• Title, Summary, Keyword: absorbency

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Evaluation of cytotoxicity of electroplated stainless steel orthodontic wire (전기도금한 교정용 스테인레스스틸 선재의 세포독성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Gye-Hyeong;Cho, Jin-Hyoung;Lee, Ki-Heon;Hwang, Hyeon-Shik
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the cytotoxicity of orthodontic wire which had an increased diameter through electroplating, and to evaluate its possible clinical applications, First. nickel plating was carried out on the commercially available stainless steel wire using an electroplating technique For the comparison of the electroplated wire with ready made stainless steel wire and titanium or copper. each wire was incubated for 72 hours in a medium. The release of the metal ion was measured using ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer). Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast was put on a microplate and placed in an incubated medium of 75%, 50%, and 20% dilation. An MTT analysis was used to compare with the medium only. The change in absorbency value of each wire group and the difference of absorbency value according to the change of dilution was measured The results of ICP-AES analysis showed that great amount nickel iou was isolated from electroplated orthodontic wires and great amount copper ion was isolated from copper. The results of the MTT analysis showed that there was no difference in the absorbency value of titanium at any dilution. However, the electroplated wires (p<0.001) the stainless steel wires (p<0.05) and the copper (P<0.001) were statistically significantly lower than those of medium only at all dilutions. Assessment as per ISO 10993, part 5, showed that electroplated wire was alloted to 'moderate cytotoxic' the titanium and stainless steel wire were 'non-cytotoxic' The results of this study indicate that the electroplated orthodontic wires need additional efforts to decrease cytotoxicity for their clinical applications.

Preparation and Solution Properties of Hydrophobically Modified PVA (소수성기로 개질된 PVA의 제조와 용액의 성질)

  • 이광화;조창기
    • Proceedings of the Korean Fiber Society Conference
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    • pp.165-166
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    • 2003
  • 완전히 가수분해 된 폴리비닐알콜(PVA)은 에멜전 안정화와 계면활성이 약하다. $^{1)}$ 하지만 hydrophobically modified PVA는 높은 계면활성을 가지고 있을뿐더러 수용액에서 micelle을 형성할 수 있고 게다가 그의 수용액은 높은 viscosity, shear thinning, thixotropic, less salt sensitive 성질을 가지고 있어 enhanced oil recovery operations, drag reduction, flocculation, super absorbency, latex paints, hydraulic fluids, surface coatings등에 사용될 수 있다. $^{2.3)}$ (중략)

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Structural Factors Affecting Comfort Related Fluid Transport Characteristics in Fabric (직물에서 구조적 요인이 쾌적성과 연관된 유체전달 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍철재
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.1371-1372
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    • 2003
  • 직물에서 구조적 요인이 쾌적성과 연관된 유체전달 특성들에 미치는 영향을 연구하였다. 고려된 구조변수는 직물을 구성하는 실의 구성성분 그리고 꼬임수이다. 측정한 쾌적성과 연관된 물성으로 수분 흡수성, 수분 증발성, 그리고 수분 투과성이다. 이들 물성은 고려된 구조 인자들에 의해 큰 영향을 받았다. 결과들에 대한 객관적 분석과 이해를 위해 실에서 접촉적각, 직물에서 모세관 흡수 곡선, 그리고 기공크기를 측정하였으며, 또한 기존 이론들을 수정한 모델을 도입하여 모사 설명하였다.

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Korean Medicated Diet Has Lee Jema's Traditional Sasang Medicines by High Absorbency and Natural Healing-Power Targets

  • Kim, Dong-Myong;Cha, Eun-Chung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.198-205
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    • 2005
  • Korean medicated diet (KMD) is not a simple combination of food and Chinese drugs, but a special carefully constructed diet made from Sasang constitutional medicines, food and condiments under the theoretical guidance of diet preparation based on differentiation of symptoms and signs of traditional Sasang medicine (TSM). It combines the functional efficacy of medicine with the delicacy of food, and can be used to prevent and cure diseases, build up one's health and prolong one's life. Korean traditional medicated diet has a long history of development. Although influenced by Chinese medicine, Korean traditional medicine has been developed into a unique system of traditional medicine that has surpassed the continental medical practice, sublimating itself into a native medical practice suitable to Korean lifestyles and physical constitutions. In the 19th century, Lee Jema's Sasang medicine (medicine of four types of energy determining the physical constitution) was introduced. It is an integration of mind and body according to the individual's physical constitution that is categorized allowing a customized method of treatment ideal for each category-making the content of Korean traditional medicated diet even richer. The characteristics of Korean medicated diet are as follows: (1) Laying stress on the wole, selecting medicated diet on the basis of differential diagnosis. (2) Suitable for prevention and treatment, outstanding in effect. (3) Good in taste, convenient for taking. KMD refers to drink and food according to certain prescriptions, by processing and cooking that can be used either for prevention and cure of diseases, or for health care and recovery. The purpose of this review is to introduce TSM and KMD based on Sasang constitutional medicines.

