• Title, Summary, Keyword: antimicrobial activity

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Antimicrobial Activity of Garlic Heated under Different Conditions, Time of Heating, and pH

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Kang, Seung-Sik;Kang, Dong-Hee;Kyung, Kyu-Hang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.771-775
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    • 2009
  • Antimicrobial activity of garlic (pH 6.0) heated at $120^{\circ}C$ reached its maximum at 45 min of heating and maintained the level for the rest of heating time (300 min) when tested against Candida utilis ATCC42416. The principal antimicrobial compound was allyl alcohol (AA), a highly volatile compound without sulfur in its molecule. The concentration of AA in heated garlic gradually increased to over 2,000 ppm for the first 90 min and stayed at the level without appreciable changes in spite of further heating. Other antimicrobial compounds secondary to AA were lowly volatile sulfur compounds including diallyl polysulfides (diallyl trisulfide, diallyl tetrasulfide, and diallyl pentasulfide) and heterocyclic sulfur compounds (4-methyl-1,2,3-trithiolane, 5-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrathiane, and 6-methyl-1,2,3,4,5-pentathiepane). When the pH of the garlic extract was lowered before heating, considerably more secondary antimicrobial sulfur compounds were formed and the antimicrobial activity was stronger than the pH unadjusted garlic. Lowly volatile sulfur compounds contributed a significant part of antimicrobial activity of heated garlic only during the early period (45-120 min) of heating regardless of pH treatment.

Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Silver (은(Ag)의 미생물 불활성화 특성 및 기작)

  • Kim, Jee Yeon;Kim, Taeyoung;Yoon, Jeyong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2009
  • Recently, there is much interest in the antimicrobial activity of silver since silver has known to be safe and effective as a disinfectant or an antimicrobial agent against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Although silver has been applied to various kinds of products due to the effective antimicrobial activity, the quantitative antimicrobial activity or detailed mechanism of silver is not clearly investigated yet, causing the controversy and confusion. In this review paper, we summarized the characteristics, antimicrobial activities and mechanisms, synergistic effects with other antimicrobials, and applicability of silver.

Synergy Effect of Chlorhexidine and Essential Oils on Antimicrobial Activity in Dental Impression Materials (치과용 인상재에서의 클로르헥시딘과 에센셜 오일의 항균성능에 대한 상승효과)

  • Lee, Kwang-Rae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.240-244
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    • 2018
  • There is growing concern about cross infection among the patients to patients, patients to staffs, and tools to patients in healthcare facilities, especially in dentistry. In this study, the most widely used dental impression materials were prepared and the synergy effect of Chlorhexidine and essential oil on antimicrobial activity was examined in the impression materials. Chlorhexidine concentration of 0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans. At 1.0 wt% Chlorhexidine, 0% of E. coli and 34.7% of Candida albicans were survived. Bergamot (Essential oil) concentration of 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on E. coli. At 2.0 wt% Bergamot oil, 71.9% of E. coli were survived. Tea tree oil (Essential oil) of 0.5 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on E. coli. At 1.0 wt% Tea tree oil, 11.2% of E. coli was survived. At 2.0 wt% Tea tree oil, no E. coli was survived. However, no E. coli was survived at the concentration of 0.8 wt% Bergamot with 0.3 wt% Chlorhexidine. At the concentration of 0.8 wt% Tea Tree oil with 0.3 wt% Chlorhexidine, 1.3% of E. coli were survived. The experimental results showed that the synergy effects between Chlorhexidine and essential oils on antimicrobial activity were prominent.

