• Title, Summary, Keyword: antimicrobial activity

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The Development of Functional Seasoning Chicken Products using Natural Extracts of Green Tea and Water Soluble Mineral Ion (녹차와 기능수를 이용한 기능성 양념 계육 개발)

  • 성삼경;조영석;김은주;김수민
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the effects of pickle carrier on physico-chemical characteristics of seasoning chicken products, chicken were cured in seasoning containing 100 ppm germanium water, green tea, water soluble mineral and mixtures(100 ppm germanium water+green tea+water soluble mineral) after addition of 0.1% concentration to the weight of chicken. The determination of pH, salt and sugar contents were carried out, according to curing time. The salt content showed 1.11 %, 1.21 % in cured at 24 hours in control of breast and leg, irrespective of chicken parts, in which showed 19.94 brix, 18.89 brix in sugar content, respectively. These results mean that breast and leg meat added with natural extracts and functional water showed higher sugar content than that of control, in which revealed shortening of curing time by increasing penetrating velocity of salt and sugar content. Thus, salt and sugar content tended to be increased as the curing time of pickle carrier were extended in seasoning chicken after dipping in pickle containing water soluble mineral ions for 6 hours. The seasoning chicken treated with natural extracts and functional water showed a lower than that of control in hardness, irrespective of chicken parts. Overall, the seasoning chicken treated with natural extracts and functional water showed a low TBARS value and Log CFU/g, in which revealed antioxidative and antimicrobial activity. The sensory evaluations of seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions were not significantly different(P<0.05). The glutamic acid among free amino acid contents showed a high in seasoning chicken treated with green tea, compared to control. This amino acid played a important role in taste of seasoning meat. The doneness appearance in seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions tended to not be different, compared to those of control. These results revealed that seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions would be attractive in fast food market on the basis of improvement of tenderness, shortening of curing time and uniformity of roasting appearance in seasoning chicken.

Effects of Medicinal Plants Extract on Naengmyeon Broth (약용식물 추출물이 냉면육수에 미치는 영향)

  • 김명숙;최윤희;홍선표
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2003
  • When the extract of the medicinal plants, Kaempferia galanga L., Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Foeniculum vulgare, was added to Naengmyeon broth with the concentration of 0.1% and 0.3% each, its effect during the preservation time of broth was investigated. pH of the extract-added broth was lower than control at the initial, but higher after 72 hours of preservation, which showed that when it added 0.1% and 0.3% of extract to the broth, pH of Kaempferia galanga L. was 4.92 and 5.08 respectively, whereas control was 4.60. Titratable acidity was lowered after 48 hours and also Kaempferia galanga L. showed the lowest acidity with 0.66 for adding 0.1% of its extract and 0.55 for 0.3% of adding, but control was 0.89 at the time of 90 hours of preservation, and then it showed to be lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vuigare. Turbidity of each broth added the extracts of four of the medicinal plants was 7.5∼7.9 and 7.9∼8.2, respectively for 0.1% and 0.3% of concentration at the initial, but it began to lower and 90 hours later it was 8.8∼9.5 and 8.7∼9.0 respectively, whereas control was 10.8. Total viable cells(TVC) and coliform bacteria(CB) were increased with great at the 72 hours of preservation time, and Kaempferia galanga L. was the most effective, which when control was 4.8${\times}$10 CFU/ml at 72 hours, TVC was 1.7${\times}$10 CFU/ml for the addition of 0.1% of extract and 0.9${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.3%. CB was 3.2${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.1% and 1.7${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.3% respectively and 6.0 ${\times}$ 10 CFU/ml for control at the time of 72 hours, and it was lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vulgare. Volatile basic nitrogen content detected that control was 2.67mg% at first, and then increased to 3.96mg% at 90 hours of preservation, but the broth added with the extract of Kaempferia galanga L. was 2.58mg% for 0.1% and 2.47mg% for 0.3% at the initial, and at 90 hours it was 3.64mg% and 3.33mg% respectively. The results of adding the extracts of four medicinal plants for the improvement of the preservation time of Naengmyeon broth, were that the most effective medicinal plant was Kaempferia galanga L. and the antimicrobial activity of the medicinal plant extracts for Naengmyeon broth was highly effective after 3 days of preservation time.

