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The Antioxidant Effect of Hot Water Extract from the Dried Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) with Pressurized Roasting (가압볶음 무말랭이 열수 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Song, Yeong-Bok;Choi, Jeong-Sun;Lee, Ji-Eun;Noh, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Mi-Jeong;Cho, Eun-Ju;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1179-1186
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    • 2010
  • The antiradical property of hot water extract from dried radish (DR) or dried radish roasted with pressure (DRRP) was investigated in vitro and in LLC-PK1 cell system. The contents of total free amino acid and reducing sugar in DR were decreased by 72.86% and 3.17%, respectively, after pressurized roasting. In vitro test, $IC_{50}$ for DR and DRRP for DPPH radical scavenging activity were 646.70 and $135.45\;{\mu}g/mL$, 896.10 and $566.98\;{\mu}g/mL$ for superoxide anion radical, and 722.26 and $531.84\;{\mu}g/mL$ for hydroxy radical, respectively. The radical scavenging effects of DRRP was significantly greater than those for DR (p<0.001). These radical scavenging effects of DR and DRRP were confirmed in LLC-$PK_1$ at which oxidative stresses were induced by superoxide, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite generated in the treatment of pyrogallol, SNP, and SIN-1, respectively. Cell viability was increased in the presence of DR or DRRP, dose dependently (p<0.05), and TBARS formation was decreased. The protective effects of DRRP against oxidative damage in LLC-$PK_1$ were greater than those of DR at the same concentration tested (p<0.05). This superior antiradical activity of DRRP might be due to the products produced during the pressurized roasting in addition to the antioxidative compounds originally present in the radish. 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural (5-HMF) known as an intermediate product of the maillard reaction was detected in DRRP (0.57 mg/g), but not from DR. In conclusion, daily consumption of DRRP may prevent oxidative damage by retarding oxidative stress.

Effects of Different Cultivars and Milling Degrees on Quality Characteristics of Barley Makgeolli (보리의 품종 및 도정률이 막걸리의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Choi, Induck;Oh, Sea Kwan;Woo, Koan Sik;Yoon, Soon Duck;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Jeong, Seok Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.1839-1846
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and milling degree of barley on quality characteristics of Makgeolli as well as compare differences between barley Makgeolli and rice Makgeolli. Saessal-bori groups (Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18) showed dry lees contents of 92.3 g, 69.4 g, and 63.8 g, respectively, whereas Huinchalssal-bori groups (Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20) showed contents of 62.3 g, 42.2 g, and 32.2 g. There were significant differences in quality characteristics between milling degrees and cultivars (P<0.05). The moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat contents of raw materials decreased with elevated milling degree. Especially, ash content of raw materials had a direct effect on Makgeolli. The pH, total acidity, and amino acidity milling with elevated decreased degree. There were no differences in total sugar or alcohol content in Makgeolli according to milling degree of barley, whereas there were significant differences between cultivars. Barley Makgeolli showed total sugar and alcohol contents of $10.7{\sim}11.8^{\circ}Brix$ and 14.07~15.07%, respectively, which were significantly lower than $12.0{\sim}12.2^{\circ}Brix$ and 17.27~17.77% in rice Makgeolli (P<0.05). Differences in colors of raw barley according to milling degree had effects on chromaticity of Makgeolli; as milling degree increased, L and b values increased. Lactic acid bacteria counts were 7.21, 6.99, and 6.67 log CFU/mL in Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18, respectively, as well as 6.14, 5.39, and 5.65 log CFU/mL in Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20, which suggests significant reductions with increased milling degree (P<0.05). The same trend was observed in yeast as a key quality of Makgeolli. Suspension stability differed depending on milling degree, so it is expected that suspension stability can be improved by adjusting milling degree.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activities of Rice and Amaranth Fermented by Bacillus subtilis KMKW4 (Bacillus subtilis KMKW4를 이용한 백미 및 아마란스 발효물의 이화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Yang, Su-Jin;Lee, Rea-Hyun;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.540-548
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the cultural characteristics and biological activities of fermented rice and amaranth with Bacillus subtilis KMKW4. These samples were made with various amounts of rice and amaranth [100:0 (R100), 90:10 (R90), 80:20 (R80), and 70:30 (R70)]. B. subtilis KMKW4 was used as starter for the fermentation, and its cultures at the lated logarithmic growth were inoculated for final concentration of 2% (v/v). Number of viable cells of fermented R80 (7.67 log CFU/mL) was greater than those of R100, R90, and R70 (7.48 log CFU/mL, 7.38 log CFU/mL, and 7.09 CFU/mL, respectively) during the fermentation period (120 h). Amylase activities of fermented R80 and R100 were 57.77 U/mL and 19.91 U/mL, respectively. Furthermore, amylase activities of fermented freeze-dried powders of R100 and R80 were 24.31 U/g and 9.12 U/g, respectively. Free sugar contents of R100 and R80 increased after fermentation, and that of R80 (5,454.15 mg/100 g) significantly increased compared to that of R100 (4,274.85 mg/100 g). The free amino acid content of R80 was higher than that of R100. DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities of 5 mg/mL of fermented freeze-dried powder (R80) were 44.21% and 89.76%, respectively. ACE inhibition rates and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities were significantly higher in R80 than R100. This study suggested that fermentation of R80 might be a new potential source of antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive agents applicable to grain enzyme-containing foods.

