• Title/Summary/Keyword: Weaning pigs

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Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on growth performance, fecal score, and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs

  • Liu, Xiao;Li, Tianshui;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2018
  • Weaning pigs often face post-weaning challenges such as diarrhea, low feed intake, and body weight (BW) loss which affects the health and economic value of weaning pigs. Interestingly, the use of yeast cultures (YCs) as feed supplements for pigs has increased markedly in recent years. This study evaluated the effects of yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the growth performance, fecal score, and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs. A total of 50 crossed healthy weaning pigs [(Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace) ${\times}$ Duroc] with an average BW of $7.46{\pm}1.60kg$ (28 day of age) were used in a 6-week experiment. The experiment was divided into 3 phases (Phase 1, 1 - 2 weeks; Phase 2, 2 - 4 weeks; Phase 3, 4 - 6 weeks). Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) CON: basal diet and 2) CON + 0.50% YC. During phase 1, the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the weaning pigs fed YC supplementation diets compared with the weaning pigs fed the CON diet. During phase 3 as well as overall, the gain/feed ratio (G/F) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the YC supplementation group compared with the pigs fed the CON diet. In conclusion, the supplementation of YCs in the diet positively affected the growth performance of weaning pigs during the first two weeks after weaning.

Effects of semi-floor pens on growth performance and stress in weaning pigs (사육면적 증가를 위한 반층돈사의 활용이 이유자돈의 성장 및 스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Woolim;Lee, Geonil;Hong, Jinsu;Jeong, Jaehark;Kim, Yooyong
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to increased breeding area in same size pig pen and growth performance of weaning pigs. A total of 330 crossbred ($6.68{\pm}0.36kg$) weaning pigs were subjected to a 42-day feeding trial(3 pens/treatment) in which effects of the semi-floor were compared : NC; Negative control ($0.23m^2/pig$; 40 pigs/pen), PC; Positive control($0.30m^2/pig$; 30 pigs/pen) and Semi-floor($0.30m^2/pig$; 40 pigs/pen). There was a significant effect on BW at 6 week along all treatment(P<0.01). There was a effect of Semi-floor treatment on ADG(average daily gain) only during the first 3 week after weaning(P<0.01). No significant effect was observed in the ADFI during the experiment period. NC treatment had significantly lower BUN value than other treatments(P<0.05). The results from immune and stress response with semi-floor suggest that no negative effects in their blood analysis. Consequently, semi floor treatments increased additional breeding area and also growth performance rather than other treatments in weaning pigs.

Acidifier as an Alternative Material to Antibiotics in Animal Feed

  • Kim, Y.Y.;Kil, D.Y.;Oh, H.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1048-1060
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    • 2005
  • Dietary acidifiers appear to be a possible alternative to feed antibiotics in order to improve performance of weaning pigs. It is generally known that dietary acidifiers lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes, improved protein digestibility and inhibiting the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in GI tract. It is also hypothesized that acidifiers could be related to reduction of gastric emptying rate, energy source in intestine, chelation of minerals, stimulation of digestive enzymes and intermediate metabolism. However, the exact mode of action still remains questionable. Organic acidifiers have been widely used for weaning pigs' diets for decades and most common organic acidifiers contain fumaric, citric, formic and/or lactic acid. Many researchers have observed that dietary acidifier supplementation improved growth performance and health status in weaning pigs. Recently inorganic acidifiers as well as organic acidifiers have drawn much attention due to improving performance of weaning pigs with a low cost. Several researchers introduced the use of salt form of acidifiers because of convenient application and better effects than pure state acids. However, considerable variations in results of acidifier supplementation have been reported in response of weaning pigs. The inconsistent responses to dietary acidifiers could be explained by feed palatability, sources and composition of diet, supplementation level of acidifier and age of animals.

