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Evaluation Method of Cosmetics for the Effect of Fine Dust Adhesion Prevention Using Floating Chamber (부유챔버를 이용한 화장품의 미세먼지 부착방지 효과 평가법)

  • Kim, Woncheol;Kim, Han Jo;Boo, Yong Chool;Koh, Jae Sook;Baek, Ji Hwoon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2020
  • Particulate matters (PM) are small particulate pollution that decrease the function of skin barrier, which causes inflammatory skin diseases and extrinsic aging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of preventing the adherence of PMs from several cosmetic products applied to human skin using iron oxide black. The PM floating chamber consists of skin exposure area, PM inlet, floating power device, and an outlet so that PM can be naturally attached to the skin while floating in the chamber. The change in skin brightness according to the floating concentration of alternative fine dust was checked to confirm the optimal floating concentration conditions. The intensity difference (before-after intensity, Δ) before and after adhesion of iron oxide black was proportional to the amount of PM adhered. The anti-adherence effect of iron oxide black on five cosmetic products were evaluated through 20 each subjects by comparing the amount of iron oxide black adhered on the control and treatment. The difference in brightness before and after the iron oxide black attached to the skin was calculated and compared with the control group(p < 0.05). When over 150 mg of iron oxide black was adhered on the skin, the interference of intensity was low and clearly showed the skin adhered pattern. According to the application of the five cosmetics, the intensity difference was significantly lower than the control group. This means that depending on the product, it prevented the attachment of iron oxide black. This study is a safe and useful method to confirm the prevention of PM skin adherence. In conclusion, cosmetics can prevent the adherence of PM on the skin according to the formulation or ingredients characteristics.

Analysis of the Content of Global Citizenship Education in the 2015 Revised Home Economics Textbook (2015 개정 중학교 가정 교과서 세계시민교육 내용 분석)

  • Heo, Young Sun;Kim, Nam Eun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.111-133
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the contents of global citizenship education in the 2015 revision of Home Economics textbook and examine the relevance of global citizenship education in the subject of Home Economics. To this end, the contents of global citizenship education included in the 2015 revision of middle school Home Economics textbook were extracted and analyzed from the viewpoint of the UNESCO Topics and Learning Objectives (TLO), according to the procedure of the concurrent triangulation design. When the frequencies of inclusion of the 9 topics of TLOs were counted, about 54.6% of global citizenship education(GCED) content covered in the 2015 revision of Home Economics textbooks in total was related to the socio-emotional aspects. In particular, TLO 4 (Different levels of identity) showed the highest ratio, followed by TLO 5(Different communities people belong to and how these are connected) and TLO 1 (Local, national and global systems and structures). As a result of categorizing global citizenship education learning topics extracted from Home Economics textbooks of middle school by Home Economics sub-topic area, the child and family(94) area showed the greatest relevance to all learning topics. Food and nutrition(13), clothing(13), housing(15), and consumption (14) showed similar distributions of learning subjects. Child and family area is related to global citizenship education in the topics of adolescent development and its characteristics, family relations, sexual and domestic violences prevention, change in family structures and healthy families, aging society and work-family balance, and life planning and career exploration. The food and nutrition area is related to global citizenship education in the topics of nutrition and eating behavior, and adolescents' food selection and safe cooking. The topic of clothing management and recycling of clothing area, housing culture, residential space utilization, and residential life and safety of housing area, consumer life in adolescence of consumption area were related to the learning subject of global citizenship education. As such, high relations between GCED learning topics and Home Economics learning content elements were found. It is expected that the data of this study will be used as basic data for program development, class improvement, and textbook development with global citizenship education as a content element in Home Economics education.

A Study on the Structural Reinforcement of the Modified Caisson Floating Dock (개조된 케이슨 플로팅 도크의 구조 보강에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Jo;Seo, Kwang-Cheol;Park, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 2021
  • In the ship repair market, interest in maintenance and repair is steadily increasing due to the reinforcement of prevention of environmental pollution caused by ships and the reinforcement of safety standards for ship structures. By reflecting this effect, the number of requests for repairs by foreign shipping companies increases to repair shipbuilders in the Southwest Sea. However, because most of the repair shipbuilders in the southwestern area are small and medium-sized companies, it is difficult to lead to the integrated synergy effect of the repair shipbuilding companies. Moreover, the infrastructure is not integrated; hence, using the infrastructure jointly is a challenge, which acts as an obstacle to the activation of the repair shipbuilding industry. Floating docks are indispensable to operating the repair shipbuilding business; in addition, most of them are operated through renovation/repair after importing aging caisson docks from overseas. However, their service life is more than 30 years; additionally, there is no structure inspection standard. Therefore, it is vulnerable to the safety field. In this study, the finite element analysis program of ANSYS was used to evaluate the structural safety of the modified caisson dock and obtain additional structural reinforcement schemes to solve the derived problems. For the floating docks, there are classification regulations; however, concerning structural strength, the regulations are insufficient, and the applicability is inferior. These insufficient evaluation areas were supplemented through a detailed structural FE-analysis. The reinforcement plan was decided by reinforcing the pontoon deck and reinforcement of the side tank, considering the characteristics of the repair shipyard condition. The final plan was selected to reinforce the side wing tank through the structural analysis of the decision; in addition, the actual structure was fabricated to reflect the reinforcement plan. Our results can be used as reference data for improving the structural strength of similar facilities; we believe that the optimal solution can be found quickly if this method is used during renovation/repair.

