• Title, Summary, Keyword: Traffic accident

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Management and Supporting System on the Occupational Health Nursing Services Provided in Group Occupational Health Agencies of Korea (소규모 사업장 보건관리대행기관의 간호업무 운영관리 지원체계)

  • Yoo, Kyung-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.193-211
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the management and support system affecting to the occupational health nursing services(OHNS) provided in group occupational health agencies(GOHA). Questionnaire was developed and distributed to 82 nurses who were working in GOHA and who agreed to participate in the survey. The results were as follow: 1. OH nurses responded were mostly in the age of twenty to thirties(89%), married(73.7%), technical college graduates(88.9%), worked in hospital(85.4%) and participated more than 1 year in group occupational health services (96.3%). 2. Fifty eight point four percent of the OH nurses worked in number of workplace more than 30 to less than 60 in the OHNS form. The figure of workplaces undertaken by nurses was ranged greatly from 9 to more than 100. Number of employees who cared by nurses were mostly under 5,000 peoples in 93.3%. The types of industry was mostly manufacturing and located in the order of factory complex area, suburban, urban and others. 3. Most OH nurses(87.8%) were fully involved in the OHNS for the SSE. Their working days to visit SSE was 5 days per week(77.8%) and one day in the GOHA at 41.3%. 4. The OH documents using by nurses were found in more than 23 different types. However, they were largely summarized in the types of 'Workplace Health Management Card', 'Personal Health Counselling Card', 'Daily Health Management Report', 'Visiting List of Workplace' and 'Sick Employee List'. 5. The items of laboratory test provided by GOHA were mostly achieved in the purpose of basic health examination. They were used to be the blood pressure check(98.8%), blood sugar test (98.8%), urine sugar and protein(91.4%), SGOT and SGPT(85.3% each), cholesterol (82.9%), hepa vaccine immunization(82.9%), r-GPT(81.7%), hemoglobin(79.3%) and triglyceride(75.5%). 6. The OH nurses(92.7%) followed the work pattern to visit the GOHA before and after small-scale enterprises(SSE) visit by car driven by nurses in 74.3%. They were payed by GOHA for transportation fees in certain amounts. However, nurse is the main person(75.0%) who covers up in case of traffic accident. If the GOHA has no transportation regulation for the formal workplace visit, data showed that nurses had been responsible to take charge(31.7%). 7. The personnel manager who takes in charge for nursing services was 'nurse' in 61.7% and 41.2% worked as the final decision maker related to nursing work. The OH nurses' opinions about factors affecting to the management were classified in the four areas such as 'Nature(Quality) of health professional'. 'Content of OHNS', 'Delivery system of the GOHS', and 'Others'. The factors were indicated highly in 'Authority as health professional', 'Level of perception of director on the OH' and 'Physical work condition for OHNS'. The things that this study suggests in the recommendation would be summarized in such as the management and supporting system working for SSE in the OHNS is necessary to reform thoroughly. The reconsidered aspects might be in the matters of number of workplaces undertaken by nurses, development of effectively practical health documents, preparation for guideline of the laboratory test in the workpleces, establishment of convenient and encouraging support system and cooperation between other health professionals with respect and skill.

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Complications of PCL Reconstruction using Tibial Inlay Technique (경골 Inlay 방법을 이용한 후방 십자 인대 재건술의 합병증)

