• Title/Summary/Keyword: Titanium

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A Study on the Material Characteristics and Functionality Evaluation of a Size Layer of a Canvas (캔버스 차단층(Size Layer)의 재료특성 및 기능평가 연구)

  • Kim, Hwan Ju;Lee, Hwa Soo;Chung, Yong Jae
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.167-178
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    • 2016
  • Despite the size layer is an important part for conserving the artworks in the configuration of oil painting, the conservation scientific approaches of that have not been made yet. Therefore, this study produced standard samples on the basis of the analysis results of oil painting works, and carried out the evaluation of functions of the size layer materials. As a result of literature material, traditionally, animal glue was used for the size layer, whereas synthetic resin have been used in combination with animal glue since the modern age, in particular, it was identified that Polyvinyl Acetate(PVAc) was in general use. As a result of analysis of oil painting works, size layer was detected on the support and it was identified as animal glue. As a result of analysis based on Funaoka canvas for ground, it showed that the lead oxide and the titanium dioxide were the main constituents. On the basis of these results, standard samples were produced. As a result of evaluation on the functions of the size layer materials, in the case of the animal glue, stable result was observed in the shrinkag expansion rate, whereas slight weakness was observed in moisture proofing, color, and tensile strength, and dense cracks were found on surface. As for PVAc(A), moisture proofing, color, and the tensile strength exhibited stable results. Higher shrinkage rate was observed and the cracks with wide gaps were found on surface. As for PVAc(B), tensile strength, shrinkage expansion rate, and surface observation showed stable results, whereas moisture proofing property showed poor results. Different aspects were observed in each experiment, and this phenomena were considered to be due to the density and the adhesion properties between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules in the size layer materials. The results are expected to be used as materials for the oil painting work conservation henceforth.

The Study on Preparation and Characterization of Yellow Ceramic Pigment (황색세라믹안료의 제조 및 특성연구)

  • Kwon, Myon-Joo;Ha, Jin-Wook
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.504-509
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to manufacture a high-performance titanium yellow pigment. Anatase type $TiO_2$ was the skeleton of the pigment and $Sb_2O_3$ is used as the color assistant for the coloring agent, $Cr_2O_3$. Mixed raw materials for the pigment were $TiO_2$(98%), $Sb_2O_3$(99.5%), and $Cr_2O_3$(99.5%). The raw materials were mixed by a dry process and crystallized by calcination at $1,000{\sim}1,200^{\circ}C$. The crystalline material was pulverized in a Jar Mill under $1{\mu}m$ by a wet process and dried for 12 hours at $100^{\circ}C$. The pigment was finally made by a fine grinding process. To determine the best temperature for calcination, 4 temperature sections ($1000^{\circ}C$, $1100^{\circ}C$, $1150^{\circ}C$, and $1200^{\circ}C$) were set up. The X-ray diffraction peak of the rutile crystalline structure was highest at $1,150^{\circ}C$. The yellow ceramic pigment, which has the rutile structure, was applied for coating materials. The synthesized pigments underwent a discoloration tests on the acid resistance, alkaline resistance, weather resistance and heat resistance. In addition, a detection test on harmful heavy metals ($Cr^{+6}$) was done. The resulting values (${\Delta}E$) of the weather resistance test (2000hr), acid resistance test, alkaline resistance test, and heat resistance test were 0.74, 0.16, 0.07 and 0.29. The resulting value for heavy metals testing was 34ppm.

The Effect of Cyclic Load on Different Femoral Fixation Techniques in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (전방십자인대 재건시 이식건의 대퇴골측 고정에 대한 주기성인장부하의 효과)

  • Song Eun-Kyoo;Kim Jong Seok
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To determine and to compare the effects of cyclic loading on the fixation strength of different femoral fixation methods in ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Biomechanical test using an Instron(R) machine (Model No.5569. Mass, U.S.A) were carried out to compare the pull out strength of six different femoral fixation techniques after a cyclic loading in 72 Yorkshire pig knees. The graft-bone complex was cyclically loaded between 30N and 150N at 50 mm/min rate for 1000 cycles and maximal tensile testing was performed. A preload of 30N was applied to the graft along the axis of the tunnel 15 minutes. ANOVA and the Duncan multiple comparison test was used for the statistical analysis. Results: The mean maximum tensile strength of femoral fixation before and after the cyclic loading test were 1003.4$\pm$145N and 601.1$\pm$154N in hamstring-LA screw(R) group, 595.5$\pm$104N and 360.7$\pm$56N in hamstring-Bioscrew(R) group, 1431.7$\pm$135N and 710.7$\pm$114N in hamstring-Semifix(R) group, 603.6$\pm$54N and 459.1$\pm$46N in hamstring-Endobutton(R) fixation group, 1067.4$\pm$145 and 601.8$\pm$134N in the BPTB-Titanium interference screw group, and 987.1$\pm$168N and 588.7$\pm$124N in the BPTB-Bioscrew(R) group. And these data illustrated that cyclic loading reduces the maximum tensile strength by 40 $\%$, 39 $\%$, 50 $\%$, 24 $\%$, 44 $\%$, 40 $\%$ respectively. Conclusions: With the results of these experiments it should be emphasized that rehabilitation exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should be executed with precaution as the repetitive flexion and extension of the knee would compromise the maximum tensile strength of the graft tendon.

