• Title, Summary, Keyword: Traditional medicine

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Effects of Korean Traditional Cheonggukjang Added with Job's Tears on Body Weight Gains and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet (율무청국장이 고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 체중변화 및 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ju-Hun;Lee, Kyung-Won;Cho, Kyung-Dong;Kim, Sung-Soo;Lee, Bog-Hieu;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Han, Chan-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.409-415
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of Cheonggukjang added with Job's tears (CAJT) on antiobesity and lipid profiles on diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet only (A, control), and high-fat diet with Cheonggukjang powder 10% (B), CAJT powder 10% (C), Cheonggukjang powder 20% (D), CAJT powder 20% (E) for 5 weeks. Body weight gains were similar in the experimental groups, but FER was significantly lower in the group E than group A (p<0.05), and adipose tissue weights in groups with Cheonggukjang and CAJT powder were similar to those in the group A. The lengths of small intestine were significantly longer in the groups B, C, D, and E than the group A (p<0.05). Hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were similar to each other. Fecal weights were not significantly different among the groups. Fecal TC concentrations were similar in the experimental groups, but fecal TG concentrations were greatly increased in the groups B, D, and E (p<0.05). The serum TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels varied slightly among the groups, but serum TG levels were decreased in the group D and E than in the group A (p<0.05). The AI and CRF were marginally decreased in the groups B, D, and E than in the group A (p<0.05). However, blood glucose levels were not significantly different among the groups. From the findings, it had shown that Job's tears Cheonggukjang could improve lipid profiles.

Determination of S-Allyl-L-cystein, Diallyl Disulfide, and Total Amino Acids of Black Garlic after Spontaneous Short-term Fermentation (자가숙성발효 후 흑마늘의 S-Allyl-L-cystein, Diallyl Disulfide 및 Total Amino Acids 분석)

  • Kim, Mun-Su;Kim, Min-Ju;Bang, Woo-Suk;Kim, Keun-Sung;Park, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.661-665
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    • 2012
  • Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants and has been used throughout the world as a food supplement and a folk medicine for thousands of years. Raw garlic has been processed into a variety of commercial garlic products for consumer convenience. The latest new processing technology, 'spontaneous short-term fermentation', has been developed to process raw garlic into black garlic. The physiologically active effects of garlic have been attributed to its organosulfur compounds. In this study, the proximate compositions and the total amino acid content of raw Namhae garlic and black garlic were determined. The two major organosulfur compounds of garlic, $S$-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), and diallyl-disulfide (DADS), were also analyzed using RP-HPLC. The proximate compositions were not different between raw and black garlic. The amount of 13 amino acids was greater in black garlic than in raw garlic among a total of 17 amino acids considered. The black garlic had 2-fold higher levels of SAC and 30-fold higher levels of DADS than the raw garlic. Therefore, it is suggested that consuming black garlic produced by spontaneous short-term fermentation is more effective than consuming raw garlic, in order for consumers to take more physiologically active organosulfur compounds (SAC and DADS), which are the compounds that are good for consumer health.

Immunostimulatory Effects of Purple Bamboo Salts Composed with Rubus coreanus in Raw264.7 Cells and Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages (복분자 자죽염의 마우스 대식세포주 및 복강 대식세포에 대한 면역증진 효과)

  • Park, Heejeon;Kim, Sokho;Jeong, Sohee;Park, Heeran;Kim, Jin-Hyung;Song, Jiyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.306-313
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    • 2017
  • Purple bamboo salt (PuBS) is commonly used as a medicinal food in Korea and has beneficial potentials such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Rubus coreanus is called Bokbunja, which is used as a traditional medicine for treating asthma, impotence, and allergic diseases in Korea. The aim of present study was to investigate the immunostimulatory effect of PuBS composed with Rubus coreanus (PuBS-R). We performed comparative analysis between PuBS and PuBS-R in Raw264.7 cells, which is a mouse macrophage cell line, and peritoneal macrophages isolated primarily from the mouse peritoneal cavity. We evaluated cytotoxicity and the immune cytokine response in PuBS- and PuBS-R-treated cells. Both PuBS and PuBS-R did not have any cytotoxicity in Raw264.7 cells up to $500{\mu}g/mL$. Gene and protein levels of immune cytokines such as tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$), $interferon-{\gamma}$ ($IFN-{\gamma}$), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12 were significantly elevated by PuBS-R more than PuBS in Raw264.7 cells. Moreover, we evaluated the immunostimulatory effects of PuBS-R on mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. Protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IFN-{\gamma}$, IL-10, and IL-12 were significantly higher in PuBS-R-treated peritoneal macrophages than PuBS-treated peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest the potential immunostimulatory effect of PuBS-R for immunity against harmful infection.