  • Kim Myung-Ho;Park Hee-Gon;Yoo Moon-Jib;Byun Woo-Sup;Shim Shang-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: This study was planned to evaluate complications? of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with tibial inlay technique using autogenous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Materials and Methods: From September 1994 to January 2004, we analyzed surgical complications in fifty-seven patients with fifty-eight cases who underwent PCL reconstruction. Fifty of them were male and seven female. The mean age of the patients was 35(15$\~$73). Twenty eight cases of injury were isolated PCL, while thirty cases had associated injury of knee. The causes of injury were thirty-nine cases of traffic accident, seven sport injuries, seven fall down injuries, and five of others. The follow-up study was done at 4 weeks, 3 months,6 months and 1 year after surgery. KT-2000 arthrometer and posterior stress X-ray were used to examine the stability of the knee joint and the Lysholm Knee Score and a variety of clinical complications were evaluated. Results: Although the mean score of the preoperative Lysholm Knee Score was 43.2, the postoperative score was increased to 87.9. The preoperative mean value of knee stability using KT-2000 arthrometer was 8.75 mm(6.2$\~$14.3 mm) but the postoperative mean was 3.41 mm(2.1$\~$10.6 mm). The intraoperative complications were: one case of popliteal artery injury with compartment syndrome, one case of patellar fracture, two cases of 20$^{\circ}$ flexion loss, and two cases of anterior cortical penetration of the screw through proximal tibia during screw fixation. The postoperative complications were: eleven cases of knee instability, one case of patellar fracture, five cases of extension loss, thirteen cases of flexion loss, twenty-one cases of around knee pain and eight cases of kneeling pain. Conclusion: After PCL reconstruction with tibial inlay technique using autogenous bone-patella tendon-bone graft, complications were observed in this study. Careful attention during and after the operation, as well as rehabilitation must be required.

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A Study on Significance Testing of Driver's Visual Behavior due to the VMS Message Display Forms on the Road (도로상 VMS 표출방식별 운전자 유의성 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Kum, Ki-Jung;Son, Young-Tae;Bae, Deok-Mo;Son, Seung-Neo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2005
  • Variable Message Sign (VMS), which provides drivers with direct information about state of traffic congestion and for prevent an accident, is the most effective method among the methods of providing information in Advanced Transportation Management System. Currently establishment and the VMS which is operated foundation lets in Guidelines on the use of Variable message sign (a book of the VMS) of 1999 November the Ministry Construction & Transportation, these contents mean main viewpoint on physical part such as message special quality variable (font, character size and line space, word interval) and position mainly among standard about establishment in general. But, it is true that using without effect verification on the character of VMS display and that using mode of stationary-centered. In this paper, it executed significance test to effort verification on the character of VMS display for more practical and effective information transmission based on the driver viewpoint For the researches; develop 3D-Simulation, select characteristics of driver's visual cognition behavior (the conspicuity, the legibility and the comprehensibility), evaluation each issue (day or night, 80km/h or 100km/h). Especially, that used the Eye Marker Recorder to measure of reading-time (legibility) thus, confirmed objectivity and reduce an observational error. The results showed that the conspicuity is Flashing> Stationary>Scroll. The legibility is not deference that Flashing between stationary form. Also the comprehensibility result showed that Flashing> Stationary>Stroll form.

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Comparative study of acupuncture and invasive laser acupuncture therapy at $SI_3$.$BL_{40}$ on the tibial, sural nerve injury and L5 spinal nerve ligation model in rats (백서(白鼠)의 신경병리성(神經病理性) 동통(疼痛)에 대한 후계(後谿).위중(委中) 혈위(穴位) 호침료법(毫鍼療法)과 레이저 침습조사(侵襲照射) 침료법(鍼療法)과의 비교(比較) 연구(硏究))