Relationship between Stratum Corneum Carbonylated Protein (SCCP) and Skin Biophysical Parameters (Stratum Corneum Carbonylated Protein (SCCP)의 피부 생물학적 파라미터와의 관계)

  • Lee, Yongjik;Nam, Gaewon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2019
  • Carbonylated proteins (CPs) are synthesized by the chemical reaction of basic amino acid residues in proteins with aldehyde compounds yielded by lipid peroxidation. CPs are excited by a range of light from UVA to blue light, and resulted in the generation of superoxide anion radicals ($^{\cdot}O_2{^-}$) by photosensitizing reaction. Then, they CPs induce new protein carbonylation in stratum corneum through ROS generation. Furthermore, the superoxide anion radicals produce CPs in the stratum corneum (SC) through lipid peroxidation and finally affects skin conditions including color and moisture functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the production of stratum corneum carbonylated protein (SCCP) and the skin elasticity. 46 healthy female Koream at the ages of 30 ~ 50 years old were participated in this study for 8 weeks. The skin test was experiment conducted into two groups; placebo group (N = 23) used cream that did not contain active ingredients, and the other group (N = 23) used cream containing the elasticity improving ingredients. Test areas were the crow 's feet and the cheek. Various non-invasive methods were carried out to measure biophysical parameters on human skin indicating that dermis density and skin wrinkle were measured by using DUB scanner and Primos premium, respectively. Skin elasticity were measured using dermal torque meter (DTM310) and balistometer (BLS780). SCCP was assessed in a simple and non-invasive method using skin surface biopsy on the cheek of the subject. The amount of SCCP was determined using image analysis. All measurements were taken at 0, 4 and 8 8week. Results revealed that the amount of CP in SC was reduced when the skin wrinkle and skin elasticity related parameters were improved. This indicates that the correlation between the elasticity improvement and the amount of CP can be used as a anti-aging indicator and applicable to the skin clinical test for the measurement of skin aging in the future.

The identification of non-synonymous SNP in the Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) gene and its Association with Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire pigs (버크셔 돼지 육질 형질과 Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) 유전자 nsSNP의 연관성 분석)

  • Hwang, Jung Hye;An, Sang Mi;Park, Da Hye;Kang, Deok Gyeong;Kim, Tae Wan;Park, Hwa Chun;Ha, Jeongim;Kim, Chul Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2018
  • Meat quality has always been one of the most important factors that controls the choice of pork consumers and is of great interest in the pig industry. In this study, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) gene in Berkshire pigs (n = 430) by analyzed the association between the SNP and meat quality traits. The non-synonymous SNP in the ECI2 gene is located at c.608 C > G and resulted in an amino acid change from threonine to serine. Significant associations between the SNP and meat quality traits, such as redness (CIE a), and the $pH_{24hr}$, were revealed in both the dominant and co-dominant models, whereas carcass weight, drip loss, and fat content and moisture content were significantly associated only with the dominant model. In barrow, the SNP was significantly associated with CIE a, drip loss, and $pH_{24hr}$, whereas in gilt, only a significant relationship with moisture content was observed. GG genotype pigs had a higher $pH_{24hr}$ and lower drip loss. Because $pH_{24hr}$ and drip loss are considered the most important meat quality traits, GG genotype pork is high-quality meat compared to that from other genotypes. In conclusion, the SNP in the ECI2 gene is significantly associated with several meat quality traits. These traits and could be as genetic markers in molecular breeding programs for improving meat quality.