Utilization of Probiotic Starter Cultures for the Manufacture of Low-fat Functional Fermented Sausages (저지방 기능성 발효소시지의 제조를 위한 복합 유산균주의 이용)

  • Kim, Young-J.;Lee, Hong-C.;Park, Sung-Y.;Park, Sun-Y.;Oh, Se-Jong;Chin, Koo-B.
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of fermented sausages containing probiotic starter cultures (LK-30 plus, Lactobacillus plantarum 155 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) with reduced fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Although low-fat fermented sausages were reduced fat content at the amount of 90% and the ripening time by 1-2 weeks, as compared to regular-fat counterpart, they became harder and had many winkles outside due to the extreme drying. In addition, fat level in fermented sausages affected the composition and shear force values. During ripening, pH, lightness and yellowness values tended to decrease, however, microbial counts of inoculated lactic acid bacteria were increased up to $10^8-10^9cfu/g$ within 3 days and remained constant thereafter. Low-fat fermented sausages had higher microbial counts than regular-fat ones. Although the inoculated probiotic starter cultures alone had the functional properties, such as cholesterol reduction, anti-high blood pressure and antimicrobial activity, they did not have distinctive characteristics in the fermented sausages. Based on these results, the low-fat fermented sausages were successfully manufactured, but a little bit increased fat level and improved functional properties in the fermented sausages would be required to have better quality as compared to regular-fat counterparts.

Study on Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial Effect of Pinus rigida Mill. inner Bark Extracts as a Cosmetic Material (리기다소나무(Pinus rigida Mill.) 내수피 추출물에 대한 화장품 소재로써의 항염 및 항균효과)

  • Jang, Min-Jung;Kim, Young-Hun;An, Bong-Jeun;Lee, Chang-Eeon;Lee, Jin-Tae;Kim, Sea-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Guen;Lee, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.3
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2008
  • Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the applications of plant-based extracts to both cosmetic and medicinal industries. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of P. rigida extracts by water and ethyl acetate. Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effect of P. rigida extracts by water and EtOAc were investigated by using nitrite scavenging ability, nitric oxide production and anti-microbial ability. In the test of nitrite scavenging ability, P. rigida extracts by water and EtOAc showed 88.7% and 99% at 100 ppm concentration, respectively. The cell viability was measured using the MTT assay at 24 hours after P. rigida extracts as shown in over 80%. Anti-inflammatory effect was examined in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. NO productions in LPS and P. rigida extracts stimulated group were decreased in a concentration and were dependent on time as compared with LPS stimulated. The water extracts showed the highest inhibition at the 100 ppm concentration. In anti-microbial activity test, the water extract with 3.0 mg/disc resulted in the clear zone of 14 mm, and ethyl acetate with that of 15 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. However, P. rigida extracts didn't show any growth inhibitory effect on Esherichia coli. These results indicate that the extracts of P. rigida have anti-inflammatory activities as a cosmeceuticals.

Effects of Gemifloxacin on Achilles Tendon in Immature Rats (Gemifloxacin이 미성숙 랫드의 아킬레스건에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Jin-Gye;Kim, Young-Soo;Kim, Se-Eun;Shim, Kyung-Mi;Kang, Seong-Soo;Cho, Ik-Hyun;Lee, Soo-Han;Park, Chang-Hyun;Uhm, Chang-Sub;Jeong, Moon-Jin;Han, Song-Iy;Lim, Sung-Chul;Bae, Chun-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2006
  • Gemifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent that exhibits potent activity against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, and has a comparatively low chondrotoxic potential in immature animals. This study examined the effects of gemifloxacin on the Achilles tendons in immature Sprague-Dawley rats treated by oral intubation once daily for 5 consecutive days from postnatal week 4 onward at doses of 0 (vehicle), and 600mg/kg body weight Ofloxacin was used for comparison. The Achilles tendon sperimens were examined by electron microscopy. In comparison with the vehicle-treated controls, there were ultrastructural changes in all samples from the gemifloxacin- and ofloxacin-treated rats. Degenerative changes were observed in the tenocytes, and the cells that detached from the extracellular matrix were recognizable. The degree of degenerative changes and the number of degenerated cells in the Achilles tendon were significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group. Moreover, among the quinolone treated groups, these findings were more significant in the ofloxacin treated group, and less significant in the gemifloxacin treated group. It is unclear what these findings mean with respect to the possible risk ill juvenile patients treated with gemifloxacin or other quinolones. However, these results show that gemifloxacin causes fewer changes in the connective tissue structures.

