• Title, Summary, Keyword: absorbency

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Effect on Nonionic Surfactant Solutions on Wetting and Absorbancy of Cotton Fabrics (비이온계 계면활성제 수용액이 면직물의 습윤특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김천희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1444-1452
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    • 2001
  • Textile materials are frequently in contact with surfactant solutions during their manufacturing or finishing processes as well as cleaning processes in use. Liquid wetting, wicking and absorbency of textile materials, and the liquid properties, surface characteristics and pore geometry of textile materials, and the liquie-solid interactions, In this paper, 10 different nonionic surfactants, including Span 20, Twen 20, 40, 60, 80, 21, 61, 81, 65, 85, were used. The surfactants were characterized by their hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB) values, structures, and surface tensions. The 0.1g/dL and 1.0g/dL surfactant solutions, which were both above critical micelle concentration (CMC), were used to see the concentration effects on the wetting and absorbency of cotton fabrics. The wetting behavior and liquid retention properties of hydrophobic cotton fabrics with different nonionic surfactant solutions are reported. The contact angles are greatly decreased and the water retention values are greatly increased by adding most of the surfactants studied into the system. The extents of this effects are influenced by the characteristics of surfactants and its solutions. Hydrophilic surfactants which have low number of carbon atoms or unsaturated hydrophobe structures are more effective in improving the wetting and absorbancy of hydrophobic cotton fabrics. The water retention of hydrophobic cotton fabrics has positive relations with $cos{\theta}$, adhesion tension and work of adhesion. The 1.0g/dL surfactant solutions show similar, but slightly improved wetting and absorbency characteristics of hydrophobic cotton fabrics compared to the 0.1g/dL surfactant solutions.

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A study on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film fabarication using to co-evaporation (동시진공증발법을 이용한 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 박막 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Cheul;Chu, Soon-Nam
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.2273-2279
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    • 2012
  • This research is based on fabricating Cu(In,Ga)$Se_2$ thin-film by co-evaporation method. On $1^{st}$ - stage, $In_2Se_3$ phase appeared when the substrate temperature reached to $400^{\circ}C$, however, there was small effect between the substrate temperature and absorbency spectrum on $2^{nd}$, $3^{rd}$ - stage because the average thickness of the thin-film was $1{\mu}m$ or higher. SEM and XRD was measured on $2^{nd}$ and $3^{rd}$ stage and it showed as the substrate temperature increases, the density of the crystal structure increased with the decreament of the vacancy. Furthermore, the formation of Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)$Se_2$ phase showed at $480^{\circ}C$ and $500^{\circ}C$.

A Study of Sports Socks Varying Knitted Fabrics on Hygienic and stability Properties (각종 편성소재에 따른 스포츠양말의 위생성과 형태안정성에 관한 연구)

  • 이명자;김칠순
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.165-176
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various knitted fabrics of sports socks on their properties of hygiene and stability. Seventeen men\`s sports socks to represent five groups with different fiber content, knit structure, yarn fineness, and finishing were used. Properties of hygiene and stability of socks were determined. The results were as follows ; 1. Evaluation of Water, vapor and heat transport properties in socks with varing fiber content showed that cotton 100% socks had the highest drop absorbency, wickability, water absorbency and water retention. Polypropylene 100% socks had an excellent wickability and moisture permeability. Acrylic blend socks had the highest thermal resistance. 2. The greatest knit stretch and knit growth of socks having lower power were found to be with cotton 100% socks had the lowest stretch. Acrylic blend socks had a excellent stretch but low fabric growth, which could give a good fir sensation during wear. 3. The commerical antimicrobial finished socks showed excellent durability after repeated cycles of laundering. 4. Length and width shrinkages were found in all laundered samples during initial cycles due to rearrangement by mechanical relaxation. Shrinkages showed no further changes and reached equilibriums after 5 cycles. Cotton 100% or cotton blend socks showed lower dimensional stability than other socks during fabric care.

