• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thylakoid membrane

Search Result 49, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

Determination of paraquat-resistant biotype on Conyza canadensis and the resistant mechanism (Paraquat 저항성 생태형 망초의 선발과 저항성 기작)

  • Kim, Sung-Eun;Kim, Seung-Yong;Ahn, Sul-Hwa;Chun, Jae-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.88-96
    • /
    • 2005
  • Paraquat-resistant biotype of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. was determined by chlorophyll loss and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and the resistant mechanism was investigated with respect to absorption, translocation, and binding constant. RAPD analysis for paraquat resistant (R) and susceptible (S) biotypes found in a pear orchard revealed that the biotypes possessed remote genetic relationship. Chlorophyll loss, as an indication of paraquat toxicity, of S biotype was 7.8-fold greater than that of R biotype. There were no differences in contents of epicuticular wax and cuticle and amounts of [14C]paraquat penetrating the cuticle between the two biotypes. Little translocation of the herbicide out of the treated leaf was observed in either biotype. Binding constants of paraquat to the cell wall and thylakoid membrane were 7.4-fold and 16.9-fold, respectively, higher in R biotype than in S biotype. The results suggest that the resistance mechanism of C. canadensis biotype is due partly to high binding affinity of paraquat to the cell wall and thylakoid membrane.

Glyphosate Toxicity: III. Detection of QB Protein in Thylakoid Membrane of Tomato Apical Meristem Using an Antibody Raised from Hybrid Protein of psb A and lac Z Gene (Glyphosate 독성: III. psb A와 lac Z 유전자의 Hybrid 단백질로부터 만들어진 항체를 이용한 토마토 정단분열조직의 Thylakoid막 내 QB 단백질의 검정)

  • Kim, Tae-Wan;Amrhein, Nikolaus
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.206-213
    • /
    • 1995
  • Glyphosate(N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) applied to the assimilate-exporting leaves(i.e. third old leaf) of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mil var. Moneymaker). Herbicide binding protein, QB protein(D1), has been immunoblotted using the antibodies raised against the hybrid-protein expressed by a part of spinach psb A gene cloned in frame with the 3'end of lac Z gene to allow expression of the ${\beta}$-galactosidase(EC 3.21.23) in Escherichia coli. Glyphosate has an effect on a turnover of D1 within photosystem II of thylakoid membrane. The dysfunction of D1 protein within light harvesting complex(LHC-II) seems to be a pleiotropic effect of glyphosate.

  • PDF

Comparison of Foliar Ultrastructure of 3 Dubautia species (Dubautia속(屬) 3종(種) 식물(植物)의 엽육조직(葉肉組織) 미세구조(微細構造) 비교연구(比較硏究))

  • Kim, In-Sun
    • Applied Microscopy
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.13-31
    • /
    • 1994
  • The fine structure of palisade chloroplasts has been studied in the mature leaves of 3 Dubautia species (D. scabra var. leiophylla, D. knudsenii and D. scabra var. leiophylla${\times}$D. knudsenii) to explore variation at the ultrastructural level, since the parental species exhibit quite different morphological and anatomical features. Types of thylakoidal membrane systems, occurrence and distribution of phytoferritin-like structures, lipid droplets, starch grains, mitochondria and microbodies were examined. Four different types of thylakoidal membranes were found in D. scabra var. leiophylla, 2 rather uniform types in D. knudsenii and 3 intermediate types in their hybrid. D. scabra var. leiophylla and the hybrid were marked by statistically significant differences in mean numbers of thylakoids per granum, while no significant difference was found between D. knudsenii and the hybrid. Phytoferritin-like structures which were about $100-120{\AA}$ in diameter as a whole particle each were found in all 3 species. The amount and distribution of particles varied by species. Lipid droplets, plastoglobuli, and starch grains occurred in all 3 species, but the frequency of starch grains also varied with the species. More frequent and larger starch grains were observed in D. knudsenii than in the other two species. Microbodies, or peroxisome, were observed throughout all species. They occurred, either with or without crystalline inclusions, around the chloroplasts.