Developments of Functional Sausage using Plant Extracts from Pine Needle and Green Tea (솔잎 및 녹차 추출물을 이용한 기능성 소시지 개발)

  • 김수민;조영석;성삼경;이일구;이신호;김대곤
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2002
  • The functional sausage added to effective extracts are prepared to carried out to investigate functional and storage characteristics. This products were stored at different temperature. The changes of pH were tended to be a little ranged from pH 6.07 to pH 6.35 in control. At the same time, the pH changes treated with plant extracts showed the same tendency as control. The treatments using natural extracts revealed a little low TBARS value during storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. The nitrite scavenging ability of extracts from pine needle were higher than those of green tea extracts, irrespective of storage temperature. The VBN content was tended to be increased as storage time goes by, irrespective of storage temperature. The treatments using plant extracts revealed a little low VBN content, compared to control during storage. The changes of total bacteria were more increased to 2.2${\times}$10$^1$∼3.2 ${\times}$ 10$\^$6/ CFU/g during storage at 30$^{\circ}C$ than 2.2${\times}$10$^1$∼3.3${\times}$10$^2$CFU/g in case of storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. The treatments using plant extracts revealed an antimicrobial activity until storage at 3 days, compared to control. The lightness of sausage color were a little more decreased gradually during storage at 30$^{\circ}C$ than those of storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. Overall, the lightness of sausage color treated with pine needle extracts were a more bright than those of control. However, the redness of sausage color treated with pine needle and green tea showed the most lowest red color, compared to control. Sensory test suggested that the changes of sausage color, flavor, texture and taste were tended to be decreased gradually. In conclusion, pine needle extract was the most effective natural resources on the basis of the functional and physico-chemical properties of sausage of sausage.

Quality Characteristics and Allyl Isothiocyanate Contents of Commercial Wasabi Paste Products (시판 와사비 페이스트 제품의 품질 특성 및 Allyl Isothiocyanate 함량)

  • Lee, Hyo-Kyung;Kim, Do-Heui;Kim, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.426-431
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    • 2016
  • To compare the quality characteristics of commercial wasabi paste products, the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of 6 samples were analyzed. In addition, the contents of allyl isothiocyanate, which show unique flavor and antimicrobial activity in wasabi paste products, were compared. pH of commercial 6 wasabi products were ranged from $4.12{\pm}0.01$ to $4.90{\pm}0.01$, and titratable acidities of products distributed at cold temperature (CW) were higher $0.60{\pm}0.00{\sim}0.77{\pm}0.02%$ than those of products distributed at room temperature (RW). Salinities of RW were higher ($4.27{\pm}0.06{\sim}7.53{\pm}0.12%$) than those of CW ($2.20{\pm}0.00{\sim}3.60{\pm}0.10%$). Soluble solid and sorbitol contents of RW were higher ($33.00{\pm}1.00{\sim}44.67{\pm}2.08^{\circ}Brix$, $378.90{\pm}63.79{\sim}724.37{\pm}7.85mg%$) than those of CW ($22.00{\pm}1.73{\sim}27.00{\pm}1.00^{\circ}Brix$, $27.67{\pm}9.92{\sim}175.31{\pm}10.56mg%$), respectively. The viable cell counts of samples were $ND{\sim}3.65{\pm}0.23 log\;CFU/g$ without distribution method and packaging type, and yeasts and molds were not detected in 6 wasabi products. Allyl isothiocyanate contents of RW were higher ($53.35{\pm}0.08{\sim}159.76{\pm}0.81mg%$) than those of CW ($24.07{\pm}7.69{\sim}48.19{\pm}0.15mg%$).

Inhibition of Bacillus cereus in Cheonggukjang Fermented with Bacillus Starters with Antimicrobial Activities (항균력을 지닌 Bacillus 균주들을 종균으로 사용한 청국장에서 Bacillus cereus 억제)

