• Title, Summary, Keyword: Toll Booth

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A Survey on the Status of Air Pollution around Toll Booth of Expressway -Around Seoul and Suwon Toll Booth- (고속도로 요금소 주변의 대기오염에 관한 조사연구 -서울 및 수원 요금소를 중심으로-)

  • 이윤재;김정철;김광종;송동빈;차철환;권영근
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 1988
  • To improve working environment for the toll workers who were working at Kyungbu expressway in outskirts of Seoul and Suwon, the status of air pollution surrounding toll booth were measured from March 28 through June 14, 1986. The results were as follows: 1. The amount of TSP (total suspended particle) surrounding toll booth was directly proportional to the traffic load. The ratio of traffic load at Seoul and Suwon toll was 3.2:1 and of TSP was 2.6:1. 2. The proportion of particle larger than 5$\mum$ was 24.8 $\sim$ 34.9% of TSP at Seoul toll and 19.2 $\sim$ 32.7% at Suwon. The proportion of particle less than 2$\mum$ was 38.7 $\sim$ 51.8% of TSP at Seoul toll and 34.8 $\sim$ 54.8% at Suwon. 3. The concentration of respirable particle les than 7$\mum$ measured by personal air sampler was higher in Seoul toll booth than that of Suwon and it seems to be influenced by the exhausion of diesel engine. Especially the concentration of respirable particle of reformed toll booth with air curtain was 20% lower than unreformed one. 4. Concentration of Pb among suspended particles around Seoul toll was 5 times higher than Pb of Suwon toll. So it is considered that there were other possible pollution source of Pb beyond heavy traffic in Seoul toll area. The amount of Pb inside toll booth was extremely small but the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene showed a trend of increase according to traffic stagnation. 5. The concentration of $SO_2$ arround toll showed no difference between weekday and weekend and also showed no relation with traffic load. But the concentration of $NO_2$ was affected by traffic load.

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Characteristics of Airborne and Deposited Dust in Expressway Toll Booths (고속도로 톨게이트 부스의 공기 중 분진 및 침착 분진 특성)

  • Nam, Mi Ran;Jung, Jong-Hyoen;Phee, Young Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the total dust, size-selective dust, and heavy metal concentrations generated inside and outside toll booths on an expressway and to identify the source through analysis of the components of the deposited dust. Methods: A total of 32 samples were collected from eight expressway toll booths. Each total dust sample was collected using a 37 mm PVC filter attached to a personal air sampler. Heavy metal samples were collected according to NIOSH method 7300. The size-selective dust concentrations were identified using a DustMate, and deposited dust was analyzed by WD-XRF and UHR-FE-SEM. Results: The geometric mean concentrations of the total dust inside and outside the toll booths were 337.5 ㎍/㎥ and 342.7 ㎍/㎥, respectively. The overall concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were higher on the outside of the toll booths, as the particle size of dust was larger, and higher in the underground passage as the dust size was smaller. The real-time analysis of the dust concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 revealed to be higher at morning and evening times than other times because of heavy traffic. The element components of deposited dust in the toll booth were related to natural sources rather than artificial sources. Among the chemical components in the deposited dust analyzed by WD-XRF, SiO2 was the highest. For the elements analyzed by UHR-FE-SEM, C was the highest, followed by O, and Si. Conclusions: In order to reduce the dust concentrations around toll booths on an expressway, it is necessary to periodically clean surrounding areas such as underground passages, and it is also necessary to remove deposited dust inside the toll booth from time to time.

A Study to Reduce the Waiting Time in the Toll Gate (고속도로 매표방법 개선에 관한 연구)

  • 조면식
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1994
  • Most of the companies are forced to cut down the manufacturing cost to survive in the competitive environment. Among others, material distribution cost alone takes substantial portion of the total manufacturing cost. In this study, we investigate the waiting phenomenon in the toll gate and propose a new toll booth layout to reduce the waiting time, thereby reduce the total material distribution cost. SIMAN, a simulation language, is employed to evaluate the proposed layout. The experimental results show that the layout reduces the waiting time significantly. Furthermore, the result indicates that determination of the intermediate buffer space affects the performance of the proposed layout.

