• Title, Summary, Keyword: Unicellular marine cyanobacteria

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Current Status of Photobiological Hydrogen Production Technology Using Unicellular Marine Cyanobacterial Strains (단세포성 해양남세균 종주를 이용한 광생물학적 수소생산 기술)

  • Park, Jong-Woo;Kim, Jae-Man;Yih, Won-Ho
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2009
  • Among various microscopic organisms producing photobiological hydrogen, cyanobacteria have long been recognized as the promising biological agents for hydrogen economy in 21 century. For photobiological production of hydrogen energy, marine unicellular $N_2$-fixing cyanobacteria have been evaluated as an ideal subgroup of Cyanophyceae. To develope the hydrogen production technology using unicellular $N_2$-fixing cyanobacteria, 3 important factors are pre-requisite: 1) isolation of the best strain from marine natural environment, 2) exploration on the strain-specific optimal conditions for the photobiological hydrogen production, and finally 3) application of the molecular genetic tools to improve the natural ability of the strain to produce hydrogen. Here we reviewed the recent research & development to commercialize photobiological hydrogen production technology, and suggest that intensive R&D during next 10-15 years should be imperative for the future Korean initiatives in the field of the photobiological hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic marine unicellular cyanobacterial strains.

Optimal Temperature for H2 Production and Population Growth of the N2-fixing Unicellular Cyanobacterial Strains from Korean Coasts (한국 연안산 질소고정 단세포 남세균 종주의 최적 성장 및 수소생산 온도)

  • Park, Jongwoo;Kim, Hyungseop;Yih, Wonho
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2013
  • Photobiological hydrogen production by nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria has long been considered to be an environmentally sound and very promising method for the future supply of renewable clean energy. Using six Korean nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterial strains and the Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG043511 we performed cultivation experiments to find out the strain-specific optimal temperature for population growth and $H_2$ production. Under $20^{\circ}C$ the population growth of all the tested strains was significantly retarded in contrasts to the faster and higher growth under 25, 30 or $35^{\circ}C$. The highest growth rates in all the 7 strains were measured under $30^{\circ}C$ while the maximal biomass yields were under $30^{\circ}C$ (strains CB-MAL 026, 054, and 055) or $35^{\circ}C$ (strains 002, 031, 058, and Miami BG043511). The difference between the maximal biomass yields at $30^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$ was not greater than 10%. The quantity of photobiologically produced $H_2$ was only slight larger under $35^{\circ}C$ than that under $20^{\circ}C$. Our result may suggest a two-step process of $H_2$ production which includes rapid and sizable production of biomass at $30^{\circ}C$ and the following high $H_2$ production at $20^{\circ}C$ by the test strains of marine nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria.

Evidence on the Presence of $tRNA^{fMet}$ Group I Intron in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus

  • Muralitharan, Gangatharan;Thajuddin, Nooruddin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2008
  • Self-splicing group I introns in tRNA anticodon loops have been found in diverse groups of bacteria. In this work, we identified $tRNA^{fMet}$ group I introns in six strains of marine Synechococcus elongatus. Introns with sizes around 280 bp were consistently obtained in all the strains tested. In a phylogenetic analysis using the nucleotide sequence determined in this study with other cyanobacterial $tRNA^{fMet}$ and $tRNA^{Leu}$ intron sequences, the Synechococcus sequence was grouped together with the sequences from other unicellular cyanobacterial strains. Interestingly, the phylogenetic tree inferred from the intronic sequences clearly separates the different tRNA introns, suggesting that each family has its own evolutionary history.

Biofilm Formation and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Two Rhizospheric Unicellular Cyanobacteria

  • Ahmed, Mehboob;Stal, Lucas J.;Hasnain, Shahida
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1015-1025
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    • 2014
  • Microorganisms that live in the rhizosphere play a pivotal role in the functioning and maintenance of soil ecosystems. The study of rhizospheric cyanobacteria has been hampered by the difficulty to culture and maintain them in the laboratory. The present work investigated the production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the potential of biofilm formation on the rhizoplane of pea plants by two cyanobacterial strains, isolated from rice rhizosphere. The unicellular cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 that were isolated from a rice rhizosphere, were investigated. Production of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 was measured under experimental conditions (pH and light). The bioactivity of the cyanobacterial auxin was demonstrated through the alteration of the rooting pattern of Pisum sativum seedlings. The increase in the concentration of L-tryptophan and the time that this amino acid was present in the medium resulted in a significant enhancement of the synthesis of IAA (r > 0.900 at p = 0.01). There was also a significant correlation between the concentration of IAA in the supernatant of the cyanobacteria cultures and the root length and number of the pea seedlings. Observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of cyanobacteria on the surface of the roots and also provided evidence for the penetration of the cyanobacteria in the endorhizosphere. We show that the synthesis of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 occurs under different environmental conditions and that the auxin is important for the development of the seedling roots and for establishing an intimate symbiosis between cyanobacteria and host plants.

Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Korean $N_2$-fixing Unicellular Cyanobacterial Strains (국내 연안산 질소고정 단세포 남세균 종주의 광생물학적 수소생산력)

  • Park, Jong-Woo;Myung, Geum-Og;Yih, Won-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 2010
  • Photobiological hydrogen production by nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria has long been considered to be an environmentally sound and very promising method for the future supply of renewable clean energy. We tried to find out the optimum cell concentration for $H_2$ production in each of the two new Korean nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterial strains to compare with Synechococcus sp. strain Miami BG043511. The two Korean strains, Cyanothece sp. KNU CB MAL-031 and KNU CB MAL-058, were isolated from Korean west coasts. Cell concentrations up to 17 billion cells $ml^{-1}$ were applied to the tests. High cell concentration over 15 billion cells $ml^{-1}$ resulted in drastically reduced $H_2$ production in all the three strains. The two domestic strains, however, produced 2-3 time more hydrogen than Synechococcus sp. Miami BG043511 at cell concentrations of 5-10 billion cells $ml^{-1}$. At lower cell concentrations than 2 billion cells $ml^{-1}$, MAL-031 exhibited highest $H_2$ production followed by Miami BG043511, with far less production in MAL-058. Present result suggests that Cyanothece sp. MAL-CB031 might be one of the ideal nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterial strains for the photobiological hydrogen production.

Phylogentic Position, Pigment Content and Optimal Growth Condition of the Unicellular Hydrogen-Producing Cyanobacterial Strains from Korean Coasts (한국 연안산 단세포성 수소생산 남세균 종주들의 분류계통, 색소함량 및 최적성장 환경)

  • PARK, JONG-WOO;KIM, JU HEE;CHO, AE-RA;JUNG, YUN-DUK;KIM, PYOUNG JOONG;KIM, HYUNG-SEOP;YIH, WONHO
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2015
  • To set up unicellular cyanobacterial strains with photo-biological $H_2$ production potential, live samples were repeatedly collected from 68 stations in the coastal zone of Korea for the four years since 2005. Among 77 cyanobacterial strains established six (KNU strains, CB-MAL002, 026, 031, 054, 055 and 058) were finally chosen as the excellent strains for $H_2$ production with $H_2$ accumulation over 0.15 mL $H_2\;mL^{-1}$ under general basic $H_2$ production conditions as well as positive $H_2$ production for more than 60 hr. To explore optimum procedures for higher $H_2$ production efficiency of the six cyanobacterial strains, the inter-strain differences in the growth rate under the gradients of water temperature and salinity were investigated. The maximum daily growth rates of the six strains ranged from 1.78 to 2.08, and all of them exhibited $N_2-fixation$ ability. Based on the similarity of the 16S rRNA sequences, all the test strains were quite close to Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 (99%). The six strains, however, were grouped into separate clades from strain ATCC51142 in the molecular phylogeny diagram. Chlorophyll- a content was 3.4~7.8% of the total dried weight, and the phycoerythrin and phycocyanin contents were half of those in the Atlantic strain, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG03511. The growth of the six strains was significantly suppressed at temperatures above the optimal range, $30{\sim}35^{\circ}C$, to be nearly stopped at $40^{\circ}C$. The growth was not inhibited by high salinities of 30 psu salinity in all the strains while strain CB055 maintained its high growth rate at low salinities down to 15 psu. The euryhaline strains like CB055 might support massive biotechnological cultivation systems using natural basal seawater in temperate latitudes. base seawater. The biological and ecophysiological characteristics of the test strains may contribute to designing the optimal procedures for photo-biological $H_2$ production by unicellular cyanobacteria.

Synchronization of Cell Cycle in Korean Hydrogen Producing Cyanobacterial Strains (한국산 수소생산 남세균 종주들의 세포주기 동조화)

  • Park, Jong-Woo;Ahn, Se-Hee;Kim, Hyung-Seop;Yih, Won-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.663-670
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    • 2011
  • Under a daily photoperiod of 14h light and 10h dark synchronization of cell cycle in Korean Cyanothece spp. strains and $Synechococcus$ sp. strain Miami BG043511 was analyzed as to be applicable to enhanced hydrogen production. For all strains peaks of double cell were observed during the light period of a daily cycle. Peaks of maximal cell size measured by a coulter counter appeared at the peak of double cells observed under light microscope reconfirming the synchronization of daily cell cycle. The cell cycle synchronization became weakened within two days when treated with continuous illumination. Rapid detection of the peak time of double cell percentage by coulter counters may contribute to quasi-realtime feedback control for efficient production of photobiological hydrogen by unicellular cyanobacterial strains.