  • Lee, Jae Yong;Shim, Jae Min;Liu, Xiaoming;Yao, Zhuang;Lee, Kang Wook;Cho, Kye Man;Kim, Gyoung Min;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kim, Jong-Sang;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.736-745
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    • 2016
  • Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soy food, was prepared by inoculation of Bacillus subtilis EMD4 or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EMD17 with anti-bacterial or anti-fungal activities into soybeans. Cheonggukjang was also prepared by co-inoculation of EMD4 and EMD17 (1:1, v/v). Control cheonggukjang was prepared by using B. subtilis KACC16450 (Natto strain). Growth of B. cereus cells spiked with starter organisms was completely inhibited by B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17 after 12 h of fermentation at $37^{\circ}C$. Growth of B. cereus was also inhibited by B. subtilis EMD4, but the degree of inhibition was weaker. After 48 h of fermentation, cheonggukjang samples were stored for 10 days at $4^{\circ}C$. B. cereus cells were not detected from cheonggukjang inoculated with EMD4, whereas significant numbers still present in control. The pH values of cheonggukjang samples were not significantly different. During fermentation, cheonggukjang fermented with EMD17 showed the highest fibrinolytic activity and during storage, cheonggukjang fermented with a Natto strain was the highest. Cheonggukjang fermented with a Natto strain also showed the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The results show that control of B. cereus in cheonggukjang is possible by using starters such as B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17.

Effect of Pitamin as an Antibiotics Replacement for Organic livestock Feed Additives in Broiler Chickens (유기사료원료로서 소나무껍질 추출물 피타민의 브로일러에 대한 항생제 대체효과)

  • Kim, Byong-Wan;Oh, Jin-Seok;Han, Ohan-Taek;Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.111-125
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    • 2009
  • Pitamin is a component of pine bark extract that exhibits antimicrobial activity and a variety of physiological effects. This study was earned out to investigate the effects of dietary pitamin as an organic livestock feed additive in broiler chickens. A 35 day trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary premix containing 5% pitamin; investigated parameters included blood lipids, growth performance, quality characteristics of carcasses, and changes of caecal microbials in broiler chickens. Chickens were randomly divided into groups that were untreated (control), treated conventionally with antibiotics in the absence of premix, received 0.1 % or 0.2% premix containing 5% pitamin. Plasma lipids were lower in groups fed diets with pitamin premix (p<0.05). The body weight gain from broiler chickens fed with the diet containing 0.1% pitamin premix and antibiotics was similar, and was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). The weight of breast muscle and thigh meat of carcasses was similar, and was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Abdominal fat and thymus index from chickens receiving either pitamin-supplemented premix was significantly lower and increased, respectively, that of the antibiotic and control groups (both p<0.05). The chickens on the pitamin premix-supplemented diets evidenced significantly higher caecal levels of Bifidobacterium species as compared with the chickens on the control diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that feeding a diet supplemented with a 0.1% premix containing 5.0% pitamin for 35 days maintains the production of broiler chickens at a level comparable to that obtained from the use of antibiotics.

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Sesquiterpenoids Bioconversion Analysis by Wood Rot Fungi