Effects of fermented soybean meal on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood profile and fecal microflora in weaning pigs

  • Ding, Zhenyu;Chang, Kyung Hoon;Kim, Inho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • A nutrition study on weaned pigs using fermented soybean meal was done to determine the effect on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood profile and fecal microflora. A total of 100 weaning pigs with an initial average body weight (BW) of 8.27 ± 1.10 kg were randomly allotted into 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. There were 10 replicate pens in each treatment with 5 pigs per pen. The dietary treatments included: 1) control: Basal diet (CON); 2) fermented soybean meal (FSBM): Basal diet supplemented with 5% fermented soybean meal. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) was significantly improved (p < 0.05) with the dietary supplementation of the FSBM compared with the control meal during phase 2. The dietary supplementation with 5% FSBM had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on gain to feed ratio (G : F) during the overall experiment period. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that dietary supplementation of 5% fermented soybean meal improved the body weight and average daily gain (ADG), ADFI, and feed efficiency of the weaning pigs; however, there were no supplementation effects on total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, energy, blood profile and fecal microflora.

Effects of Fat Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Traits and Intestinal Morphology in Weaning Pigs

  • Jung, H.J.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1035-1040
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fat sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum traits and intestinal morphology in weaning pigs. A total of 128 weaning pigs (Landrace${\times}$Large White${\times}$Duroc, $21{\pm}2$ days of age, $5.82{\pm}0.13kg$ of average initial body weight) were allotted in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four treatments: 1) corn oil, 2) soybean oil, 3) tallow and 4) fish oil. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. During phase I period (d 0 to 14), pigs fed corn oil or soybean oil diet tended to show higher ADG and FCR than any other treatments although there was no significant difference. During phase II period (d 15 to 28), pigs fed corn oil diet showed better ADG and ADFI than pigs fed soybean oil, tallow or fish oil. For overall period, growth performance of weaning pigs was improved (p<0.05) when pigs were fed soybean oil or corn oil. Apparent digestibility of energy and fat was improved when pigs were fed corn oil diet (p<0.05). Supplementation of corn oil resulted in higher serum triglyceride concentration than the other treatments (p<0.05). However, there was a lower cholesterol concentration when corn oil was provided compared to tallow or fish oil. Pigs fed corn oil tended to have increased villus height compared with soybean oil, tallow or fish oil treatment (p<0.05). This experiment suggested that vegetable oils such as corn oil or soybean oil, were much better fat source for improving growth performance of weaning pigs.

Effects of dietary energy and lipase levels on nutrient digestibility, digestive physiology and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs

  • Liu, J.B.;Cao, S.C.;Liu, J.;Pu, J.;Chen, L.;Zhang, H.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1963-1973
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and lipase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, intestinal morphology, small intestinal digestive enzyme activities, biochemical index of intestinal development and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. Methods: A total of 240 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace]${\times}$Duroc) with an average body weight (BW) of $7.3{\pm}0.12kg$ were used in this 28-d experiment. Weaning pigs were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement with 2 levels of energy (net energy = 2,470 kcal/kg for low energy diet and 2,545 kcal/kg for basal diet) and 2 levels of lipase (0 and 1.5 U/g of lipase) according to BW and sex. There were 6 replications (pens) per treatment and 10 pigs per pen (5 barrows and 5 gilts). Results: Weaning pigs fed the low energy diet had lower (p<0.05) gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) throughout the experiment, apparent digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, ether extract, and gross energy during d 0 to 14, average daily gain during d 15 to 28, lipase activity in duodenum and ileum and protein/DNA in jejunum (p<0.05), respectively. Lipase supplementation had no effect on growth performance but affected apparent nutrient digestibility (p<0.05) on d 14 and enhanced lipase activity in the duodenum and ileum and protease activity in duodenum and jejunum of pigs (p<0.05) fed the low energy diet. Lipase reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG), $NH_3$ production (p<0.05) from the feces. Conclusion: The low energy diet decreased G:F throughout the experiment and nutrient digestibility during d 0 to 14 as well as lipase activity in duodenum and ileum. Lipase supplementation increased nutrient digestibility during d 0 to 14 and exerted beneficial effects on lipase activity in duodenum and ileum as well as protease activity in duodenum and jejunum, while reduced serum LDL-C, TG and fecal $NH_3$.