  • Wei, Tung-Sheun;Youn, Dae-Hwan;Youn, Yeo-Chung;Na, Chang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.9-24
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    • 2005
  • Objective: We have studied the effects of acupuncture and low level He-Ne laser therapy(LLLT) at $SI_3$, $BL_{40}$ on the tibial, sural nerve injury due to sports-damage or traffic accident and L5 spinal nerve ligature model like general herniation of nucleus pulposus(HNP) in a rat of neuopathic pain. Methods: A model of neuropathic pain was made by injuring tibial nerve and sural nerve while common peroneal nerve was maintained. Also, it was made by isolating left 5th lumbar spinal nerve. Three weeks after the neuropathic surgery, acupuncture and LLLT was injected at $SI_3$,$BL_{40}$ one time a day for one week. LLLT was divided three groups, that is LLLT-1(5mW), LLLT-2(10mW) and LLLT-3(30mW). After that, we examined the withdrawal response of neuropathic rats' legs by Von frey filament and acetone stimulation. And also we examined c-Fos, Nocieptin and KOR-3 in the midbrain central gray of neuropathic rats. Results: As we have observed the effect of mechanical allodynia, LLLT-3 group were diminished on 4 day, 5 day, 6 day and 7 day in the resection model compared with control model, LLLT-1 group were diminished on 5 day, LLLT-2 group were diminished on 3 day and 6 day, LLLT-3 group were diminished on 3 day, 4 day, 5 day, 6 day and 7 day in connected model compared with control group. As we have observed the effect of cold allodynia, LLLT-3 group were diminished on 7 day in the resection model compared with control model, LLLT-1 group were diminished on 6 day, 7 day, LLLT-3 group were diminished on 7 day in connected model compared with control group. As we have observed the effect of activity of c-Fos in the central gray part, LLLT-3 were diminished in resection model compared with control group, LLLT-1 group were diminished in connected model compared with control group. As we have observed the effect of activity of Nociceptin in the central gray part, resection model were not increased compared with control group, LLLT-1 group and LLLT-3 group were increased in connected model compared with control model. As we have observed the effect of activity of KOR-3 in the central gray part, resection model were not increased compared with control group, LLLT-3 group were increased in connected model compared with control model. Conclusions: We have noticed that LLLT-1 and LLLT-3 group have more controllable effect than acupuncture group. This study can be used in clinical therapy for neuropathic pain. But it is not reliability that Nociceptin and KOR-3 have effectively to control pain. Therefore We have to follow up about that.

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New attempt on the Autonomous Vehicles Act based on criminal responsibility (자율주행자동차 사고시 형사책임에 따른 '자율주행자동차의 운행과 책임에 관한 법률안' 시도)

  • Lee, Seung-jun
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.53
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    • pp.593-631
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    • 2017
  • Like the technological competition of each country around commercialization of Autonomous Vehicles(the rest is 'AV'), legalizations are also in a competition. However, in the midst of this competition, the Ethik-Kommission Automatisiertes und vernetztes Fahren of Germany has recently introduced 20 guidelines. This guideline is expected to serve as a milestone for future AV legislations. In this paper, I have formulated a new legislative proposal that will incorporate the main content presented by the Ethik-Kommission. The structure is largely divided into general rules of purpose and definition, chapter on types of AV and safety standards, registration and inspection, maintenance, licenses for AV, driver's obligations, insurance and accident responsibilities, roads and facilities, traffic system, and chapter on penalties. The commercialization of AV in Korea seems to be in a distant future, and it is possible to pretend that it is not necessary to prepare legal systems. But considering our reality, leading legislation may be necessary. In this paper, I have prepared individual legislative proposals based on the essential matters based on the criminal responsibility in case of AV car accidents. To assure the safety of AV, AV and mode of operation were defined for more clear interpretation and application of law, and basic safety standards for AV were presented. In addition, the obligation of insurance and the liability for damages were defined, and the possibility of immunity from the criminal responsibility was examined. Furthermore, I have examined the penalties for penalties such as hacking in order to secure the effectiveness of the Act. Based on these discussions, I have attempted the 'Autonomous Vehicles Act', which aims to provide a basis for new discussions to be held on the basis of various academic fields related to the operation of AV and related industries in the future. Although there may be a sense of unurgency in time, the automobile industry needs time to prepare for the regulation of the AV ahead of time. And a process of public debate is also needed for the ecosystem of healthy AV industry.

Significance of Bone Scan in Chest Trauma (흉부외상에서 골스캔의 의의)

  • Kim, Soo-Sung;Kim, Soon
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.454-459
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    • 2002
  • Clinical analysis of the relation between the clinical data of chest trauma patients and bone scan results was done to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of bone scan for the diagnosis of rib or chondral fracture. Material and Method: 445 patients treated due to chest trauma in Dongguk University Kyungju Hospital from July 1998 to December 2001 were studied. Age and sex distribution, causes of chest trauma, interval from the injury to arrival at hospital, final diagnosis, relationship between the chest pain and bone scan results, relationship between local tenderness and bone scan results, and sensitivity and specificity of bone scan were studied. Result: The male was 61.6% and the female was 38.4%. Age distribution was nearly even from the twenties to the sixties. The traffic accident was the most common cause of chest injury(60.4%). Most patients(76.6%) were arrived to the hospital within 6 hours after chest trauma. Rib fracture was the most common final diagnosis(46.5 %). The relationship between the duration of chest pain and tenderness and the bone scan results were significant, and the same in the relationship between the duration of local tenderness and the bone scan results, but the latter is more significant. The sensitivity of bone scan was 99.4% and the specificity was 90.4%. Conclusion: If the patient complains the chest pain continuously and the local tenderness around the chest is continued over 3 weeks, it is good to perform the bone scan. Further study including the MRI may be helpful for more evaluation in chest trauma patients.