Effect of Waterlogging on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Roots of Maize Inbred Lines (담수 처리에 따른 옥수수 자식 계통의 지상부와 뿌리의 생육 및 형태적 특성)

  • Lee, Jihyun;Shin, Myeong-Na;Jung, Gun-Ho;Kim, Jung Tae;Cha, Jungeun;Shim, Kang-Bo;Lee, Jae-Eun;Son, Beom-Young;Kim, Sang-Gon;Ku, Bon-Il;Lee, Seukki;Jeon, Weon-Tai
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of the shoot and roots and to analyse the morphological characteristics of roots of waterlogging resistant and susceptible maize inbred lines. Six maize inbred lines were treated with waterlogging for 10 days at V3, and the degree of leaf senescence was evaluated for waterlogging resistance. As a result of waterlogging resistance evaluation, KS85 was the most damaged inbred line with 3.33 senescence leaves and 5.54 degree, and KS141 was the least damaged inbred line with 1.33 senescence leaves and 3 degree. At 20 days after treatment, the effect of waterlogging stress on the shoot dry matter accumulation of KS85 and KS141 were decreased by 86.1% and 77.0%, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, root dry matter accumulation of KS85 and KS141 were decreased by 77.6% and 65.0%. As a result of SEM photographs of the nodal roots of the two maize inbred lines, the thickness of cortex of KS141 was thicker than that of KS85, and the distortion of the cortex was observed in KS85 at 20 days after waterlogging. It was concluded that the thickness of cortex was related to maize waterlogging resistance.

Prevalence of anatomical alar band (콧방울띠의 유병율)

  • Kim, Jung Suk;Kim, Cheol Soon;Cha, Jung Yul;Kim, Hee Jin;Hwang, Chung Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Esthetic Dentistry
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.4-12
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Due to the presence of various muscles around lips, variety of facial expression can be made and changes from aging process such as wrinkles can develop on the facial skin by the action of multiple muscles. In animals, skin and muscles are developed in the entire body. On contrast, they are well developed only in the face and just one is present in the neck and the palm. Alar band was defined as outer wrinkle formed by zygomaticus minor muscle, which is common in Koreans. This study aimed to investigate clinical prevalence of alar band. Materials & Methods: Subjects were chosen from 780 new patients who visited private clinic in Gyeonggi province for orthodontic treatment. Presence of alar band was examined from the smile extraoral photos. Correlation among skeletal form, lip protrusion, gender, and age were evaluated. Results: Prevalence of alar band was higher in women (27.9%) than in men (18.5%) with statistical significance (p<0.05). With respect to age, prevalence of alar band was 19.4% in age 0-9 y, 16.9% in age 10-19 y, 31.2% in age 20-29 y, 39.5% in age 30-39, 56.5% in age 40-49. Prevalence was gradually increased from patients in their 20s to patients in their 40s and statistical significance was found (p<0.001). Concerning SN_NP, prevalence was 26.2% in normodivergent facial type, 22.0% in hyperdivergent facial type, and 32.2% in hypodivergent facial type. Hypodivergent facial group had higher prevalence but statistical significance was not observed. Statistically significant difference was not found regarding upper lip. However, prevalence of the alar band was 26% in patients with normal lower lip, 14.7% in patients with pretruded lower lip, and 33.3% in retruded lower lip. The prevalence was higher in patients with retruded lower lip with statistical significance (p<0.05). Conclusions: 27.8% on previous anatomical study and this study showed 27.8% prevalence of alar band in clinical smile photographs. Clinical photograph study showed that alar band was more prominent in women, older people, and people with retruded lips with statistical significance. This will provide valuable diagnostic information for esthetic consideration.