Facile Preparation of Biodegradable Glycol Chitosan Hydrogels Using Divinyladipate as a Crosslinker

  • Kim, Beob-Soo;Yeo, Tae-Yun;Yun, Yeon-Hee;Lee, Byung-Kook;Cho, Yong-Woo;Han, Sung-Soo
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.734-738
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    • 2009
  • Biodegradable, pH-sensitive, glycol chitosan (GC) hydrogels were prepared using divinyl adipate (DVA) as a crosslinker and acetic acid as a catalyst. DVA has highly reactive double vinyl ester groups and GC contains a high density of hydroxyl groups, with two in every glucosamine unit. The transesterification reaction between vinyl esters and hydroxyl groups produced crosslinked GC hydrogels. The initial crosslinking reaction was monitored by measuring the viscosity of the reaction mixture. When DVA was added to the GC solution and heated to $50^{\circ}C$, the viscosity of the GC solution gradually increased, implying a crosslinking reaction and hydrogel formation. A new peak from the ester group was observed in the FTIR spectra of the GC hydrogels, confirming the crosslinking reaction. The synthesized GC hydrogel showed pH-dependent water absorbency, mainly due to the presence of amine groups ($-NH_2$) at the C-2 position of the glucosamine unit of GC. The water absorbency greatly increased at acidic pH and slightly decreased at alkaline pH. The GC hydrogel gradually degraded in $37^{\circ}C$ water due to hydrolysis of the ester bonds, which were intermolecular crosslinking sites. A red dye, 5-carboxyltetramethyl-rhodamine (CTMR), was entrapped in the GC hydrogels as a model compound. CTMR was released from GC hydrogels in two steps: an initial burst release mainly due to desorption and diffusion, and a second sustained release possibly due to gradual degradation.

Assessment of radiopacity of restorative composite resins with various target distances and exposure times and a modified aluminum step wedge

  • Mir, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh;Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar Bejeh
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: ANSI/ADA has established standards for adequate radiopacity. This study was aimed to assess the changes in radiopacity of composite resins according to various tube-target distances and exposure times. Materials and Methods: Five 1-mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil composite resins were prepared and exposed with six tube-target distance/exposure time setups (i.e., 40 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.16 seconds, 30 cm, 0.12 seconds; 15 cm, 0.2 seconds; 15 cm, 0.12 seconds) performing at 70 kVp and 7 mA along with a 12-step aluminum stepwedge (1 mm incremental steps) using a PSP digital sensor. Thereafter, the radiopacities measured with Digora for Windows software 2.5 were converted to absorbencies (i.e., A=-log (1-G/255)), where A is the absorbency and G is the measured gray scale). Furthermore, the linear regression model of aluminum thickness and absorbency was developed and used to convert the radiopacity of dental materials to the equivalent aluminum thickness. In addition, all calculations were compared with those obtained from a modified 3-step stepwedge (i.e., using data for the 2nd, 5th, and 8th steps). Results: The radiopacities of the composite resins differed significantly with various setups (p<0.001) and between the materials (p<0.001). The best predicted model was obtained for the 30 cm 0.2 seconds setup ($R^2$=0.999). Data from the reduced modified stepwedge was remarkable and comparable with the 12-step stepwedge. Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, our findings support that various setups might influence the radiopacity of dental materials on digital radiographs.