Effect of Semisulcospira libertina Extracts from Different Extraction Processes on Liver Cell Toxicity and Ethanol Metabolism (간세포 독성과 에탄올 대사에서 추출 조건에 따른 다슬기 추출물의 효과)

  • Cho, Kyoung Hwan;Choo, Ho Jin;Seo, Min Gyun;Kim, Jong Cheol;Shin, Yu Jin;Ryu, Gi Hyung;Cho, Hee Young;Jeong, Chi-Young;Hah, Young-Sool
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.158-166
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    • 2017
  • Although Semisulcospira libertina is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the extracts prepared using different extraction methods and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid contents were found to be much higher in acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates than hot water extracts from S. libertina. DPPH radical scavenging activities in acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates were higher than those of hot water extracts. Three types of S. libertina hydrolysate was added to HepG2 cells damaged by acetaminophen (AAP), after which the survival rate of HepG2 cell were measured. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in the culture media were evaluated. The survival rates of HepG2 cells were $77.0{\pm}4.3%$ and $81.5{\pm}1.3%$ at 3 h and 5h enzymatic hydrolysates, respectively. These cell survival rates were higher compared to those of the negative control group ($67.8{\pm}4.3%$) treated only with acetaminophen. Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with AAP were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of S. libertina. In addition, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by 4.7- and 2.7-fold respectively in response to treatment with a 3 h enzymatic hydrolysate of S. libertina. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which S. libertina exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults.

The Effect of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) of the Arctic Copepod Calanus glacialis on Protecting Escherichia coli Cells against Oxidative Stress (북극 동물플랑크톤 Calanus glacialis TCTP (Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein)가 산화적 스트레스 상태에서 E. coli 세포의 저항성에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Yu Kyung;Lee, Chang-Eun;Lee, Hyoungseok;Koh, Hye Yeon;Kim, Sojin;Lee, Sung Gu;Kim, Jung Eun;Yim, Joung Han;Hong, Ju-Mi;Kim, Ryeo-Ok;Han, Se Jong;Kim, Il-Chan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.931-938
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    • 2020
  • Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is one of the most abundant proteins in various eukaryotic organisms. TCTPs play important roles in cell physiological processes in cancer, cell proliferation, gene regulation, and heat shock response. TCTP is also considered an important factor in the resistance to oxidative stress induced by dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Arctic calanoid copepods have a variety of antioxidant defense systems to regulate the levels of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species generated by ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic marine ecosystem. However, information on the antioxidant activity of TCTP in the Arctic Calanus glacialis is still scarce. To understand the putative antioxidant function of the Arctic copepod C. glacialis TCTP (Cg-TCTP), its gene was cloned and sequenced. The Cg-TCTP comprised 522 bp and encoded a 174-amino acid putative protein with a calculated molecular weight of ~23 kDa. The recombinant Cg-TCTP (Cg-r TCTP) gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli (BL21), and Cg-rTCTP-transformed cells were grown in the presence or absence of H2O2. Cg-rTCTP-transformed E. coli showed increased tolerance to high H2O2 concentrations. Therefore, TCTP may be an important antioxidant protein related to tolerance of the Arctic copepod C. glacialis to oxidative stress in the harsh environment of the Arctic Ocean.

