, those values increased with temperature coinciding with the theory. The reaction reached pseudo-equilibrium within 24 hours for $NH_4-N\;and\;NO_3-N$, and only 8 hours for $PO_4-P$, respectively. The selectivity of resin capsules were in the order of $NO_3\;^-\;>\;NH_4\;^+\;>\;PO_4\;^{3-}$, coinciding with that of encapsulated Amberlite IRN-150 resin. At the initial state of equilibrium, the resin adsorption quantity was linearly proportional to the mass of ions in the streams, but the rate of movement leveled off, following Langmuir-type sorption isotherm. The overall results demonstrated that the resin capsule system was suitable for water quality monitoring in small agricultural watershed, judging from the reaction mechanism(s) of the resin capsule and the significance of model in field calibration.

Determination of Adsorption Isotherms of Hydrogen at an Ir Electrode Interface Using the Phase-Shift Method and Correlation Constants (Ir 전극 계면에서 위상이동 방법 및 상관계수를 이용한 수소의 흡착동온식 결정)

  • Jeon, Sang-K.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2007
  • The phase-shift method and correlation constants for studying a linear relationship between the behavior ($-{\varphi}\;vs.\;E$) of the phase shift ($0^{\circ}{\leq}-{\varphi}{\leq}90^{\circ}$) for the optimum intermediate frequency and that (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) of the fractional surface coverage ($1{\geq}\theta{\geq}0$) have been proposed and verified to determine the Langmuir, Frumkin, and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) at noble metal/aqueous electrolyte interfaces. At an Ir/0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte interface, the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), equilibrium constants ($K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ for the Langmuir and $K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}$ for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), interaction parameter (g = 4.6 for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), and standard free energies (${\Delta}G_{ads}^0=19.9kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ and $16.5<{\Delta}G_{\theta}^0<23.3\;kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}\;and\;0.2<\theta<0.8$) of H for the cathodic $H_2$ evolution reaction are determined using the phase-shift method and correlation constants. The inhomogeneous and lateral interaction effects on the adsorption of H are negligible. At the intermediate values of ${\theta},\;i.e,\;0.2<{\theta}<0.8$, the Temkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) correlating with the Langmuir or the Frumkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), and vice versa, is readily determined using the correlation constants. The phase-shift method and correlation constants are accurate and reliable techniques to determine the adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) and related electrode kinetic and thermodynamic parameters(K, g, ${\Delta}G_{ads}^0, {\Delta}G_{\theta}^0$).