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Physical Properties of Sports Material and Wear Trial Test of Sports Socks During Exercise (스포츠양말 소재의 물성 및 운동시 양말의 착용감 분석)

  • 김칠순;이훈자;박명자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1115-1124
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was 1) to determine physical properties, and subjective evaluation of sensation of sports socks with various type of fiber content and fabric structure, and 2) to develop regression equations for predicting each sensation from physical properties of socks. Thirty healthy male students participated in the wear test with ten replications. The ANOVA, Duncans multiple test, and multiple regression, and paired-t test were used in the statistical analysis, using an SAS package. The results of this study are as follows: 1. 100% cotton socks had higher absorbency and wickability among five different socks. Comfort sensation, tactile sensation and fit sensation of socks were significantly influenced by types of fiber content. People felt that polypropylene socks were less comfortable & slightly tighter, and cotton socks were drier than the other socks. Terry socks were warmer than single jersey socks. 2. The results of the regression analysis showed that tactile sensation of socks after exercise can be predicted from the cube of moisture permeability($R^2$=0.99), and fit sensation can be predicted from drop absorbency, moisture permeability, wickability in wale and weight($R^2$=-0.98).

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The Properties of Kenaf/Polyester Blended Nonwovens (케나프/폴리에스테르 혼방 부직포의 특성)

  • Lee, Hye-Ja;Yoo, Hye-Ja;Han, Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.1119-1127
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    • 2007
  • Nonwovens have been widely used in various regions from the households to the industrial, agricultural and medical goods. Synthetic fibers have been used for source of nonwovens commonly because of their useful and economic properties. They are not only main factor causing environmental problems but also spend huge cost to renew the environmental disruption by them. Nonwovens must have both cost-competitiveness and environment-friendly property to be the desirable sources in 21th centuries. For meet these needs, it is suitable for the times that economical and environmentally-safe kenaf fibers would be used as raw materials of nonwovens. Kenaf and polyester fibers were blended in 4 types of ratio : 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40 were needle-punched. The nonwovens properties such as color values, surface appearance, strength, elongations, stiffness, moisture regain, water and oil absorbency, and electrification were tested. As the results, tensile and tear strengths, water and oil absorbency were maximum at 20/80 kenaf/polyester blend nonwoven, because of effecting by nonwoven structure and fiber properties. The moisture regain were increased according to kenaf were blended and the eletrification reduced in proportion to the kenaf fibers by chemical property of fiber composed nonwovens.

Oil Absorbencies of Fibers of Biodegradable and Microbial Polymers Prepared by Electrospinning Method (전기방사에 의한 미생물 합성 생분해성 고분자 섬유의 Oil 흡수)

  • Jang, Ei-Sup;Lee, Won-Ki;Park, Chan-Young;Min, Sung-Kee;Jang, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2013
  • Fibers of microbial polyesters, poly(3-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxy butyrate-co-3-hydroxy valerate) (HB-co-HV) were prepared by electrospinning method. The obtained fibers were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and oil absorption. The formation of fibers was strongly dependent on a concentration of solution. At a low concentration, the fibers contained beads which is from aggregation of polymer due to short evaporation time. The fine fibers with $2-5{\mu}m$ diameter were obtained at 20 wt% concentration. The contact angle measurement showed that the fiber had higher water contact angle than the film due to the lotus-like effect. Oil absorbency showed that the fiber had higher than the film. Specially, the HB-co-HV fiber which was spinned from 20 wt% absorbed 65% oil which is much higher than that of a normal polypropylene-based oil paper.

Characterization of SiC-SiC Whisker Matrix Retaining Electrolyte in Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (인산형 연료전지용 SiC-SiC Whisker 전해질 매트릭스의 특성)

  • 윤기현;이현임;이근행;김창수
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 1992
  • Sheets of SiC-SiC whisker maxed matrix were prepared from the mixed slurry of SiC whisker and SiC matrix by the rolling method. With the increase of SiC whisker, the pore size, the porosity and the phosphoric acid absorbency of the matrix were increased, while the bubble pressure was decreased. The activation energy for the transfer of H+ ion was decreased with the increase of mixing ratio of SiC whisker to the SiC matrix from the measurement of hydrogen ion conductivity. The activation energy was evaluated as 0.25 eV when the mixing ratio of SiC whisker to the SiC matrix was 1 : 2 and the activation energy was 0.16 eV for the 2 : 1 matrix. It means that SiC whisker matrix contributes to attain a better microstructure for the diffusion of hydrogen ion. From the measurement of single cell performance of matrix with various mixing ratio, it is concluded that if SiC-SiC whisker maxed matrix has a sufficient bubble pressure to prevent the crossover of H2 gas, the current density of a fuel cell is increased with the increase of acid absorbency of the matrix. Current density was improved from 140 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ for 0.25 mm thickness of matrix to 170 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ for the 0.20 mm one at 700 mV.

