• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Thylakoid membrane

검색결과 49건 처리시간 0.062초

The Effects of Surfactants on the Biosynthesis of Galactolipid and the Composition of Fatty Acids in Chloroplast Envelope rind Thylakoid Membrane of Chlorella ellipsoidea

  • Choe, Eun-A;Cheong, Gyeong-Suk;Lee, Cheong-Sam
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 1998
  • To analyze the effects of surfactants on the biosynthesis of galactolipid and the composition of fatty acids, the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membrane were cultivated in medium treated with anionic surfactants, such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (0.002%, LAS), a-olefin sulfonate (O.01%, AOS), and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (0.08%, SLES), respectively. During the cultivation, the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membrane were isolated from the cells collected at the early and middle phase of the culture and the contents of their fatty acid composition were compared with the control. When treated with surfactants, the contents of total lipid MDGD methylesters, and DGDG methylesters decreased significantly when compared with the control. It was also confirmed that more unsaturated fatty acids were involved in the biosynthesis of galactolipid. The fatty acids utilized in the biosynthesis of MGDG were in the chloroplast envelope and in the control, and linoleic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and oleic acid in AOS, and linolenic acid and oleic acid in SLES. The fatty acids in the biosynthesis of DGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control linolenic acid and stearic acid in LAS, oleic acid and linolenic acid in AOS, oleic acid and linolenic acid in SLES. In the thylakoid membrane, the major fatty acids in the biosynthesis of MGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control, oleic acid and linolenic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and linoleic acid in AOS, linolenic acid and palmitoleic acid in SLES. The fatty acids in the biosynthesis of DGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control, oleic acid and linolenic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and linoleic acid in AOS, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in SLES.

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Changes in Protein Synthesis Induced by Chilling in Tomato Chloroplasts

  • Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Park, Kwang-Lai;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2001
  • To find out the effect of low temperature on the regulation of tomato chloroplast genes, the optimization of the system in chloroplast protein synthesis and the identification of the changes in chloroplast protein synthesis induced by chilling were studied. Incorporation reaction occurred rapidly at the first 30 minutes and was constantly maintained after 60 minutes. A broad optimal temperature on protein synthesis was found around 20 to $30^{\circ}C$. No difference was shown in the chloroplast protein synthesis under high light intensity (1600 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) as well as under low light intensity (400 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) even darkness. $K^+$, $Mg^{++}$ and ATP at an optimal concentration act as an activator, while DTT, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, $Ca^{++}$ and inorganic phosphate act as an inhibitor in the chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of 15, 55 and 60 kd chloroplast encoded stromal proteins and 18, 24, 33 and 55 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane proteins were reduced by chilling, while 17 kd chloroplast encoded stromal protein and 16 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane protein was induced by chilling. It was expected that the 55 kd stromal protein would be the large subunit of rubisco and the 33 kd thylakoid membrane protein would be the D1 protein which was drastically reduced by chilling.

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인삼과 무 엽록체의 광합성 전자전달 활성 (Characteristics of Photosynthetic Electron Transport Activity in Isolated Chloroplast of Korean Ginseng and Radish)

  • 김갑식
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 1990
  • In order to characterize the chloroplasts of Korean ginseng as a semi-shade plant and radish as a sun plant, effects of growth light intensity on photosynthetic electron transport (PS) activity in chloroplasts and superoxide (O2.-) production in thylakoid membrane by irradiation were investigated. High-light chloroplasts of both plants showed higher PS activities than those grown under ow growth light intensity. High PS II and low PS I activities in ginseng chloroplasts (ratio of PS II/PS I : 1.1) were observed, but radish chloroplasts showed low PS II and high PS I activities (ratio of PS II/PS I : 0.3). PS II activity of both plants was little affected by temperature in range of 15-35$^{\circ}C$. Activities of whole -chain (PS II+I) in ginseng and PS I in radish were increased at high temperature (4$0^{\circ}C$). Preincubation of chloroplasts at 4$0^{\circ}C$ during 30 min, as a mild heat stress, caused rapid decrease in PS II and PS II+I activities of both plants. However PS I activity was not decreased in ginseng and rather increased in radish. O2.- production (NBT reduction) in Mehler reaction in the thylakoid membrane was inhibited by DCMU in both plants. DMBIB inhibited O2.- production in ginseng, but radish was insensitive to DMBIB. Electron flow system in ginseng thylakoid membrane was more susceptible to damage of photooxidation than that of radish.