Effect of different levels of fiber and protein on growth performance and fecal characteristics in weaning pigs

  • Yun, Hyeok Min;Lei, Xin Jian;Cheong, Jin Young;Kang, Jung Sun;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.366-374
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    • 2017
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, fecal score, and fecal microbial shedding in weaning pigs fed diets with different levels of fiber and protein. A total of 96 weaning piglets ($7.41{\pm}0.71kg$) were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were allotted to dietary treatments based on initial body weight in a $2{\times}2$ factorial design with the following factors: dietary fiber (100 and 200 g/kg, respectively, during days 0 to 14; 175 and 300 g/kg, respectively, during days 14 to 35) and dietary protein (170 or 200 g/kg). There were 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. On day 14, pigs fed high protein or high fiber diets had heavier body weight (p < 0.05). During days 0 to 14, pigs fed high protein or high fiber diets grew faster (p < 0.05). Additionally, during days 14 to 35, an interactive effect of fiber and protein was found (p < 0.05) on average daily gain. The different levels of protein and fiber in diet did not affect the pigs' fecal scores (p > 0.05). However, feces from the high fiber group showed lower concentration of Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that a high protein diet improves the growth of weaning pigs especially during the first two weeks. Moreover, the increments in fiber level, even in the high protein diet, favorably decreased the number of E. coli.

Influences of Phytoncide Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Diarrhea Scores and Fecal Microflora Shedding in Weaning Pigs

  • Zhang, S.;Jung, J.H.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, B.Y.;Kim, In-Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1309-1315
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    • 2012
  • A total of 140 weaning pigs ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc, BW = $6.47{\pm}0.86$ kg) were used in a 5-wk growth trail to determine the effects of phytoncide supplementation on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profiles, diarrhea scores and fecal microflora shedding. Pigs were assigned randomly by BW into 5 treatments, dietary treatments were: i) NC, basal diet; ii) PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii) EO, NC+0.1% essential oil; iv) PP, NC+0.2% PP (phytoncide with 2% citric acid), and v) PA, NC+0.2% PA (phytoncide). Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. All pigs were housed in pens with a self-feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experimental period. During 0 to 2 wks, supplementation with essential oil and PA decreased (p<0.05) G/F compared with the other treatments. During 2 to 5 wks, supplementation with PA led to a higher (p<0.05) G/F than the other treatments. At 2 wk, ATTD of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) in EO treatment were decreased (p<0.05) compared with NC treatment. Dietary PC treatment improved (p<0.05) ATTD of DM and E compared with the CON group, and PA and PP treatments showed a higher (p<0.05) ATTD of E than that in NC treatment. Pigs fed phytoncide (PA and PP) had a greater (p<0.05) ATTD of DM than those of NC and EO treatments at 5 wk. Moreover, supplementation with phytoncide elevated (p<0.05) the concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in blood at 2 wk. The inclusion of EO, PP and PA treatments showed a greater (p<0.05) amount of fecal Lactobacillus compared with CON group. However, no difference (p>0.05) was observed in diarrhea scores among treatments. In conclusion, phytoncide can elevate feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and improve the fecal Lactobacillus counts in weaning pigs. Our results indicated that the phytoncide could be used as a good antibiotics alternative in weaning pigs.

Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs

  • Lee, Shin Ja;Shin, Nyeon Hak;Ok, Ji Un;Jung, Ho Sik;Chu, Gyo Moon;Kim, Jong Duk;Kim, In Ho;Lee, Sung Sill
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1202-1208
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    • 2009
  • Synbiotics is the term used for a mixture of probiotics (live microbial feed additives that beneficially affects the host animal) and prebiotics (non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the organism). This study investigated the effect of probiotics from anaerobic microflora with prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in weaning pigs. 150 pigs with an initial BW of 6.80${\pm}$0.32 kg (20 d of age) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments as follows: i) US, basal diet+0.15% antibiotics (0.05% oxytetracycline 200 and 0.10% tiamulin 38 g), ii) BS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from bacteria), iii) YS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from yeast), iv) MS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from mold), v) CS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (from compounds of bacteria, yeast and mold). The probiotics were contained in $10^{9}$ cfu/ml, $10^{5}$ cfu/ml and $10^{3}$ tfu/ml of bacteria, yeast and molds, respectively. The same prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharide, lactose, sodium acetate and ammonium citrate) was used for all the synbiotics. Pigs were housed individually for a 16-day experimental period. Growth performance showed no significant difference between antibiotic treatments and synbiotics-added treatments. The BS treatment showed higher (p<0.05) dry matter (DM) and nitrogen digestibility while ether extract and crude fiber digestibility were not affected by the dietary treatment. Also, the BS treatment decreased (p<0.05) fecal ammonia and amine gas emissions. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was also decreased (p<0.05) in BS, YS and MS treatments compared to other treatments. Moreover, all the synbioticsadded treatments increased fecal acetic acid concentration while the CS treatment had lower propionic acid concentration than the US treatment (p<0.05) gas emissions but decreased in fecal propionate gas emissions. Total fecal bacteria and Escherichia coli populations did not differ significantly among the treatments, while the Shigella counts were decreased (p<0.05) in synbiotics-included treatment. Fecal bacteria population was higher in the YS treatment than other treatments (p<0.05). The BS treatment had higher yeast concentration than YS, MS and CS treatments, while US treatment had higher mold concentrations than MS treatment (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that synbiotics are as effective as antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora composition in weaning pigs. Additionally, synbiotics from anaerobic microflora can decrease fecal noxious gas emission and synbiotics can substitute for antibiotics in weaning pigs.

Comparison of Synthetic Lysine Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Weaning Pigs

  • Ju, W.S.;Yun, M.S.;Jang, Y.D.;Choi, H.B.;Chang, J.S.;Lee, H.B.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2008
  • We compared the effects of supplementing $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ to L-lysine HCl on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in weaning pigs. A total of 96 crossbred pigs, weaned at $21{\pm}3$ days of age and with an average initial body weight (BW) $6.23{\pm}0.01kg$, were given one of 4 treatments, which translated into 6 replicates of 4 pigs in each pen. The animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments according to a randomized completely block design (RCBD) as follows: 1) control-no synthetic lysine, lysine deficient (0.80% total lysine); 2) L-C (= 0.2% L-lysine HCl); 3) K-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, A company); 4) C-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, B company). Diets were formulated with corn, soy bean meal, and corn gluten meal as the major ingredients, and all nutrients except the lysine met or exceeded NRC requirements (1998). The lysine content of supplemented synthetic lysine was the same in all treatment groups except the control. No clinical health problems associated with the dietary treatments were observed. During the entire experimental period, body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F ratio) increased (p<0.01) in pigs fed the experimental diets supplemented with L-lysine??HCl or $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by A company, irrespective of the two synthetic lysine sources. Although the supplementation of $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by B company tended to improve the ADG and G:F ratio, significant differences were not seen among all treatments and tended to be lower than the L-C (L-lysine HCl) and K-L-S ($L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ groups using the product from A company). The digestibility of crude protein (CP) was increased by the supplementation of synthetic lysine (p<0.05), irrespective of the L-lysine source (L-C, K-L-S, C-L-S). The results of this study showed that ADG, G:F ratio, and CP digestibility improved when $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ or L-lysine HCl was supplemented into the weaning pigs' diet. There was a clear difference in efficacy between the two $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products based upon the growth performance of weaning pigs. Consequently, the bioavailability of $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products should be evaluated before supplementation of synthetic lysine in swine diets.