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Characteristics and Microstructure of Matrix Retaining Electrolyte in Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Prepared by Tape Casting (Tape Casting법으로 제조한 인산형 연료전지 전해질 매트릭스의 미세구조 및 특성)

  • 윤기현;허재호;장재혁;김창수
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 1994
  • Matrices retaining electrolyte in phosphoric acid fuel cell were prepared with SiC to SiC whisker mixing ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:3 by tape casting method. When viscosity of the slurry was 5.9 poise and the SiC to SiC whisker mixing ratios were 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, the ranges of porosity, acid absorbency and bubble pressure were 80~90%, 2.5~6 and 700~2200 mmH2O, respectively. Those ranges are acceptable for a practical electrolyte-retaining matrix. With increasing the mixing ratio of SiC whisker to SiC, the porosity and the vol.% of large pores in the main pore size distribution which is between 1 and 10 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, increased rapidly. Impedance spectroscopy was measured to know characteristics of matrix inside and contact region of matrix to catalyst layer. When the SiC to SiC whisker mixing ratio was 1:2, hydrogen ions were transported in the matrix most effectively because of high ionic conductivity and low activation energy due to high acid absorbency in spite of high interfacial resistance. The cell current density of the cell made using the matrix was 220 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ at 0.7 V.

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A Study on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film with Substrate Temperature Change (기판 온도 변화에 따른 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 박막에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Cheul;Chu, Soon-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.888-893
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we prepared $Cu(In,Ga)Se_2$ thin films by using co-evaporation method, and analyzed the properties of the thin films. During the thin film preparation process, we confirmed $InGaSe_2$ phase was formed at $400^{\circ}C$ in first stage, and also confirmed the thin films showed the vacancy decrease. In second and third stage, we confirmed the density increase of crystalline structure at over $480^{\circ}C$ and the formation of $Cu(In_{0.7}Ga_{0.3})Se_2$ phase. As the result of SEM and XRD analysis of the films which were before and after heat-treated, we confirmed the disappearance of $Cu_2Se_2$ and the formation of $Cu(In_{0.7}Ga_{0.3})Se_2$ single phase after the heat-treatment, We, therefore, confirmed the heat-treatment did not affect the absorbency spectra of the thin films.

Evaluation of the Wear Comfort of Outdoorwear by Skin Wettedness Analyses (Skin Wettedness 분석을 통한 아웃도어웨어의 착용 쾌적성 평가)

  • Jeong, Jeong-Rim;Kim, Hee-Eun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.947-952
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze skin wettedness($w$) used as the rate index of thermal comfort, and to evaluate the wear comfort of outdoorwear. Skin wettedness is widely used to express the degree of thermal comfort. If skin wettedness exceeds a certain threshold, the body feels damp and discomfort. An experiment which consisted of rest(30 min), exercise(30 min) and recovery(20 min) periods was administered in a climate chamber with 10 healthy male participants. Two kinds of outdoorwears made of 100% cotton fabrics (Control) and specially engineered fabrics having feature of quick sweat absorbency and high speed drying fabric (Functional) were evaluated in the experiment. The condition of climate chamber was controlled according to the thermal insulation of 4 kinds of experimental ensembles(E1~E4). Total sweat loss, sweat loss absorbed into clothing and skin temperature were measured. Skin wettedness was calculated from the ratio of evaporative rate to the maximal evaporative capacity. Skin wettedness of 'Functional' was lower than 'Control' in the 3 kinds of ensembles(E1, E2, E4) because the materials of 'Functional' were composed of quick sweat absorbency and high speed drying fabrics, water vapour permeability and waterproof fabrics.