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A Case Study of Evaluation for Lane Layout of Toll Plaza including Multi-lane ETCS (다차로 ETCS 도입 시 영업소 동선 처리 사례 연구)

  • Han, Dong-Hee;Choi, Yoon-Hyuk;Lee, Ki-Young;Jeong, So-Young
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 2017
  • There is a two lane ECTS(Electronic Toll Collection System) that users can pass with 80kph high speed in SeoBusan Tall Gate. This system to be combined two hi-pass lanes for removing meddle-island have been operated successfully. But, the appearance of two Lane ETCS makes toll gate more complicated, so it is very important how to arrange effectively various tolling lanes. This study was trying to evaluate lane configuration for minimizing speed and speed deviation among all kinds of lanes including two Lane ETCS in seoul toll gate. That is, we selected all scenarios to be happened actually, and evaluated them using micro traffic simulation model (VISSIM). The results of this study showed that each alternative had a very different speed and speed deviation by lane each other, so we will be able to achieve effective operation and configuration of lanes in toll gate using scenario methodology.

Exposure Assessment of PM10 in Expressway Toll Booths (고속도로 톨게이트 부스 내 공기 중 PM10의 노출평가)

  • Nam, Mi Ran;Phee, Young Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study was conducted in order to evaluate $PM_{10}$ concentrations at eight highway tollgate booths from July to September 2017. Methods: A total of 16 samples were collected from eight toll booths. Each $PM_{10}$ sample was collected using a 37 mm PTFE filter attached to a Personal Environment Monitor. Results: The geometric mean concentrations of $PM_{10}$ in the toll booths was $83.51{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean $PM_{10}$ concentrations measured on freight roadways were much higher than those of measured on general roadways($102.46{\mu}g/m^3$ and $68.05{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively). $PM_{10}$ was revealed to be higher in the morning($105.59{\mu}g/m^3$) than at dawn or in the afternoon($71.26{\mu}g/m^3$ and $61.22{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively). The mean $PM_{10}$ concentration in toll booths ventilated through an air conditioner was higher than that for those using a window or no ventilation. The rate of exceeding the Ministry of Environment Maintenance Limit($200{\mu}g/m^3$) was 6.25%, and the rate of exceeding the Ministry of Labor Recommended Limit($150{\mu}g/m^3$) was 12.5%. Conclusions: In order to protect the health of toll booth workers exposed to airborne dust, it is necessary to check the exposure level from indoor air quality on a regular basis and to manage it appropriately according to the results.

Estimation of Hi-pass Traffic Dispersion Rates to Determine The Optimal Location of Hi-pass Lanes at A Toll Plaza (요금소 하이패스 차로 배치 최적화를 위한 하이패스 차량 교통분산율 추정)

  • Lee, Jaesoo;Lee, Ki-Young;Lee, Cheol-Ki;Yun, Ilsoo;Yu, Jeong Whon
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.22-32
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    • 2013
  • Since the percentage of vehicles equipped with Hi-pass, an electronic toll collecting device, has increased rapidly, it is very crucial to determine the optimal location of Hi-pass lanes at a toll plaza in terms of traffic control and operation. In this study, the appropriateness of existing Hi-pass lanes of a toll plaza is evaluated considering its physical geometry and traffic characteristics. A new evaluating criterion called "traffic dispersion rate" is developed in order to measure the level of traffic spreading across the toll booth lanes at a toll plaza. Logistic regression models are constructed to estimate the relationship between the traffic dispersion rate and its affecting variables. The model estimation results show that several variables including Hi-pass lane traffic volume, length of toll plaza, entering/exiting taper lengths, and locations of Hi-pass lanes. The results also suggest that traffic dispersion rate can be increased by adjusting the location of Hi-pass lanes. The study enables us to quantify traffic dispersion rate which can be used to optimize the location and operation of Hi-pass lanes at toll plazas.