Structure and Characteristic of Chitosan/Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin Blend Filems (키토산/Bombyx mori 견 피브로인 블렌드 필름의 구조와 특성)

  • Kim, Dong-Keon;Kim, Hong-Sung
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.408-412
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    • 2005
  • Structure and characteristic of the films blended chitosan matrix with silk fibroin, extracted from Bombyx mori, were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR spectra analysis, SEM photographs, contact angle measurement and water absorbency in order to use as biomaterials. The blend films of $0\~30 wt\%$ fibroin content were prepared in acetic solution with $Li^+$ ion. It was found that the crystallinity of chitosan/fibroin blend films was decreased by the presence of intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding between animo groups of chitosan and carbonyl groups of fibroin. As the proportion of fibroin in the blend increased, anhydrous crystalline phase of chitosan disappeared, and hydrated crystalline phase decreased, and $\beta$-structure crystalline phase of fibroin was formed. Therefore the blend films were crystallized into two different crystalline region of chitosan and fibroin. Surface hydrophilicity and water absorbency increased with blending fibroin. Above 20 $wt\%$ fibroin content, hydrogel film was formed. The surface and section of the film showed uniform microstructure on SEM photographs.

The Properties of Plant Fiber and Polyester Blended Nonwoven Fabrics (식물성 섬유와 폴리에스테르 섬유의 혼합 부직포 제조 및 특성 -어저귀, 칡섬유를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Hye-Ja;Kim, Nam-Eun;Yoo, Hye-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.1696-1706
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    • 2009
  • Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in various fields that include household, industrial, agricultural, medical goods, especially in the automobile industry. In this study, eco-friendly fiber materials were developed and investigated as a substitute material for polyester fibers in nonwovens. To make plant fiber bundles, stems of Indian mallow (IM), and Kuzu vine (KV) were retted; in addition, the non-cellulose component was partially removed. Plant fiber bundles and polyester fibers (P) were blended and needle punched to produce nonwovens. Five kinds of nonwovens were manufactured: P100 (Polyester 100%), IM10 (IM 10% and Polyester 90%), IM20 (IM 20% and Polyester 80%), KV10 (KV 10% and Polyester 90%), and KV20 (KV 20% and Polyester 80%). The color values, surface appearance, tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, abrasion strength, flexstiffness, moisture regain, water or oil absorbency, and static electricity of manufactured nonwovens are investigated. As the blended ratios of IM or KV increased, the brightness of nonwovens decreased compared to that of polyester 100%. Tensile strength, tear strength, abrasion strength, and flexstiffness of IM10 as well as KV10 were higher than those of P100, IM20, and KV20, resulting from the influence of the structure and properties of nonwoven fibers. Moisture regain and water or oil absorbency increased, while static electricity decreased in proportion to the amount of plant fibers. IM or KV and polyester blended nonwovens showed improved properties over P100 that could be substituted for P100 as a novel material for textiles.

End-Uses Studies on the Physical Chemical Properties of Socks in the Market (시판 양말의 물성에 관한 소비과학적 검사)

  • 조현혹
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 1981
  • Consumer consider the purpose for which they plan to use clothes when they purchase it, and the socks in textile products is evaluated in the same way. serviceability is judged by the extent to which the socks will be useful for its intended purpose. It should retain its original shape and size, good air permeability, good absorbency, good abrasion resistance, high fastness etc. Owing to importance of serviceability in socks, in this paper, these end-use requirement characteristics were tested. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Blend ratios were different between the indicated fiber contents on labels and the testing ones. 2. Air permeability was higher in the samples which contain less stitch density, and hydroscopicity was higher in those which contain natural fibers such as cotton and wool. 3. Shrinkage depended on the blend ratios of cotton and wool, and elastic recovery was better in the course direction than in the wale direction. 4. Pilling was conspicuous in the synthetic fibers such as polyester and nylon, and fastness of laundering and perspiration was higher in the fading grade than in the staining grade.

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The ability of absorption and physicochemical properties of chitosan prepared from fungi

  • Kim, Bong-Seob;Lee, Kook-Eui;Suh, Myung-Gyo;Roh, Jong-Su;Lee, Yong-Hee;Suh, Jung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2003
  • The physicochemical properties of fungal chitosan at 95$^{\circ}C$ and 40$^{\circ}C$ acid treatment was as follows respectively. The nitrogen content was 6.71%, 6.91%, the viscosity 2.23cps, 2.21cps, the acetylation 12.0%, 12.7% and the molecular weight 3.12${\times}$10$\^$5/ Dalton, 3.01${\times}$10$\^$5/ Dalton. The absorbency band of reference, FCs-40 and FCs-95 in I.R. spectra was almost in accord with one another. In solid state NMR spectra, methyl group(-CH$_3$) was observed lightly. That means which deacetylation was well occurred. Carbonyl group(C=O) was not observed. C$_1$ to C$\_$6/ in solid state NMR was well observed seperately enough.

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