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노쇠중인 밀잎에서 Benzyladenine에 의한 막단백질의 안정화 (Stabilization of Membrane Proteins by Benzyladenine during Wheat Leaf Senescence)

  • 진창덕
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 1992
  • 암배양을 통한 노쇠중인 밀 제1엽에서 지질의 과산화반응과 불용성 잎단백질의조성 및 엽록체 틸라코이드 막단백질 조성의 변화에 대한 BA의 효과가 조사되었다. 성숙한 밀 제1엽을 잘라내어 4일간의 암배양을 통한 노쇠유도실험에서 $10^{-5}\;M$ Benzyladenine(BA)은 노쇠중인 밀잎에서 엽록소 함량 및 수용성과 불용성 단백질 함량의 감소를 크게 억제시켰다. 특히, 단배질 함량 감소에 대한 BA의 억제효과는 수용성 보다는 불용성 단백질에 있어서 더욱 현저하였다. 또한, BA로 처리된 잎에서 지질의 과산화물인 MDA 함량의 증가가 억제되었다. 불용성 단백질에 대한 SDS-전기영동 결과 양적으로 현저한 57, 26 및 12 KD 단백질이 다른 소량의 단백질 무리와 함께 분리되었다. 대조구 잎에서의 불용성단백질 조성의 변화는 72시간의 암배양동안 57 KD와 12 KD 단백질이 현저하게 분해 소실되었으나 26 KD 단백질은 비교적 분해가 덜 일어났으며 BA 처리시 이들 단백질의 소실이 크게 억제되었다. 엽록체 틸라코이드막 단백질 조성의 경우, 각각 CF의 $\alpha,\;\beta$ subunits인 59 KD 단백질과 57 KD 단백질 및 LHCP 단백질인 26 KD 단백질을 포함하는 20개 정도의 단백질이 SDS-전기영동상에서 분리되었다. 72시간의 암배양 동안 대조구 엽록체에서 이들 단백질들이 급속히 분해 소실되었으나 BA로 처리된 엽록체의 경우 이들 단백질의 분해가 정량적으로 크게 억제되었다. 위의 결과들은 BA가 노쇠중인 밀잎에서 막지질의 과산화반응 억제를 통해 막단백질의 손실을 지연시키며 그로 인하여 엽록체 틸라코이드막을 포함한 세포막이 유지될 수 있음을 나타내었다.

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인삼 틸라코이드에서 광계II의 LHCP 인산화와 형광 Quenching (LHCP phosphorylation and Chlorophyll-Fluorescence Quenching of PSII in Ginseng Thylakoid Members)

  • 양덕조;김명원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 1992
  • 인삼의 엽소현상과 광계 II(photosystem II)의 광수확 엽록소-단백질 복합체(LHCP II)의 광에너지 분배 기작과의 관계를 구명코저 LHCP II의 인산화에 따른 형광 quenching과 광량별 인산화 정도, 그리고 단백질 조성을 조사하였다. 인삼은 DCMU의 존재 하에서 photosystem II의 형광발생량이 양지식물인 콩에 비해 많았으며, 인간화에 따른 형광 quenching율도 현저히 높았다. 또한, 강광(25k1ux 이상)에서 인삼은 인산화에 따른 형광 quenching율이 콩에 비해서 2배정도 높다는 사실을 확인하였다. 엽록소-단백질 복합체(CP-complex)의 조성비율 및 LHCP II를 구성하고 있는 단백질의 앙과 수적인 면에서 비교식물과 큰 차이를 나타내었는데, 24~29kD 범위에서 인삼은 25, 26, 27kD의 major 밴드와 24, 25.3, 28.3kD의 minor밴드로 구성되어 있었으며 광량에 의존적으로 인산화가 증가하는 인삼의 LHCP II 단백질은 24kD 이었다.