  • PDF

RAPID RECOVERY OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS FROM PHOTOINHIBITION IS RELATED TO FATTY ACID UNSATURATION OF CHLOROPLAST MEMBRANE LIPIDS IN CHILLING-RESISTANT PLANTS

  • Moon, Byoung-Yong;Kang, In-Soon;Lee, Chin-Bum
    • Journal of Photoscience
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-10
    • /
    • 1998
  • The susceptibility of chilling-resistant spinach plants. and of chilling-sensitive squash plants to photoinhibition was compared in terms of the activity of photosystem II, in relation to the deuce of fatty acid unsaturation of chloroplast membrane lipids. From thylakoid membranes of the plants. monogalactosyl diacylgtycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol. sulfoquinovosyt diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol were seperated as major lipid classes. It was found that the content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids of phosphatidylglycerol was greater by 32% in spinach than that in squash. When leaf disks were exposed to light at 5$\circ$C, 15$\circ$C and 25$\circ$C, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. measured as the ratio of the variable to the maximum fluorescence of chlorophyll, declined markedly in squash plants, as compared to spinach plants. When leaf disks were exposed to strong light in the presence of lincomycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in chloroplasts, photoinhibition was accelerated in the two types of plants. Moreover, lincomycin treatment abolished the differences in the degree of susceptibility to strong light, which had been observed between the two types of plants. When the extent of photoinhibition of photosystem II-mediated electron transport was compared in thylakoid membranes isolated from the two types of plants, there were no differences in the degree of inactivation of photosystem II activity. However, when intact leaf disks were exposed to strong light either at 10$\circ$C or at 25$\circ$C, and then were allowed to recover either at 17$\circ$C or at 25$\circ$C in dim light. chilling-resistant plants such as spinach and pea showed marked recovery from photoinhibition, in contrast to chilling-sensitive plants, such as squash and sweet potato. whose recovery was strongly dependent on the temperature. These findings are discussed in relation to the unsaturation of fatty acids in membrane phosphatidylglycerol. It appears that fatty acid unsaturation of membrane lipids accelerates the recovery of photosystem H from photoinhibition, without affecting the photo-induced inactivation process of photosystem II associated with photoinhibition.

  • PDF

Stabilization of photosynthetic machinery against low-temperature photoinhibition by fatty acid unsaturation of membrane lipids in plants

  • Moon, Byoung-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.68-82
    • /
    • 1999
  • CHilling tolereance of plants are closely correlated with the degree of fatty acid unsaturation of membrane lipids. We studied the effects of low-temperature photoinhibition on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in terms of fatty acid unsaturation of thylakoid membranes lipids isolated from chilling -sensitive plants and chilling -resistant ones. To directly test the chilling tolerance of photosynthetic machinery in relation to membrane lipids, we further compared wild type tobacco plants with that of transgenic tobacco plants, in which the sensitivity to chilling had been enhanced by genetic modification of fatty acid unsaturation of chloroplast membrane lipids. The transgenic tobacco plants were found to contain reduced levels of unsaturated membrane fatty acids after being transformed with cDNA for glycerol-3-phophate acyltransferase from squash. The functional integrity of photosystem II during and recovery of photosynthesis from low-temperature photoinhibition will be discussed in connection with the degree of fatty acid unsaturation of chlorophast membranes lipids.

  • PDF

The Effect of Newly Synthesized Compounds on the Photosynthetic Electron Transport of Cyanobacteria (Anacystis nidulans $R_2$) (신규(新規) 합성화합물들이 cyanobacteria의 광합성전자전달계에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, I.T.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, K.Y.;Yoneyama, K.;Yoshida, S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.89-95
    • /
    • 1993
  • The Inhibiting activity of newly synthesized phenol (E-series) and triazine (T-series) derivatives was evaluated by using thylakoid membranes extracted from cyanobacteria (Anacystis nidulans $R_2$). There were no significant differences between phenol derivatives and dinoseb to the thylakoid membrane extracted from wild type in the Hill reaction. However, a phenol derivative, E-24 which has no -Cl at phenyl ring, did not show any activity. The longer the length of R substituents was in phenol derivatives, the lower inhibiting activity was in the Hill reaction. Triazine derivatives, T-27, T-28, T-40, T-41, T-47 and T-48 were also compared with diuron and atrazine. Among triazine compounds, T-27 and T-28 showed 10 and 30 times activity as high as atrazine to wild type, respectively. Other triazine derivatives, T-40, T-41, T-47 and T-48 showed low inhibiting activity to wild and mutant type. A structural difference of T-27 and T-28 from T-40, T-41, T-47 and T-48 was the presented of -C-NH-. Both T-27 and T-28 were very closely associated with serine, an amino acid located at the 264th position of D1 protein because of the resistant ratio(R/S) to mutant G-264 were higher than that of atrazine.