Studies on nutrient sources, fermentation and harmful organisms of the synthetic compost affecting yield of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing (양송이 수량(收量)에 미치는 합성퇴비배지(合成堆肥培地)의 영양원(營養源), 발효(醱酵) 및 유해생물(有害生物)에 관((關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Gwan-Chull
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.13-73
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    • 1979
  • These studies were conducted to investigate nutrient sources and supplementary materials of synthetic compost media for Agaricus bisporus culture. Investigation were carried out to establish the optimum composition for compost of Agaricus bisporus methods of out-door fermentation and peakheating with rice straw as the main substrate of the media. The incidence and flora of harmful organisms in rice straw compost and their control were also studied. 1. When rice straw was used as the main substrate in synthetic compost as a carbon source. yields were remarkably high. Fermentation was more rapid than that of barley straw or wheat straw, and the total nitrogen content was high in rice straw compost. 2. Since the morphological and physico-chemical nature of Japonica and Indica types of rice straw are greatly dissimilar. there were apparent differences in the process of compost fermentation. Fermentation of Indica type straw proceeded more rapidly with a shortening the compost period, reducing the water supply, and required adding of supplementary materials for producing stable physical conditions. 3. Use of barley straw compost resulted in a smaller crop compared with rice straw. but when a 50%, barley straw and 50% rice straw mixture was used, the yield was almost the same as that using only rice straw. 4. There were extremely high positive correlations between yield of Agaricus bisporus and the total nitrogen, organic nitrogen, amino acids, amides and amino sugar nitrogen content of compost. The mycerial growth and fruit body formation were severely inhibited by ammonium nitrogen. 5. When rice straw was used as the main substrate for compost media, urea was the most suitable source of nitrogen. Poor results were obtained with calcium cyanamide and ammonium sulfate. When urea was applied three separate times, nitrogen loss during composting was decreased and the total nitrogen content of compost was increased. 6. The supplementation of organic nutrient activated compost fermentation and increased yield of Agaricus bisporus. The best sources of organic nutrients were: perilla meal, sesame meal, wheat bran and poultry manure, etc. 7. Soybean meal, tobacco powder and glutamic acid fermentation by-products which were industrial wastes, could be substituted for perilla meal, sesame meal and wheat bran as organic nutrient sources for compost media. B. When gypsum and zeolite were added to rice straw. physical deterioration of compost due to excess moisture and caramelization was observed. The Indica type of straw was more remarkable in increase of yield of Agricus bisporus by addition of supplementing materials than Japonica straw. 9. For preparing rice straw compost, the best mixture was prepared by 10% poultry manure, 5% perilla meal, 1. 2 to 1. 5% urea and 1% gypsum. At spring cropping, it was good to add rice bran to accelerate heat generation of the compost heap. 10. There was significantly high positive correlation (r=0.97) between accumulated temperature and the decomposition degree of compost during outdoor composting. The yield was highest at accumulated temperatures between 900 and $1,000^{\circ}C$. 11. Prolonging the composting period brought about an increase in decomposition degree and total nitrogen content, but a decrease in ammonium nitrogen. In the spring the suitable period of composting was 20 to 25 days. and about 15 days in autumn. For those periods, the degree of decomposition was 19 to 24%. 12. Compactness of wet compost at filling caused an increase in the residual ammonium nitrogen. methane and organic acid during peak heating. There was negative correlation between methane content and yield (r=0.76)and the same was true between volatile organic acid and yield (r=0.73). 13. In compost with a moisture content range between 69 to 80% at filling. the higher the moisture content, the lower the yield (r=0.78). This result was attributed to a reduction in the porosity of compost at filling the beds. The optimum porosity for good fermentation was between 41 and 53%. 14. Peak heating of the compost was essential for the prevention of harmful microorganisms and insect pests. and for the removal of excess ammonia. It was necessary to continue fer mentatiion for four days after peak heating. 15. Ten species of fungi which are harmful or competitive to Agaricus bisporus were identified from the rice compost, including Diehliomyces microsporus, Trichoderma sp. and Stysanus stemoites. The frequency of occurrance was notably high with serious damage to Agaricus bisporus. 16. Diehliomyces microsporus could be controlled by temperature adjustment of the growing room and by fumigating the compost and the house with Basamid and Vapam. Trichoderma was prevented by the use of Bavistin and Benomyl. 17. Four species of nematodes and five species of mites occured in compost during out-door composting. These orgnanisms could be controlled through peakheating compost for 6 hours at $60^{\circ}C$.

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Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism in Gastric Cancer (위암에서 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T의 유전자 다형성)

  • Seo Won;Park Won Cheol;Lee Jeong Kyun;Kim Jeong Jung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Recently the role of vitamins, folate in particular, has been emphasized in the maintenance of health. Folate deficiency is known to give rise to developmental delay, immature vascular disease, neural tube defect, acute leukemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, delivery defects, breast cancer, and particularly gastrointestinal neoplasia. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential enzyme in folate metaboism, and influences DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. Generally, folate deficiency is associated with gastrointestinal neoplasms. The amino-acid- changing and enzyme-activity-reducing nucleotide polymorphism (766C$\rightarrow$T/ Ala222Val) has been described in the MTHFR polymorphism and leads to low enzyme activity that may reduce the capacity of DNA methylation and possibly uracil mis-incorporation into DNA. These processes may be critical in the oncogenic transformation of human cells, especially in colorectal carcinomas. We investigated the relationship between the MTHFR polymorphism in gastric cancer and the tumor site, the smoking history, and the alcoholic history. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six (96) individuals with gastric cancer and 287 healthy persons were analyzed. Blood sampling was performed, PCR-RFLP was analyzed, and MTHFR polymorphism genotypes of C/C, C/T, and T/T were obtained and analyzed statistically for their correlation. Results: In the gastric cancer group there were 69 ($72\%$) males and 27 ($28\%$) females. There were also 58 cases ($60\%$) involving the gastric lower body, 20 cases ($21\%$) the gastric mid-body, and 18 cases ($19\%$) the gastric upper body. In the control group there were 169 ($59\%$) males and 118 ($41\%$) females. Among the gastric cancer, 56 ($61\%$) smoking patients, 40 ($39\%$) non-smoking patients, 45($47\%$) alcoholic patients, 51 ($53\%$) non-alcoholic patients. In the gastric cancer group, MTHER polymorphisms were C/C in 18 ($19\%$) cases, C/T in 59 ($61\%$) cases, T/T in 19 ($20\%$) cases. In the control group polymorphisms were C/C 116 ($40\%$) cases, C/T 103 ($36\%$) cases, and T/T 68 ($24\%$) cases (P=0.045). In cases of lower gastric body cancer, polymorphisms were C/C in 16 ($24\%$) C/C in 16 ($24\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 42 ($72\%$) cases. In cases of upper and mid-body cancer, polymorphisms were C/C in 2 ($5\%$) cases and C/T or T/T 36 ($95\%$) cases (P=0.006). In the non-smoking patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 5 (12%) cases and C/T or T/T in 35 ($88\%$) cases. In the smoking patient group, C/C in 13 ($23\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 43 ($77\%$) cases (P=0.189). In the non-alcoholic patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 6 ($12\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 45 ($88\%$) cases. In the alcoholic patient group, polymorphisms were C/C in 12 ($26\%$) cases and C/T or T/T in 33 ($74\%$) cases (P=0.063) Conclusion: MTHFR polymorphisms are associated with gastric cancer and tumor site, but not with smoking and alcohol drinking.