Effects of Solvents and Extracting Condition on the Antimicrobial Activity of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix (Saliva miltiorrhiza ) Extract (용매와 추출조건에 따른 단삼 (Salvia mitiorrhiza) 추출물의 항균력)

  • 목종수;박욱연;김영목;장동석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1001-1007
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    • 1994
  • In order to develop a natural food preservative, dried salviae miltiorrhizae radix (Salvia miltiorrhiza) was extracted with several solvents, and then antimicrobial activity was investigated. The optimum extracting condition for the antimicrobial sustance from the sample, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracted substance against microorganisms were also examined. Antimicrobial activity of the initial ethanol extract from the sample was the strongest compared to those of other solvent extracts such as n-hexane, acetone, butanol, methanol and water. the optimum extractingcondition for antimicrobial substance from the sample was shaking extraction for 2 hours at room temperature incase that 10 volumes of absolute ethanol was added to crushed Saliva Miltiorrhiza. The ethanol extract had strong growth inhibition activity against Gram-positive Bacteria (MIC, 3.13-50$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) such as B. cereus, B, subtilis, L. minocytogenes, S. aureus, Sc. Mutans. Among Grampositive bacteria tested, Bacillus species was the most susceptibile to the extracted substance. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract from the sample was weak to Gram -negative bacteria yeasts, for example MIC for Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts was 0.8mg/ml and 0.4-0.8mg/ml , respectively.

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오미자 추출물의 항균특성 검토

  • Park, Yang-Won
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.495-496
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the Omija extracts against the microorganism. The extracts were shown the antimicrobial activity, 10 percents e χ tracts inhibited the growth of bacteria in the various temperature ranges. However no affect shown the other fungi except the bacteria. As the results antimicrobial activity of the all extracts were not destroyed in the high temperature furthermore it shows the strong antimicrobial activity against the autoclave at $121^{\circ}C$ for 15min.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Rumex crispus Fractions

  • Lee, Kyoung-Min;Jeong, Gwi-Taek;Park, Don-Hee
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.268-270
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Rumex crispus development of antibiotics derived from natural products. To confirm antimicrobial activity, paper disc method and growth inhibition in liquid culture were applied. Antimicrobial activity was observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Vibrio vulificus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Cαndida bombicola.

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Comparative study on the antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of commercially available toothpastes (수종의 상용 세치제들의 향균 및 향염효과 비교연구)

  • Rhyu, In-Chul
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 1996
  • It is known that some natural extracts from plants have a various range of antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity. There are lots of clinical trials to develop toothpastes containing natural extracts for prevention of dental caries and gingival inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of magnolol containing toothpastes and other commercial toothpastes. Eleven kinds oftoothpastes were used. They include magnolol, sanguinarine, Myrrha, Mori radicis cortex,Cimicifugae rhizoma, sodium fluoride, aminocaprolactic acid etc. Six strains of bacteria were used for this test, ego Porphylomonas gingivalis, Prevotellain-termedia, Actinobacillus actinomy cetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Stretococcus sanguis, and Actinomyces species. Antimicrobial activity was determined by an agar dillution method and a broth microdillution method. Antiinflammatory activity was assessed by the inhibition of $PGE_2$ production from gingival fibroblast with the addition of rHIL-1 and centrifuged solution of toothpastes. Control group was only rHIL-1 additive sample. $PGE_2$ enzyme immunoassay systemfAmersham, In. Buckinghamshire, U.K). $PGE_2$ level was measured by ELISA reader with 450 nm, The results from the study revealed that toothpastes containing natural extracts generally had high antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity. Especially magnolol containing toothpaste showed higher antimicrobial activity than other toothpastes, and sanguinarine containing toothpaste showed particularly high antimicrobial activity in A. actinomicetemcomitans and A. viscosus. In some degree all toothpastes inhibited $PGE_2$ production, but magnolol containing toothpaste was potent inhibitor of $PGE_2$. Sodium chloride containing toothpaste had also effective result. The results suggested that toothpastes containing natural extracts were promising in plaque control and prevention of dental caries and gingivitis.