Design and Implementation of an Interface Module for the ETC System using Mobile Phone (휴대폰 기반 ETC시스템을 위한 인터페이스 모듈 설계 및 구현)

  • Shin Song-Ah;Yim Joe-Hong
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.881-889
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    • 2004
  • Using the ETC Service, it is now possible to charge a vehicle for driving pass a specific toll booth electronically, without the vehicle even having to slow down. The smart card and card reader used to collect tolls electronically have a serious problem which it dose not have a standard for the ETC system. In this paper, we suggest the ETC system using mobile phone to collect tolls efficiently instead of existing system which is consist of a Interface Module to connect between a mobile phone and OEE, a mobile phone to send the information of tollgate fees and OEE to communication with RSE of roadway in the vehicle. This primary focus of this system is the IM functions and protocol to assist of the existing mobile phone and OBE.

Network Calibration and Validation of Dynamic Traffic Assignment with Nationwide Freeway Network Data of South Korea (고속도로 TCS 자료를 활용한 동적노선배정의 네트워크 정산과 검증)

  • Jeong, Sang-Mi;Kim, Ik-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2008
  • As static traffic assignment has reached its limitation with ITS policy applications and due to the increase of interest in studies of ITS policies since the late 1980's, dynamic traffic assignment has been considered a tool to overcome such limitations. This study used the Dynameq program, which simulates route choice behavior by macroscopic modeling and dynamic network loading and traffic flow by microscopic modeling in consideration of the feasibility of the analysis of practical traffic policy. The essence of this study is to evaluate the feasibility for analysis in practical transportation policy of using the dynamic traffic assignment technique. The study involves the verification of the values estimated from the dynamic traffic assignment with South Korea's expressway network and dynamic O/D data by comparing results with observed link traffic volumes. This study used dynamic O/D data between each toll booth, which can be accurately obtained from the highway Toll Collection System. Then, as an example of its application, exclusive bus-lane policies were analyzed with the dynamic traffic assignment model while considering hourly variations.

A Study on the Method of Highway Hi-pass Lane Arrangement and Operation (고속도로 영업소 하이패스 차로배치 및 운영에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Soo Beom;Lim, Joon Beom;Joo, Sung Kab
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.22-33
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    • 2013
  • Currently average daily traffic using Hi-pass has increased over 3 times that of 2008 and more than half of highway traffic now uses High-pass. At this juncture, reassessment on the overall operation of Hi-pass is required to improve the safety aspect of toll booths and the flow of traffic. Although existing Hi-pass operation manual presents the methods of alignment, they do not reflect actual forms of vehicles and do not properly take the safety of toll booth and flow of the traffic into consideration. In order to compensate these problems, this study classifies highway tollbooths into two categories of mainline type and interchange type, and establishes the standard of lane alignment by traffic conflict analysis based on the types divided according to geometric structure or environment around the tollbooths. In addition, traffic flows around the tollbooths were reflected with the stage to arrange Hi-pass lanes according to the volume of traffic on the lanes for Hi-pass.

Job Stress among Highway Toll Gate Cashiers (고속도로 요금소 요금 수납원 직무스트레스에 관한 연구)

  • Na, JeongYeon;Kwon, Minji;Kim, DooYoung;Park, YoungHwa;Seo, JungEun;Shin, MinCheol;Kim, HeeJi;Kim, HwaIl;Ryu, Hyangwoo;Cho, ManSu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.370-381
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The rate at which the nationwide highway is outsourcing the duties of toll gate cashiers to the public is increasing. The aim of this study is to conduct research on job stress for the rate at which the fares are collected by national highway toll gate cashiers. Methods: The population selected was a statistically significant group making up 10% of the total number of people surveyed in 2015, with a population of approximately 5,495 persons. The sample size is intended to cover the maximum sample size of 550 samples and the maximum number of samples that should be obtained. After allocating the number of samples by quota allocation, the qualitative function of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was applied by random sampling. Results: Job stress ranked at $46.6{\pm}11.5$ points was found to be under the stress of 50% reported in other occupations. Job stress items showed higher for "job instability" compared to other types of tasks. Also, it appeared lower in "conflict in relationships." This is a result of the work characteristics of highway service operators. Conclusions: Time was found to have the highest influence on the workload (${\beta}=0.80$, p. 0.001), which calls for a reduction in time and workload. est influence on the workload (${\beta}=0.80$, p. 0.001), which requires a reduction in time and workload.