Aviation Safety Regulation and ICAO's Response to Emerging Issues (항공안전규제와 새로운 이슈에 대한 ICAO의 대응)

  • Shin, Dong-Chun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.207-244
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    • 2015
  • Aviation safety is the stage in which the risk of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management. Many accidents and incidents have been taking place since 2014, while there had been relatively safer skies before 2014. International civil aviation community has been exerting great efforts to deal with these emerging issues, thus enhancing and ensuring safety throughout the world over the years. The Preamble of the Chicago Convention emphasizes safety and order of international air transport, and so many Articles in the Convention are related to the safety. Furthermore, most of the Annexes to the Convention are International Standards and Recommended Practices pertaining to the safety. In particular, Annex 19, which was promulgated in Nov. 2013, dealing with safety management system. ICAO, as law-making body, has Air Navigation Commission, Council, Assembly to deliberate and make decisions regarding safety issues. It is also implementing USOAP and USAP to supervise safety functions of member States. After MH 370 disappeared in 2014, ICAO is developing Global Tracking System whereby there should be no loophole in tracking the location of aircraft anywhere in world with the information provided by many stakeholders concerned. MH 17 accident drove ICAO to install web-based repository where information relating to the operation in conflict zones is provided and shared. In addition, ICAO has been initiating various solutions to emerging issues such as ebola outbreak and operation under extreme meteorological conditions. Considering the necessity of protection and sharing of safety data and information to enhance safety level, ICAO is now suggesting enhanced provisions to do so, and getting feedback from member States. It has been observed that ICAO has been approaching issues towards problem-solving from four different dimensions. First regarding time, it analyses past experiences and best practices, and make solutions in short, mid and long terms. Second, from space perspective, ICAO covers States, region and the world as a whole. Third, regarding stakeholders it consults with and hear from as many entities as it could, including airlines, airports, community, consumers, manufacturers, air traffic control centers, air navigation service providers, industry and insurers. Last not but least, in terms of regulatory changes, it identifies best practices, guidance materials and provisions which could become standards and recommended practices.

A Study on Collection and Usage of Panel Data on On-board Job Taking and Separation of Korean Seafarers (한국선원의 승선과 이직에 대한 패널자료 구축과 활용방안)

  • Park, Yong-An
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.149-163
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    • 2016
  • Seafarers are an essential resource in maritime industries, which provide navigation skills, vessel maneuvering skills and fishing skills in the fishery industry. They also work as a driving force in pilotage, port operation, vessel traffic service, and marine safety. Other areas in maritime services, which rely on seafarer include safety management of ships, supervisory activities, and maritime accident assessment. In these ways, Korean seafarers have contributed to the growth of Korean economy. However, there have been issues of high separation rate, shortage of supply, multi-nationality, multiplicity of culture caused by employment of foreign seafarers, and aging. The present paper finds that maritime officers and fishery officers demonstrate differences in the statistics of on-board job taking and separation: the separation rate of fishery officers is higher than that of maritime officers. The existing data and statistics by the Korea Seafarer's Welfare & Employment Center could be improved by changing its structure from time series to panel data. The Korea Seafarer's Welfare & Employment Center is the ideal institution for collecting the panel data, as it has already accumulated and published relevant statistics regarding seafarer. The basic design method of the panel data is to adopt and improve it by including the information on ratings of maritime and fishery industries, ranks in a ship, personal information, family life, and career goal. Panel data are useful in short- and long-term forecasts of supply of Korean seafarers; demand evaluation of education, training, and reeducation of the seafarers; demographical dynamic analysis on Korean seafarers; inducement policy of long-term on board job taking in harmony with man-power demands in marine industries such as pilotage service; implementation of job attractiveness policy on Korean seafarers; and employment stabilization of Korean seafarers.