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Effect of rhPMP-2 coated implants on alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs (성견에서 골형성단백질이 코팅된 임플란트가 치조골 증대에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chan-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Eun;Shin, Ju-Hee;Ryu, Jae-Jun;Huh, Jung-Bo;Shin, Sang-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of rhPMP-2 coated implants on alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. Materials and methods: Six Beagle dogs were used in this study. Six 8.0 mm long anodized surface titanium implants were placed 5 mm into the mandibular alveolar ridge following 6 month of healing period after extraction. Each animal received three implants coated with rhBMP-2 and three uncoated control implants using the randomized split-mouth design. Radiographic examinations were undertaken immediately at implant placement (baseline), at weeks 4 and 8 after implant placement. The amount of bone augmentation was evaluated by measuring the distance from the uppermost point of the coverscrew to the marginal bone. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) values were measured immediately at implant placement and 8 weeks after implant placement. For the statistical analysis, Man-Whitney ranksum test and Wilcoxon signed rank test of SPSS 12.0 software were used (P=.05). Results: The BMP group exhibited radiographic vertical bone augmentation about $0.6{\pm}0.7$ mm at 8 weeks later while controls showed bone loss about $0.4{\pm}0.6$ mm. There was significant difference among the rhBMP-2 group and controls in bone level change (P<.05). The ISQ values were significantly higher in the BMP-2 group than the control group at 8 weeks later (P<.05), while there was no significant difference at surgery. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the rhBMP-2 coated on anodized implant could stimulate vertical alveolar bone augmentation, which may increase implant stability significantly on completely healed alveolar ridge.

The influence of intentional mobilization of implant fixtures before osseointegration (골유착전 임플란트 고정체의 의원성 동요가 골결합에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Jin-Hyun;Jo, Kwang-Heon;Cho, Sung-Am;Lee, Kyu-Bok;Lee, Cheong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mobilization on bone-implant interface prior to osseointegration of fixtures. Materials and methods: The experimental implants (3.75 mm in diameter, 4.0 mm in length) were made of commercially pure (Grade IV) titanium, and were treated with RBM ($MegaGen^{(R)}$: Ca-P). The 80 implants (two in each tibia) were inserted into the monocortical tibias of 20 rabbits which each weighed more than 3.5 kg (Female, New Zealand White). According to the removal torque interval, the groups were divided into 10 groups, Group I (6 wks), Group II (4 days+6 wks), Group III (4 days+1 wk+6 wks), Group IV (1 wk+6 wks), Group V (1 wk+1 wk+6 wks), Group VI (2 wks+6 wks), Group VII (2 wks+ 1 wk+6 wk), Group VIII (3 wks+6 wks), Group IX (3 wks+1 wk+6 wks) and Group X (10 wks). The control groups were Group I and X, the removal torque was measured at 6 wks and 10 wks with a digital torque gauge (Mark-10, USA). In the experimental groups, the removal torque was given once or twice before the final removal torque and the value was measured each time. After which, the implants were put back where they had been except the control groups. All the experimental groups were given a final healing time (6 wks) before the final removal torque test, in which values were compared with the control groups and the 1st and/or 2nd removal torque values in each experimental group. Results: In the final removal torque tests, the removal torque value of Group X (10 wks) was higher than that of Group I (6 wks) in the control groups but not statistically different. There were no significant differences between the experimental groups and control groups (P>.05). In the first removal torque comparison, the experimental groups (4 days or 1 wk) values were significantly lower than the other experimental groups (2 wks or 3 wks). In the comparison of each experimental group according to healing time, the final removal torque value was significantly higher than the 1st torque test value. Conclusion: Once or twice mobilization of fixture prior to osseointegration did not deter the final bone to implant osseointegration, if sufficient healing time was given.