A Nutritional Analysis of Chinese Red-headed Centipedes (Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans) from Different Regions of Korea (지역에 따른 국내산 왕지네(Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (Arthropoda:Chilopoda))의 영양성분 및 유해물질 비교분석)

  • Kim, Sun Young;Lee, Kyeong Yong;Kim, Hong Geun;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Yoon, Hyung Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1308-1314
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    • 2017
  • The Chinese red-headed centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, a member of the arthropod class Chilopoda, is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of several allergic diseases, such as atopy. S. subspinipes mutilans samples were collected from different regions of South Korea: Sancheong, Gyeongnam; Yeonggwang, Jeonnam and Jeju-do. The nutritional values of the centipedes were analyzed to extend the species' applications. The crude protein and fat contents of all samples were high and ranged from 54.9-55.8% and from 26.8-30.6%, respectively. Essential amino acids were present; lysine was the most common and accounted for 3.4-3.6% of the essential amino acids. Glutamic acid, which assists in improving concentration, memory and other cognitive abilities, was the most common non-essential amino acid at 6.8-7.1%. It had a similar content percentage in all three regions' samples. Additionally, unsaturated fatty acids were present, and oleic acid, which prevents cancer and cardiac disease, was the most common at 41.3-48.6% of each sample. Mercury, a hazardous substance, was detected at a range of 0.08-0.11 mg/kg in all samples; the amount was lower than the standard food allowance. Additionally, no pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., were detected. There were no significant differences between the nutritional factors of the S. subspinipes mutilans samples from the three regions. Based on the nutritional analysis, Chinese red-headed centipedes have the potential to be food and medicinal ingredients due to their proteins, essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids and nutritive capacities.

Inhibitory Effects of Extracts from Arabis glabra on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 장대나물 추출물의 Nitric oxide 및 Prostaglandin E2생성 저해효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Jong-Taek;Kim, Yul-Ho;Kim, Ki-Deog;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Lee, Jong-Nam;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Sohn, Hwang-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Bo-Sung;Shin, Ji-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2015
  • Arabis glabra is a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, This plant is often used in Korean traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for blood cleaning, detoxification, abscess, gastrospasm, arthritis, contraction and diarrhea. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of A. glabra using the ethanolic extract and its sub-fractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on RAW 264.7macrophages. Our results indicated that hexane and chloroform fraction significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in the cells. The hexane fraction inhibitory activity for NO tests with IC50 values showed in 21.0 ㎍/㎖. The chloroform fraction inhibitory activity for PGE2 tests with IC50 values showed in 18.0 ㎍/㎖. These efficacy are expected to be able to present the potential for the development of health functional food for the prevention inflammatory diseases because it has sufficient preventive medical possibilities. Further, it is determined that it is necessary to further study the mechanism of cytokine and protein expression associated with inflammation.

Effect of Fermented Cirsium japonicum Extract on Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (엉겅퀴 발효 추출물을 통한 남성 갱년기 증상 개선 효과)

  • Jeong, Byung Seo;Kim, Seong Hoon;Kim, Hyun Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.790-800
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    • 2017
  • As men get older, total testosterone levels decline gradually, and concentrations of free and bioavailable testosterone decline sharply with each decade beyond their 30s. Andropause or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a decrease in sexual satisfaction or decline in general well-being accompanied by low levels of testosterone in older men. This male climacteric is characterized by nervousness, reduced potency, decreased libido, irritability, fatigue, depression, memory problems, sleep disturbances, and hot flushes. Cirsium japonicum (CJ) is used as a traditional medicine for hemorrhage, blood congestion, and inflammation in Korea. However, there is no report on the efficacy of CJ treatment for TDS. In this study, we observed the mitigating effect of CJ extract (CE) and fermented CJ extract (FCE) on symptoms of TDS. In elderly male rats, total and testosterone levels, hind limbs muscles, forced swimming time, and total and motile sperm counts significantly increased after daily intake of CE and FCE for 6 weeks. In contrast, sex hormone binding globulin, retroperitoneal fat, total serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in CE and FCE groups. However, there was no difference in prostate specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels among all groups, which means CE and FCE did not have putative adverse effects. In a cell experiment, we also observed that CE and FCE enhanced expression of genes related to testosterone biosynthesis but reduced genes involved in testosterone conversion. On the whole, these positive effects on TDS were greater in FCE compared to CE. Thus, these results suggest the potential of FCE as a promising natural product for recovering testosterone levels and alleviating TDS.