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Targeting Analysis of Lumenal Proteins of Chloroplast of Wheat using Proteomic Techniques

  • Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa;Kim, Da-Eun;Oh, Myoung-Won;Chung, Keun-Yook;Cho, Yong-Gu;Kim, Hong-Sig;Song, Beom-Heon;Lee, Chul-Won;Uozumi, Nobuyuki;Choi, Jong-Soon;Cho, Kun;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • 한국자원식물학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.14-14
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    • 2010
  • Plastid proteomics are essential organelles present in virtually all cells in plants and green algae. Plastids are responsible for the synthesis and storage of key molecules required for the basic architecture and functions of plant cells. The proteome of plastid, and in particular of chloroplast, have received significant amounts of attention in recent years. Various fractionation and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have been applied to catalogue the chloroplast proteome and its sub-organelles compartments. To better understanding the function of the lumenal sub-organelles within the thylakoid network, we have carried out a systematical analysis and identification of the lumenal proteins in the thylakoid of wheat by using Tricine-SDS-PAGE, and LTQ-ESI-FTICR mass spectrometry followed by SWISS-PROT database searching. We isolation and fractionation these membrane from fully developed wheat leaves using a combination of differential and gradient centrifugation couple to high speed ultra-centrifuge. After collecting all proteins to eliminate possible same proteins, we estimated that there are 407 different proteins including chloroplast, chloroplast stroma, lumenal, and thylakoid membrane proteins excluding 20 proteins, which were identified in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. A combination of these three programs (PSORT, TargetP, TMHMM, and TOPPRED) was found to provide a useful tool for evaluating chloroplast localization, transit peptide, transmembranes, and also could reveal possible alternative processing sites and dual targeting. Finally, we report also sub-cellular location specific protein interaction network using Cytoscape software, which provides further insight into the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis. The present work helps understanding photosynthesis process in wheat at the molecular level and provides a new overview of the biochemical machinery of the thylakoid in wheat.

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잔디와 시금치의 Thylakoid Membrane으로부터 엽록소-단백질 복합체의 분리와 그 특성 (The Isolation and Characterization of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes in Thylakoid Membranes from Zoysia japonica and Spinach oleracea)

  • 김병규;장남기
    • 아시안잔디학회지
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 1990
  • The chlorophyll-protein complexes were separated from thylakoid membranes of Spinach oleracea and Zoysia japonica by two gel Systems of LiDodSO4-PAGE and LiDodSo4/Urea- PAGE under nondenaturing conditions. Seven chlorophyll~protein complexes of CPI*, CPI, CPII*. CP47, CP43, CP29 and CPII were fractionated from both S,oleracea and Zjaponica by LiDodSO4-PAGE. CPI, CP47 and CP43 contained more chlorophyll a than chlorophyll b. The patterns of their absorption spectra at room temperature were similliar to that of chlorophyll a, judging by their UV-spedtroscopy. On the other hand, CPII* and CPII contained approximately equim-olar quantities of chlorophyll a and b. Additional five chlorophyll-protein complexes not separated in the LiDodSO4-PAGE system were electrophoretically isolated from both S, oleracea and Zjaponica by LiDodSO4/Urca-PAGE. The chlorophyll-protein complex just above LRCII $\alpha$in the gel appears CCII-RC separeted recently. 23 kDa and 20 kDa cho-protein complexes is probably LHCIa and LHCIb as judged from their molecular weight. Two novel chlorophyll~protein complexes designated "CPI7" and "CPI6" were fractionate by this gel system. Their molecular weights respectively. Although the stoichiometry of their components and their roles in thylakoid membranes are not apparant, It is thought that they are another kinds of LHCI.other kinds of LHCI.