Brazing characteristics of $ZrO_2$ and Ti-6Al-4V brazed joints with increasing temperature (브레이징 온도 변화에 따른 $ZrO_2$와 Ti-6Al-4V의 접합 특성)

  • Kee, Se-Ho;Park, Sang-Yoon;Heo, Young-Ku;Jung, Jae-Pil;Kim, Won-Joong
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: In this study, brazing characteristics of $ZrO_2$ and Ti-6Al-4V brazed joints with increasing temperature were investigated. Materials and methods: The sample size of the $ZrO_2$ was $3mm{\times}3mm{\times}3mm$ (thickness), and Ti-6Al-4V was $10mm(diameter){\times}5mm(thickness)$. The filler metal consisted of Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti was prepared in powder form. The brazing sample was heated in a vacuum furnace under $5{\times}10^{-6}$ torr atmosphere, while the brazing temperature was changed from 700 to $800^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. Results: The experimental results shows that brazed joint of $ZrO_2$ and Ti-6Al-4V occurred at $700-800^{\circ}C$. Brazed joint consisted of Ag-rich matrix and Cu-rich phase. A Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds and a Ti-Sn-Cu-Ag alloy were produced along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. Thickness of the reacted layer along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface was increased with brazing temperature. Defect ratios of $ZrO_2$ and Ti-6Al-4V bonded interfaces decreased with brazing temperature. Conclusion: Thickness and defect ratio of brazed joints were decreased with increasing temperature. Zirconia was not wetting with filler metal, because the reaction between $ZrO_2$ and Ti did not occur enough.

The influence of iatrogenic mobilization in the initial stage of implant installation on final osteointegration (임플란트 식립 초기 의원성 동요가 최종 골결합에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Myeong-Bae;Cho, Jin-Hyun;Lee, Du-Heong;Lee, Cheong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of present investigation was to find out the influence of several times iatrogenic mobilization in the initial stage of implant installation on bone-implant osteointegration. Materials and methods: The experimental implants (3.75 mm in diameter, 8.0 mm in length) were made of commercially pure (Grade IV) titanium, and were treated with RBM ($MegaGen^{(R)}$: Ca-P) on lower 4.0 mm part. Only lower part of implant was inserted to bone and the implants were nonsubmerged. The 130 implants (two in each tibia) were inserted into the monocortical tibias of 33 rabbits which each weighed more than 3.5 kg (Female, New Zealand White). According to the removal torque interval, the groups were divided into 13 groups, group I (1 day), group II (1 day + 2 days), group III (1 day + 2 days + 3 days), group IV (1 day + 2 days + 3 days + 4 days), group V (2 days), group VI (2 days + 4 days), group VII (2 days + 4 days + 6 days), group VIII (2 days + 4 days + 6 days + 8 days), group IX (4 days), group X (4 days + 7 days), group XI (4 days + 7 days + 10 days), group XII (4 days + 7 days + 10 days + 14 days) and control group. In the control group, the removal torque was measured at 8 weeks with a digital torque gauge (Mark-10, USA). In the experimental groups, the removal torque was given once, twice, three times or four times by experiment design before the final removal torque and the value was measured each time. The implants were then screwed back to their original positions. All the experimental groups were given a final healing time of 8 weeks after placement, in which values were compared with the control groups and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th removal torque values in each experimental group. Results: In comparison of the final removal torque tests among experimental groups, the removal torque value of experimental groups except group XII were not statistically different that of control group. And the values of group I and II were significantly higher than the values of group VI, VIII, X, XI, and XII. In addition, the values of group III, IV, and V were significantly higher than group XI and XII. In comparison of the removal torque in the each experimental group, the final removal torque were significantly higher in all groups except group VIII, X, XI, and XII. Conclusion: If sufficient healing time was allowed, a few mobilization of fixture at the very early stage after the implant placement in the rabbits didn't interrupt the final bone to implant osseointegration.

Electrical resistivity characteristics for cement specimens with TiO2 according to activated carbon content (활성탄 함유량에 따른 광촉매(TiO2) 시멘트 시편의 전기비저항 특성)

  • Kong, Tae-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Won;Ye, Ji-Hun;Ahn, Jaehun;Oh, Tae-Min
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.591-610
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    • 2020
  • Concrete with activated carbon and titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used to reduce the particulate matter (PM) in underground structures (e.g., tunnels) due to the high performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) abatement. Damage (e.g. crack, spalling, or detachment) can be caused by the environmental and ageing effects on the surface of the particulate matter reduction concrete, installed on the tunnel lining. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the existence of spalling on the concrete surface for maintaining performance of NOx reduction. In this study, a basic research was performed for feasibility of spalling evaluation using electrical resistivity characteristics. Given the test results, the electrical resistivity was decreased as the ratios of activated carbon (0~15%) and TiO2 (0~25%) were increased for specimens. Under a dry condition, electrical resistivity of cement specimens, mixed with activated carbon and TiO2, was decreased up to 2.3 times, compared with the normal cement specimen. In addition, under saturation conditions (degree of saturation: 85~98%), electrical resistivity of cement specimens with activated carbon, was decreased up to 3.5 times, compared with the normal cement specimen. Regardless of the condition (dry or saturated), the difference of electrical resistivity values shows the range of 2.3~2.8 times between the mixing specimen (with activated carbon (15%) and TiO2 (25%)) and the normal cement specimen. This study can help to provide basic knowledge for spalling evaluation using the electrical resistivity on the surface of the particulate matter reduction concrete in tunnels.