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia Serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro

  • Ahmed, Hanaa H;Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A;Hassan, Amal Z;Kotob, Soheir E
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7179-7188
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    • 2015
  • Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate ${\beta}$-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, $^1H$ NMR and $^{13}C$ NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and ${\beta}$-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of pent-2-ene-1,4-dione, 2-methyl- levulinic acid methyl ester, 3,5- dimethyl- 1-hexane, methyl-1-methylpentadecanoate, 1,1- dimethoxy cyclohexane, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene and 17a-hydroxy-17a-cyano, preg-4-en-3-one. GC/MS analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of sabinene (19.11%), terpinen-4-ol (14.64%) and terpinyl acetate (13.01%) as major constituents. The anti-cancer effect of two extracts (1 and 2) and four fractions (I, II, III and IV) as well as volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines was investigated using SRB assay. Regarding HepG2 cell line, extracts 1 and 2 elicited the most pronounced cytotoxic activity with $IC_{50}$ values equal 1.58 and $5.82{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to doxorubicin with an $IC_{50}$ equal $4.68{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. With respect to HCT 116 cells, extracts 1 and 2 exhibited the most obvious cytotoxic effect; with $IC_{50}$ values equal 0.12 and $6.59{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to 5-fluorouracil with an $IC_{50}$ equal $3.43{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. In conclusion, total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin proved their usefulness as cytotoxic mediators against HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines with different potentiality (extracts > fractions > volatile oil). In the two studied cell lines the cytotoxic acivity of each of extract 1 and 2 was comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. Extensive in vivo research is warranted to explore the precise molecular mechanisms of these bioactive natural products in cytotoxicity against HCC and CRC cells.

Anti-adipogenic Activity of Cortex ulmi pumilae Extract in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (유근피 추출물의 3T3-L1지방전구세포의 분화 억제 효능에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Hyun Young;Jin, Soojung;Nam, Soo Wan;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kim, Sung Gu;Kim, Byung Woo;Kwon, Hyun Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.137-147
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    • 2014
  • Cortex ulmi pumilae, the cortex of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, has been used in traditional folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory effect. Although its various bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer, have been reported, the anti-adipogenic activity of cortex ulmi pumilae remains unclarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cortex ulmi pumilae extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatment with cortex ulmi pumilae extract significantly reduced the formation of lipid droplets and triglyceride content in a dose-dependent manner; this is associated with an inhibition of the adipogenic transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ${\alpha}$ ($C/EBP{\alpha}$), $C/EBP{\beta}$, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$). In addition, cortex ulmi pumilae extract treatment during the early stage of adipogenesis showed more efficient anti-adipogenic activity than treatment during other stages of adipogenesis. Cortex ulmi pumilae extract also inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1 arrest of 3T3-L1 cells in the early stage of adipogenesis. This was associated with upregulated expression of Cdk inhibitor p21 and downregulated expression of cyclin E and phospho-Rb, indicating that cortex ulmi pumilae extract blocks mitotic clonal expansion by cell cycle regulation. Taken together, these results suggest that cortex ulmi pumilae extract possesses anti-adipogenic activity through the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by blocking mitotic clonal expansion.

Hepatoprotective and Anticancer Activities of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae (장수풍뎅이 유충의 간보호 효능 및 항암활성)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Jo, Da-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Park, Hye-Kyung;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 2015
  • Beetle larvae have been used as a traditional medicine to treat various human liver diseases. To prove the liver protective function of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we induced liver damage by the intraperitoneal injection of a hepatotoxic reagent, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to C3H/HeN male mice and orally administered freeze-dried ADL powder. ADL powder lessened DEN-induced hepatotoxicity considering the reduced signs of acute and chronic hepatotoxicities, such as the ALP level in the blood serum, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, ductural reactions, steatotic hepatocytes, and collagen deposition of the Masson’s trichrome staining. In addition to hepatoprotection, the anti-cancer activity of ADL has been examined. The ADL powder was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, and water by a solvent partition technique. The ethyl acetate fraction showed cytotoxicity to various cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and necrosis, as well as the perturbed metabolism of the cancer cell to trigger autophagy. Collectively, ADL contains bioactive substances that can protect hepatocytes from toxic chemicals and trigger cell death in cancer cells. Thus, further purification and analyses of ADL fractions could lead to the identification of novel bioactive compounds.

The Anti-angiogenic Potential of a Phellodendron amurense Hot Water Extract in Vitro and ex Vivo (in Vitro와 ex vivo에서 황백 온수추출물의 신생혈관 억제효과)

  • Kim, Eok-Cheon;Kim, Seo Ho;Bae, Kiho;Kim, Han Sung;Gelinsky, Michael;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.693-702
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    • 2015
  • Blocking new blood-vessel formation (angiogenesis) is now recognized as a useful approach to the therapeutic treatment of many solid tumors. The best validated approach to date is to target the vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) pathway, a key regulator of angiogenesis. Many natural products and extracts that contain a variety of chemopreventive compounds have been shown to suppress the development of malignancies through their anti-angiogenic properties. Phellodendron amurense, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine, has been shown to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. The present study investigated the effects of P. amurense hot-water extract (PAHWE) on angiogenesis, a key process in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties, this study’s authors performed an analysis of angiogenesis and endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as zymogram assays and the rat aortic ring-sprouting assay. PAHWE inhibited cell growth, mobility, and vessel formation in response to VEGF in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, it reduced VEGF-induced intracellular signaling events, such as the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These results indicate that PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties might lead to the development of potential drugs for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cancer.