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Ryu, Sun-Hwa;Choi, In-Gyu;Kim, Myungkil
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.19-20
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    • 2016
  • Sesquiterpenoids are defined as $C_{15}$ compounds derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), and their complex structures are found in the tissue of many diverse plants (Degenhardt et al. 2009). FPP's long chain length and additional double bond enables its conversion to a huge range of mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic structures. A number of cyclic sesquiterpenes with alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone derivatives have key biological and medicinal properties (Fraga 1999). Fungi, such as the wood-rotting Polyporus brumalis, are excellent sources of pharmaceutically interesting natural products such as sesquiterpenoids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthesis of P. brumalis sesquiterpenoids on modified medium. Fungal suspensions of 11 white rot species were inoculated in modified medium containing $C_6H_{12}O_6$, $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ for 20 days. Cultivation was stopped by solvent extraction via separation of the mycelium. The metabolites were identified as follows: propionic acid (1), mevalonic acid lactone (2), ${\beta}$-eudesmane (3), and ${\beta}$-eudesmol (4), respectively (Figure 1). The main peaks of ${\beta}$-eudesmane and ${\beta}$-eudesmol, which were indicative of sesquiterpene structures, were consistently detected for 5, 7, 12, and 15 days These results demonstrated the existence of terpene metabolism in the mycelium of P. brumalis. Polyporus spp. are known to generate flavor components such as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate; 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyl benzoic acid; 3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenol; and 3-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl phenol in submerged cultures (Hoffmann and Esser 1978). Drimanes of sesquiterpenes were reported as metabolites from P. arcularius and shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Fleck et al. 1996). The main metabolites of P. brumalis, ${\beta}$-Eudesmol and ${\beta}$-eudesmane, were categorized as eudesmane-type sesquiterpene structures. The eudesmane skeleton could be biosynthesized from FPP-derived IPP, and approximately 1,000 structures have been identified in plants as essential oils. The biosynthesis of eudesmol from P. brumalis may thus be an important tool for the production of useful natural compounds as presumed from its identified potent bioactivity in plants. Essential oils comprising eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids have been previously and extensively researched (Wu et al. 2006). ${\beta}$-Eudesmol is a well-known and important eudesmane alcohol with an anticholinergic effect in the vascular endothelium (Tsuneki et al. 2005). Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that ${\beta}$-eudesmol acts as a channel blocker for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and it can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (Seo et al. 2011). Variation of nutrients was conducted to determine an optimum condition for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by P. brumalis. Genes encoding terpene synthases, which are crucial to the terpene synthesis pathway, generally respond to environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and available nutrients (Hoffmeister and Keller 2007, Yu and Keller 2005). Calvo et al. described the effect of major nutrients, carbon and nitrogen, on the synthesis of secondary metabolites (Calvo et al. 2002). P. brumalis did not prefer to synthesize sesquiterpenes under all growth conditions. Results of differences in metabolites observed in P. brumalis grown in PDB and modified medium highlighted the potential effect inorganic sources such as $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ on sesquiterpene synthesis. ${\beta}$-eudesmol was apparent during cultivation except for when P. brumalis was grown on $MgSO_4$-free medium. These results demonstrated that $MgSO_4$ can specifically control the biosynthesis of ${\beta}$-eudesmol. Magnesium has been reported as a cofactor that binds to sesquiterpene synthase (Agger et al. 2008). Specifically, the $Mg^{2+}$ ions bind to two conserved metal-binding motifs. These metal ions complex to the substrate pyrophosphate, thereby promoting the ionization of the leaving groups of FPP and resulting in the generation of a highly reactive allylic cation. Effect of magnesium source on the sesquiterpene biosynthesis was also identified via analysis of the concentration of total carbohydrates. Our current study offered further insight that fungal sesquiterpene biosynthesis can be controlled by nutrients. To profile the metabolites of P. brumalis, the cultures were extracted based on the growth curve. Despite metabolites produced during mycelia growth, there was difficulty in detecting significant changes in metabolite production, especially those at low concentrations. These compounds may be of interest in understanding their synthetic mechanisms in P. brumalis. The synthesis of terpene compounds began during the growth phase at day 9. Sesquiterpene synthesis occurred after growth was complete. At day 9, drimenol, farnesol, and mevalonic lactone (or mevalonic acid lactone) were identified. Mevalonic acid lactone is the precursor of the mevalonic pathway, and particularly, it is a precursor for a number of biologically important lipids, including cholesterol hormones (Buckley et al. 2002). Farnesol is the precursor of sesquiterpenoids. Drimenol compounds, bi-cyclic-sesquiterpene alcohols, can be synthesized from trans-trans farnesol via cyclization and rearrangement (Polovinka et al. 1994). They have also been identified in the basidiomycota Lentinus lepideus as secondary metabolites. After 12 days in the growth phase, ${\beta}$-elemene caryophyllene, ${\delta}$-cadiene, and eudesmane were detected with ${\beta}$-eudesmol. The data showed the synthesis of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with bi-cyclic structures. These compounds can be synthesized from FPP by cyclization. Cyclic terpenoids are synthesized through the formation of a carbon skeleton from linear precursors by terpene cyclase, which is followed by chemical modification by oxidation, reduction, methylation, etc. Sesquiterpene cyclase is a key branch-point enzyme that catalyzes the complex intermolecular cyclization of the linear prenyl diphosphate into cyclic hydrocarbons (Toyomasu et al. 2007). After 20 days in stationary phase, the oxygenated structures eudesmol, elemol, and caryophyllene oxide were detected. Thus, after growth, sesquiterpenes were identified. Per these results, we showed that terpene metabolism in wood-rotting fungi occurs in the stationary phase. We also showed that such metabolism can be controlled by magnesium supplementation in the growth medium. In conclusion, we identified P. brumalis as a wood-rotting fungus that can produce sesquiterpenes. To mechanistically understand eudesmane-type sesquiterpene biosynthesis in P. brumalis, further research into the genes regulating the dynamics of such biosynthesis is warranted.

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