A Study of Waterproofing Evaluation and Effect of UV Protection (UVB/UVA) of Multiple Emulsion Sunblock Cream using Sensory Engeeneering Science (감성공학을 적용한 다중에멀젼 선블록크림의 자외선차단(UVA/B) 효과와 내수성 평가 연구)

  • Kim, In-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.1517-1527
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    • 2020
  • This study is about the UV protection effect and water resistance of a multiple emulsion (W/O/W) sunblock cream applied with emotional engineering and reports an actual industrial case. Multiple emulsion system of sunblock cream has the characteristics of changing to a W/O type that is soft and moist when applied, and has excellent water resistance after absorption. Multiple emulsion cream is a highly functional sunblock cream that has both moisture and water resistance. It is a stable milky white cream with a viscosity of 36,000 cps. The organic sunscreen used for the sunscreen was ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate and bisethylhexyloxyphenolmethoxyphenyltriazine. Hexagonal zinc oxide and titanium dioxide that block both UVB and UVA were used. As a result of measuring the UV protection effect by the in-vitro method, the UV protection effect (SPF) is 78.9 for multiple emulsion cream, 76.7 for W/O cream, and 71.3 for O/W cream. It was found that the blocking effect was different. This obtained the highest effect value in the multiple emulsion. As a clinical (in-vivo) result of the UV protection effect, the SPF value representing the UV protection effect of the sunblock cream developed with a multiple emulsion system was 85.7, and the PA-value that blocks the UVA area was 26.5, and ++++. It was found that it has a corresponding high blocking effect. As a result of the water resistance test, the W/O/W formulation had a high waterproofing resistance of 93.8% even after 4 hours, W/O had 75.4%, and O/W had a low water resistance of 25.3%. In the results of the HUT test, it was found in the order of multiple emulsion sun block cream > hydrophilic cream > lipophilic cream. Based on the research results of this multiple emulsion, it is expected to be highly active as a sunblock cream dedicated to outdoor activities by improving the feeling of use, UV protection index, and water resistance. Therefore, in this study, a multiple emulsion system of sunblock cream is developed and has a characteristic that changes to a W/O type that has a soft and moist feeling when applied, and has excellent water resistance after absorption.

The Analytical Study of Pigments on Fourguardian Statues in Song-gwang Buddhist Temple in Suncheon - Focusing on Pigments of Virupaksha - (순천 송광사 소조사천왕상 채색안료의 자연과학적 분석 - 서방광목천왕상 채색안료를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Han Hyoung;Park, Ji Hee;Hong, Jong Ouk;Han, Min Su;Seo, Min Suck;Heo, Jun Su
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.122-147
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    • 2012
  • The Four-guardian statues in Song-gwang buddhist temple, Suncheon, Korea, have been remade in AD 1628 and have been repaired and repainted over several times since then. Therefore, the study of the pigments applied on the statues can provide good chance for investigation about pigments used in the late Chosun Period. Pigments on fragments from Gwang-mok(Virupaksha), one of the Four-guardian statues, have been analyzed by optical microscope, SEM-EDX and XRD in order to identify the components and compounds. Six types of materials were found from the fragments, which are soil layer with brown clay band, soil layer containing a lot of fibers, Korean paper with loose texture, Korean paper with dense texture, silk, and hemp textile. Presumably, the soil layer which have brown clay band is basis layer and the other layers are repaired layers. From comparative study for the components of the pigments, applied on upper and lower parts of the repaired layers, we have concluded that those repaired layers had been applied on the statue by the following order; basis layer ${\rightarrow}$ Korean paper with loose texture ${\rightarrow}$ soil containing a lot of fibers ${\rightarrow}$ silk ${\rightarrow}$ hemp textile and Korean paper with dense texture. In addition, the years that those materials were applied on the statue have been estimated as 1720~1891, 1926, 1946 and 1976, respectively. The distinct features of each age are as the following; lead white and copper chloride hydroxide are major white and green pigments before 1891, zinc white, barium white, emerald green, and ultramarine blue appear after 1926 and titanium white uprises around 1976. Our result presented here, study on pigments applied on traditional statues over several different periods, will provide good database for future study on pigments used for traditional painting in Buddist temples and Dancheong.