A Study on the Risk of Conflict between Elderly or Non-elderly Pedestrians and Vehicles (고령/비고령 보행자와 차량간의 상충위험도 측정연구)

  • JANG, Jeong Ah;LEE, Hyunmi;CHOI, Keechoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.499-510
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    • 2017
  • Traffic accident fatalities in Korea in 2016 was 4,292 and 1,732 cases were deaths of elderly people. In spite of this, the researches on behaviors of the elderly when crossing roads, are rather limited. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze road crossing behavior characteristics of the elderly, when crossing roads, especially focusing on the characteristics of pedestrians and vehicles. Cross-sectional data was collected from six different sites in two regions and the following results was identified. First, at road crossings, 528 cases(84.3%) out of 626 conflict situations of the elderly and 303 cases(63.3%) out of 478 conflict situations of the non-elderly pedestrians were found to be dangerous, respectively. The elderly tend to face a statistically significant risk of 3.11 times higher than that of non-elderly people. Second, 519 cases(82.9%) of jaywalking occurred in 626 conflict cases of the elderly and 375 cases(78.5%) of jaywalking in 478 conflict events of non-elderly persons, which indicates the elderly's 1.34 times higher trend compared with the non-elderly's. Third, the pedestrian safety margin (PSM) analysis showed that the PSM of the elderly and the non-elderly were 3.33 seconds and 4.04 seconds respectively, which is 17.5% high. Fourth, the difference in pedestrian safety interval was examined by dividing the speed of approaching vehicle into less than 30km/h, above 30km/h and less than 50km/h, and over 50km/h. There was no significant difference between the PSM of coming vehicles with the speed less than 30km/h and the PSM of approaching with the speed 30km/h~50km/h, but the conflicts with vehicle of the speed above 50km/h show significantly lower PSM than with vehicle speed of 30km/h~50km/h. Finally, when the risk threshold is set to less than 2.5 seconds, the analysis shows that older pedestrians tend to cross roads dangerously 1.59~2.53 times than younger pedestrians. The results set forth here can be used as a basis for constructing the elderly safety measures at present and a potential basis for autonomous vehicle safety application in the future for solving the issue of the difference in crossing behavior between elderly and non-elderly pedestrians.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE TRAUMATIC INJURIES IN THE PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH (유치와 영구치의 외상에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Su-Kyung;Choi, Nam-Ki;Kim, Seon-Mi;Yang, Kyu-Ho;Park, Ji-il
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.642-651
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to give basic information of traumatic injuries of primary and permanent teeth which can be used for diagnosis and management of injured teeth. From January 2003 to July 2007, 570 children with 1394 teeth who came to pediatric dentistry and emergency center of Chonnam National University Hospital due to the traumatized teeth participated in this study. The following data were investigated. : age, sex, causes and places of trauma, position of injured teeth, types of injury, and treatment at the first visit. 1. Trauma prevailed at the age of 1, $6{\sim}8$, $17{\sim}18$ and the rate of males was more likely to be higher than the rate of females(1.9 : 1). 2. The main cause of injury is a fall-down injury for primary and mixed dentition, but is a traffic accident and fighting for permanent dentition, respectably. The place of injury for primary dentition is mainly home(45.3%), while street for mixed and permanent dentition. 3. The position of injured teeth according to the area in the mouth is mainly maxillary anterior teeth in both case of primary and permanent teeth and especially, the ratio of central incisors is high. 4. The periodontal tissue injury occurred the most frequently in the primary and the permanent teeth, but the ratio of hard tissue injury in the permanent teeth increased, compared with the primary teeth. 5. Among treatments at the first visit, observation without actual treatment comprised 75.6% in the primary teeth and 55.4% in the permanent teeth, respectably. The pulp necrosis occurred in 20.3% of the primary teeth and 26.6% of the permanent teeth in the case of the periodontal tissue injuries, respectably.

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