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Status and Prospect of Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Rice Field of Korea (한국 논에서 제초제 저항성잡초 발생 현황과 전망)

  • Park, Tae-Seon;Lee, In-Yong;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Park, Hong-Kyu;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Kang, Ui-Gum
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.119-133
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    • 2011
  • Sulfonylurea (SU)-resistant weeds include seven annual weeds such as Monochoria vaginalis, Scirpus juncoides and Cyperus difformis, etc., and three perennial weeds of Scirpus planiculmis, Sagittaria pigmaea and Eleocharis acicularis as of 2010 since identification Monochoria korsakowii in the reclaimed rice field in 1998. The Echinochloa oryzoides resistant to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors has been confirmed in wet-direct seeding rice field of the southern province, Korea in 2009. In the beginning of occurrence of SU-resistant weeds the M. vaginalis, S. juncoides and C. difformis were rapidly and individually spreaded in different fields, however, theses resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same filed as time goes by. The resistant biotype by weed species demonstrated about 10- to 1,000-fold resistance, base on $GR_{50}$ (50% growth reduction) values of the SU herbicides tested. And the resistant biotype of E. oryzoides to cyhalofop-butyl, pyriminobac-methyl, and penoxsulam was about 14, 8, and 11 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype base on $GR_{50}$ values. In history of paddy herbicides in Korea, the introduction of SU herbicides including besulfuron-metyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl that control many troublesome weeds at low use rates and provide excellent crop safety gave farmers and many workers for herbicide business refreshing jolt. The products and applied area of SU-included herbicides have been rapidly increased, and have accounted for about 69% and 96%, respectively, in Korea. The top ten herbicides by applied area were composed of all SU-included herbicides by 2003. The concentrated and successive treatment of ACCase and ALS inhibitors for control of barnyardgrass in direct-seeded rice led up to the resistance of E. oryzoides. Also, SU-herbicides like pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and imazosulfuron which are effective to barnyardgrass can be bound up with the resistance of E. oryzoides. The ALS activity isolated from the resistant biotype of M. korsakowii to SU-herbicides tested was less sensitive than that of susceptible biotype. The concentration of herbicide required for 50% inhibition of ALS activity ($I_{50}$) of the SU-resistant M. korsakowii was 14- to 76-fold higher as compared to the susceptible biotype. No differences were observed in the rates of [$^{14}C$]bensulfuron uptake and translocation. ALS genes from M. vaginalis resistant and susceptible biotypes against SU-herbicides revealed a single amino acid substitution of proline (CCT), at 197th position based on the M. korsakowii ALS sequence numbering, to serin (TCT) in conserved domain A of the gene. Carfentrazone-ethyl and pyrazolate were used mainly to control SU-resistant M. vaginalis by 2006, the early period, in Korea. However, the alternative herbicides such as benzobicyclone, to be possible to control simultaneously the several resistant weeds, have been developing and using broadly because the several resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same filed. The top ten herbicides by applied area in Korea have been occupied by products of 3-way mixture type including herbicides with alternative mode of action for the herbicide resistant weeds. Mefenacet, fentrazamide and cafenstrole had excellent controlling effects on the ACCase and ALS inhibitors resistant when they were applied within 2 leaf stage.