Variation of Growth Characteristics and Quality Related Components in Korean Indigenous Tea (Camellia sinensis) Germplasms (한국 재래종 차나무(Camellia sinensis)의 작물학적 특성 및 품질관련 성분 변이)

  • Lee, Min-Seuk;Lee, Jin-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Dae;Hyun, Jin-Wuk;Kim, Young-Gul;Hwang, Young-Sun;Lee, Hyeon-Jin;Choi, Su-San-Na;Lee, Su-Jin;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2008
  • The tea has traditionally been used as a foodstuff by unique flavor, however recently not only the diversity of consumer demands but also the public interest in unique favorite and functional aspects have increased. It has been also reported that the main components contained in the leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis) include total nitrogen, free amino acids, polyphenols, and fiber, of which catechin has powerful bioactive effect such as anti-cancer, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which is a major phenolic constituent of green tea extract has received considerable attention for a variety of important bioactivities. This study was carried out to obtain useful information for tea breeding programs, and to investigate the concentration of quality and functional related components in Korean indigenous tea germplasms. Korean indigenous tea lines were classified into three groups of sprout time, i.e, early, medium and late sprout time, and the ratio were 20%, 43% and 37%, respectively. There was a difference in characteristics among these Korean indigenous tea lines, leaf width of those ranged from 19.8 to 75 mm, leaf length was 35.5-160.0 mm, and leaf area was $660-8,400\;mm^2$. Experimental data on chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of Korean indigenous tea genetic resources ranged from 51.3 to 82.3. The concentrations of the total nitrogen, total free amino acids, and theanine were ranged 4.18-6.07%, 2.87-4.58%, and 1.64-2.66%, respectively. Also, catechin concentration showed from 11.54 to 15.07%, and concentration of caffeine was 2.82-4.23%. These results indicated indicated that it is possible to select elite lines with high concentration of quality related components and low concentration of caffeine from Korean domestic tea germplasms.

Reaction of Near-Isogenic Lines with Resistance to Bacterial Blight to Korean and Japanese isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (한국 및 일본 균주에 대한 벼흰잎마름병 저항성 근동질 유전자 계통의 반응)

  • Kim, Bo-Ra;Yang, Cheol-Woo;Jin, Xuan-Ji;Han, Jin-Soo;Lee, Eun-Jeong;Choi, Jae-Eul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2007
  • To develop durable and stable breeding strategies far the control of rice bacterial blight (BB) disease, the near-isogenic lines (NILs) with diverse resistance genes to BB isolates were evaluated in plant at three different growth stages using four Korean ($K_1,\;K_2,\;K_3,\;K_{3a}$) and three Japanese isolates (I, II, III). The resistance of the NILs to seven BB isolates tended to increase with plant aging. At the seedling stage, the NILs with single resistance genes were mostly resistant to $K_1$ race but they showed partial or no resistance to other isolates. A NILs (IRBB5) possessing xa5 had full resistance to the four Korean isolates, illustrating that it is a useful source to give enhancement to Korean breeding program. At the maximum tillering stage, resistance of NILs to $K_2,\;K_3$, I and II isolates considerably increased while resistance to $K_1,\;K_{3a}$ and III were similar to those of seedling stage. NILs with resistance gene of Xa4, xa5 and Xa7 proved to be the most stable to BB isolates at the maximum tillering stage. At the heading stage, most resistance genes of NILs were effective against BB isolates, and xa5 showed the consistent resistance to all the BB isolates including $K_{3a}$ and III isolates, demonstrating that resistance genes of Xa4, xa5 and Xa7 can be used either alone or combined to enhance resistance to BB disease in Korea.

Exploring the Future Direction of School Population Education through Analysis of National Curriculum: Focused on the 7th Curriculum through 2015-Revised Curriculum (교육과정 분석을 통한 학교 인구교육의 미래 방향 탐색: 제7차 교육과정 ~ 2015 개정 교육과정을 중심으로)

  • Wang, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.141-157
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the content of national-level curriculum documents for the purpose of reviewing the overall status of population education in elementary and secondary schools in South Korea. Based on the results of the analysis, directions for the future of population education at school were proposed. Both the 2007-Revised Curriculum and the 2009-Revised Curriculum contain the contents of population education as a 'Cross-curricular learning topic' in the general curriculum influenced by the low birth rate and ageing society, yet not in the current 2015-Revised Curriculum. Furthermore, when the curriculum documents for the ten common subjects corresponding to the 'National Common Basic Curriculum' proposed by the 7th Curriculum were examined, only 'Home Economics' curriculum at the secondary school level and 'Social Studies' curriculum at the elementary and the secondary school levels adequately reflected the subject goals, characteristics, contents and achievement standards that correspond to those of population education. Based on the results of the curriculum analysis, the following five directions for population education at school are drawn. First, the purpose of population education at school should be stated using gender-neutral terms of 'response to low-birth and aging society' and it has to be emphasized that it is not to intervene in natural childbirth. Second, the subject which deals directly with the goals, content elements, and achievement standards of population education should be designated as the leading subject for population education. Third, with its inter-disciplinary nature, population education should be able to provide quality contents for convergence education. Fourth, the government should provide policy support to the leading subjects for population education so that more high schools may select the subjects as elective courses. Fifth, teacher education should be improved to enhance teachers' perceptions on population. This study asserts that 'Home economics,' which deals with human daily lives, is an optimal subject that can reflect population education in connection with real life. To this end, policy support should be provided for 'Home economics' so that it may fulfill the mission as a leading subject of population education.