  • PDF

Uitrastructure of Cryptoglena pigra from Korea

  • Kim, Jong-Im;Shin, Woong-Ghi
    • ALGAE
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.325-331
    • /
    • 2007
  • Cryptoglena pigra Ehrenberg from Korea was a photosynthetic euglenoid alga, which had typical characteristics of the Euglenales. The ultrastructure examination of C. pigra revealed certain features which were distinctly photosynthetic euglenoid: one U-shaped chloroplast with thylakoid membranes; two paramylon grains appressed to both sides of the chloroplast; eyespot associated with the chloroplast but not part of it. Three flagellar roots were associated with the two basal bodies. The four-membered dorsal root arose from the dorsal body and extended anteriorly following the reservoir membrane. At the base of the reservoir the dorsal band was nucleated by the dorsal root and it ran anteriorly between the reservoir membrane and eyespot. The dorsal band was continued with the microtubules of the canal and the pellicle. The singlet dorsal microtubules at the transition level arranged into doublets by a successive linkage of the existing adjacent microtubules, and the doublets rearranged into the cytoskeletal microtubules that were continuous with four microtubules in pellicles. Finally, the sixteen ridges gave rise to the pellicular ridges. The five to six-membered ventral root extended anteriorly into a cytoplasmic pocket through the reservoir and lined a cytoplasmic pocket.

Studies on the Effect of Polyamine on Chlorophyll Contents and Chloroplast Peroxidase Activities in Rice Leaf Segments (벼잎 절편에서 Polyamine이 엽록소 함량 및 Chloroplast Peroxidase활성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 표병식;김영준강영희
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.115-121
    • /
    • 1993
  • The effect of polyamine on chlorophyll amount, chloroplast peroxidase and chloroplast thylakoid protein in rice leaf segments which were grown for 10 days(16 hrs, light : 8 hrs, dark) in a hormone-free MS medium containing polyamine was studied. Polyamine treatment increased the chlorophyll contents compared with the control in rice leaf segments. Especially spermine was most effective. Also, in rice leaf segments treated with polyamine chloroplast peroxidase activity was higher than in the control. The treatment with lmM of spermidine increased the enzyme activity by 100%. In polyamine treatment and control two major polypeptide bands corresponding to 56 and 25Kd molecular weight were clearly resolved with other minor bands by SDS-PAGE in the insoluble protein fraction. However, in these bands (56, 25Kd), the total area of protein in treating with polyamine were higher than that of the control. These results suggest that polyamine was an important factor in the chloroplast development of rice seedlings.

  • PDF

Effects of Light and Photosynthetic Electron Transport System on the Generation of Singlet Oxygen ($^1$O$_2$) in Ginseng Thylakoid Membrane (인삼 틸라코이드에서 Singlet Oxygen($^1$O$_2$) 생성에 미치는 전자전달계의 영향)

  • Yang, Deok-Cho;Chae, Quae;Lee, Sung-Jong;Kim, Yong-Hae;Kang, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-62
    • /
    • 1990
  • In order to Investigate the mechanism of the leaf-burning disease of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), studies on the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) and the photooxidation of the pigments were carried out in comparison with the ones of soybean (G1ycine max L). The studies were mainly focalized on the effects of light intensity, light intensity, inhibitor and electron donor/acceptor of the Photosynthetic electron transport system. When we measured the amounts of 1O2 generated in the thylakoids of ginseng and soybean by the irradiation of light (300 w/m2) as a function its time. It was identified that a higher amount of 1O2 was formed in the ginseng thylakoid than the case of soybean. A generation ratio of lO2 between ginseng and soybean sltbstantially identical in the range of light intensities 50∼150w/m2 However much higher amount of 1O2 was generated in ginseng by irradiation of strong intensity of light (200 500w/m2). Wave length dependency on the generation of 1O2 and the pigment photooxidation was observed on ginseng thylakoids; red light (600-700 nm) gave a maximum effect in the contrast with blur green light (400-60 nm). When the ginseng thylalioid was treated with the electron donor (Mn2+) and acceptors (DCPIP, FeCy) of the photosynthetic electron transport system. a drastic inhibition of 1O2 generation was observed. However, treatment with its inhibitors (DCMU, KCW) activated 1O2 generation. An interesting fact that an electron donor or acceptor of the photosystem II(P680) Inhibited 1O2 generation, suggests an intimate relationship between 1O2 generation and photosystem II.

  • PDF