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Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus species

  • Kim, Hyeusoo;Lee, Byongsoon;Yun, Kyeong Won
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus plants (Pinus densiflora, P. thunbergii, P. rigida) for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of the water fraction of methanol extract of fresh leaves was stronger than that of fallen leaves at any concentrations. The water fraction of crude methanol extract from fresh leaves of P. thunbergii showed a higher growth inhibitory activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria than that of P. densiflora and P. rigida. The results from the disc diffusion method followed by measurements of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) indicate that Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive microorganism with the lowest MIC value. The highest total phenolic content was found in fresh leaves of P. rigida and P. thunbergii. The assay showed that the fresh leaves of the three Pinus plants contained higher total phenolic content than fallen leaves of the three plants. The antimicrobial activity was related with the total phenolic content.

Antimicrobial Effects on Food-Borne Pathogens and the Antioxidant Activity of Torreya Nucifera Extract (비자 추출물의 식품부패균에 대한 항균효과 및 항산화활성)

  • Rhim, Tae-Jin;Choi, Moo-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.697-705
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    • 2015
  • This study investigates antimicrobial effects of food-borne pathogens and the antioxidant activity of Torreya nucifera extract. The growth of food-borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans was inhibited by the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was highest for Staphylococcus aureus among seven gram-positive bacteria and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa among six gram-negative bacteria. The extract exhibited slightly lower DPPH radical-scavenging activity, but its ABTS radical-scavenging activity was higher than that of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. The results demonstrate the extract's antimicrobial effects on food-borne pathogens as well as potent antioxidant capacity and suggest that Torreya nucifera may be used as a natural antibacterial agent and an effective antioxidant in food.

Antimicrobial Activity of Hwangryunheadok-tang and Extracts of Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex, Coptis Rhizome, and Gardenia Jasminoides against Salmonella Typhimurium (黃連解毒湯, 黃連, 黃芩, 黃柏, 梔子의 Salmonella Typhimurium에 대한 항균효과)

  • Kim, In-soo;Lee, Young-su
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.165-179
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This experiment investigated the antimicrobial activity of Hwangryunheadok-tang and extracts of Scutellariae radix , Phellodendri cortex , Coptis rhizome , and Gardenia jasminoides against Salmonella typhimurium . Methods: After spreading S. typhimurium on a bacterial culture medium plate, antimicrobial activity was tested by dripping diluted Hwangryunheadok-tang or extracts of Scutellariae radix , Phellodendri cortex , Coptis rhizome , or Gardenia jasminoides (80 μl, diluted 100, 50, 10, and 1%) onto the plate, followed by culture for 16 to 72 hours. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was tested by dripping the minimum dilution that showed antimicrobial activity (80, 60, 40, and 20 μl) and measuring the density. The antimicrobial activity of Hwangryunheadok-tang and four extracts showed continuous antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium throughout the experiment. Result: 1. S. typhimurium . (Standard Microorganism, ATCC) 1) The Hwangryunheadok-tang and extracts of Scutellariae radix , Phellodendri cortex , and Coptis rhizome showed antibacterial activity in the undiluted solutions and in 50% dilutions. Gardenia jasminoides extract showed potency only in the undiluted solution. The antimicrobial potency of the undiluted solution was increased when the volume of inoculation was increased, but no difference was noted when the culture time was extended. All the extracts showed antimicrobial potency against S. typhimurium . 2. S. typhimurium isolated from diarrhea patients 1) When compared to the standard microorganism experiment on S. typhimurium , the MICs of the five extracts were increased. However, whereas the antimicrobial potency of doxycycline was lost entirely against bacteria isolated from patients with diarrhea, the antimicrobial potency of all the extracts was diminished but did not disappear. 2) The antimicrobial activity of Hwangryunheadok-tang and four extracts was continuous even when the culture time was extended to 16, 24, and 72 hours. Conclusions: The Hwangryunheadok-tang and four kinds of extracts have antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium . Comparison of a standard microorganism with S. typhimurium isolated from diarrhea patients showed that the antimicrobial activity of all the extracts was better than that of antibiotics. Further studies should focus on the value and benefits of Hwangryunheadok-tang , and the four kinds of extracts as clinical treatments.