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인삼(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) 잎의 생장과정에 따른 엽록체 미세구조 및 틸라코이드막 단백질의 변화 (Changes of Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins during Growth of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Leaf)

  • 안정숙;박훈;김우갑
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1995
  • The formation of thylakoid membrane proteins and changes in the chloroplast ultrastructure of ginseng leaf were investigated as a function of time following the leaf emergence. The leaf chloroplast obtained just after the leaf emergence showed short rod-like thylakoids which were connected and arranged in 3~4 layers along the longitudinal axis of the chloroplast. The 10 DAE (days after emergence) chloroplast started to form grana structure. The typical grana structure was observed 17 DAE, and the grana was fully developed 28 DAE. The membrane proteins obtained from just after emerging leaf were separated into many minor bands indicating no CP-complex formation yet. LHC II was detected after 10 days. CP 47 and CP 43 were detected after 17 days. After 28 days, the PS I and PS II proteins were distinctly separated into CP 1, LHC II, CP 47, CP 43, CP 29, CP 27+24. Thus, the appearance of the light harvesting protein, LHC II, which was concentrated in grana stacks, was consis tent in time with the formation of grana stacks 17 DAE. Key words Chloroplast ultrastructure, grana, CP-complex, LHC II.

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녹화중인 녹두 자엽의 엽록소-단백질 복합체 및 색소체막 단백질의 변화에 미치는 Spermine의 효과 (Effects of Spermine on Changes in Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes and Plastic Membrane Proteins of Mung Bean Cotyledons during Greening)

  • 홍정희;박흥덕
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.335-344
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    • 1995
  • Spermine이 녹화중인 녹두자엽의 엽록소-단백질 복합체(CPs) 및 틸라코이드막 단백질의 변화에 미치는 효과를 조사하였다. 녹화가 진행됨에 따라 Cps형성이 촉진되었으며, 특히 광계의 엽록소-단백질(CP I)이 다량 추척되었다. 광수화 엽록소 단백질(LHCP)은 48시간의 초기 녹화과정에서 중요한 단백질로 나타났다.Spermine처리는 초기녹화과정에서 틸라코이드막의 CPs 축척에 효과적이었다. 색소체막 단백질은 녹화과정에서 많은 변화를 나타내었는데, 56kD단백질은 전 엽록체체서 다량 관찰되었꼬 24kD 단백질은 전 처리구에서 뚜렷한 증가를 보여주었다.Spermine처리에 의해 틸라코이드막 단백질 형성은 대조구에 비해 다소 증가되었다. 이러한 결과들로부터 spermine은 녹화과정에서 색소체의 발달과 색소체막의 안정화에 중요한 작용을 하는 것으로 생각된다.

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인삼 Light Harvesting Chlorophyll Protein의 특성 및 엽소병에서 Singlet Oxygen($^1O_2$) Quenching (Characteristics of Light Harvesting Chlorophyll-Protein Complex and Singlet Oxygen ($^1O_2$) Quenching in Leaf-burning Disease from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)

  • 양덕조;이성택
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 1989
  • 인삼엽소병(leaf-burning disease) 원인과 light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein(LHCP) complex의 solar energy 분배능력과의 상호 연관성을 조사하기 위한 기초 연구로써 인삼 thylakoid의 chlorophyll-protein(CP) complex의 조성 및 특징을 조사하였다. 인삼의 CP-complex는 non-denaturing SDS-PAGE 방법에 의해 4개 bands로 분리되었으며 각 band는 Bassi와 Dunahay의 결과에 따라 CPI(PSI의 reaction center와 LHCP I antennae), CP I(PSI reaction center), LHCP II(LHCP II)의 oligoform), 그리고 LHCP II(PS II antennae; CP29, CP26)로 확인되었다. 인삼의 LHCP II 는 양지식물인 spinach, soybean과 비교해 볼 때 오히려 인삼의 band intensity가 더 높았으며, CP I band는 인삼에서만 분리되었다. 인삼 CP-complex band의 absorption 및 fluorescence spectra, chlorophyll a.b ratio 에서도 비교식물과 차이를 나타내었다. Thylakoid membrane의 polypeptide 함량은 인삼에서 비교식물에 비해 현저히 낮은 polypeptide 함량은을 나타내었다. SDS-PAGE에 의한 polypeptide pattern은 band의 수나 band intensity에서 비교식물과 차이를 나타내었으며, 특히 29-35 kD, 55 kD과 60 kD 근치에서 현저한 band intensity 차이를 확인하였다. Specific $^1O_2$에 의해 chl. a가 60%, chl.b는 90%, 그리고 carotenoid는 70%가 파괴되는 것으로 확인되었다.

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