Physiological and Proteome Responses of Korean F1 maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids to Water-deficit Stress during Tassel Initiation (옥수수 영양생장기 한발 스트레스에 의한 광합성의 생리적 반응 및 프로테옴 변화 분석)

  • Bae, Hwan Hee;Kwon, Young-Sang;Son, Beom-Young;Kim, Jung-Tae;Go, Young Sam;Kim, Sun-Lim;Baek, Seong-Bum;Shin, Seonghyu;Kim, Sang Gon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.422-431
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    • 2019
  • Severe droughts in spring have occurred frequently in Korea in recent years, exerting a critical impact on corn yield. Therefore, it is necessary to find physiological and/or molecular indicators of the response to drought stress in maize plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of water-deficit stress on two Korean elite F1 maize hybrids, Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, by withholding water for 10 days at tassel initiation. The water deficit drastically reduced the relative leaf water content, leaf number, leaf area, and stem length, leading to dry matter reduction. Moreover, it reduced the SPAD values and stomatal conductance of leaves in drought-stressed plants of both hybrids. Importantly, the number of leaves and SPAD value were non-destructive and easy to investigate in response to water-deficit stress, suggesting that they may be useful indicators for screening drought-tolerant genetic resources. We detected more than 100 spots that were differentially accumulated under drought stress. Of these spots, a total of 21 protein spots (≥1.5-fold) from drought-exposed maize leaves were successfully analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Functional annotation using Gene Ontology analysis revealed that most of the identified proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response fatty acid catabolism, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and transport. The protein expression levels were increased in both Ilmichal and Gwangpyeongok, except for triosephosphate isomerase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and an uncharacterized protein. The lactoylglutathione lyase delta (3,5)-delta (2,4)-dienoyl-CoA isomerase was overexpressed in Gwangpyeongok only. The results obtained from this study suggest that the drought-specific genes may be useful as molecular markers for screening drought-tolerant maize genotypes.

Changes in the complete blood count and serum biochemical parameters of Sapsaree dogs according to different age groups (삽살개의 연령에 따른 혈구 및 혈청 생화학 수치 변화 양상 연구)

  • Yi, Seung-Won;Kim, Eunju;Oh, Sang-Ik;Ha, Ji-Hong;Lee, Bugeun;Yoo, Jae Gyu;Do, Yoon Jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2019
  • The complete blood count and serum biochemical parameters are essential tools for diagnosis and monitoring of physiological and disease conditions in dogs. These parameters may be affected by the breed and age of dogs. This study aimed to compare the changes of complete blood count and serum biochemical parameters according to the increasing age in 156 Sapsarees. In this study, the Sapsarees were clustered into ten age groups: four to six months, seven to nine months, ten to twelve months, one year, two years, three to four years, five to six years, seven to eight years, nine to ten years, and, eleven to twelve years old. In the result of the complete blood count, the total red blood cell count (P<0.001), hematocrit (P<0.001), and hemoglobin (P<0.001) values were significantly increased from 4~6 months to 2 years old Sapsarees. While the mean corpuscular volume (P<0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (P<0.001) values were significantly increased from 4~6 months to 3~4 years old. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly (P=0.037) increased from 4~6 to 10~12-month-old Sapsarees. Total white cell count was significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 1 year to 9~10 years old. The result of differential white blood cell count showed that neutrophil count was significantly (P<0.001) increased from the age 4~6 months to 11~12 years old Sapsarees, whereas, lymphocyte (P<0.001), monocyte (P<0.001), and eosinophil (P=0.042) counts were significantly decreased from 7~9 months to 7~8 years, 4~6 months to 9~10 years, 3~4 to 5~6 years old, respectively. In the serum biochemistry result, the creatinine concentration was significantly (P<0.001) increased from 4~6 to 10~12 months, but significantly (P=0.006) decreased from 7~8 to 10~12 years old. Phosphate concentration was significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 3~4 to 9~10 years old, but significantly (P=0.021) increased from 9~10 to 11~12 years old. Calcium concentration significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 10~12 months to 11~12 years old. Total protein concentration significantly (P<0.001) increased from 4~6 months to 2 years old. While concentrations of albumin (P=0.004) and globulin (P<0.001) was significantly increased from 4~6 months to 3~4 years old, and from 4~6 months to 11~12 years old, respectively. The alkaline phosphate concentration was significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 4~6 months to 2 years old. We found that there are differences in the hematological parameters in relation with the increasing age in Sapsaree breed.