• Title, Summary, Keyword: antioxidant activity

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Physiological Responses of Green Roof Plants to Drought Stress (건조스트레스에 따른 옥상녹화 식물의 생리적 반응)

  • Park, Seong-Sik;Choi, Jaehyuck;Park, Bong-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the drought tolerance of Liriope platyphylla F.T.Wang & T.Tang, Dendranthema zawadskii var. lucidum (Nakai) J.H.Park, Hosta longipes (Franch. & Sav.) Matsum., Sedum sarmentosum Bunge and Zoysia japonica Steud. for an extensive green roof. In order to assess drought tolerance of green roof plants, several criteria were measured such as volumetric water content, leaf and soil moisture potential, chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and antioxidants. The results of the drought tolerance measurement of green roof plants focused on the gradually withering of plants from lack of volumetric water content. D. zawadskii was the first to show an initial wilting point, followed by Z. japonica, H. longipes and L. platyphylla in order while S. sarmentosum showed no withering. It was concluded that H. longipes, L. platyphylla and S. sarmentosum were highly drought tolerant plants able to survive over three weeks. Furthermore, chlorophyll a and b were divided into two types: Type I, which kept regular content from the beginning to the middle of the period and suddenly declined, like H. longipes and Z. japonica; and Type II, which showed low content at the beginning, sharply increased at the middle stage and decreased, like D. zawadskii, L. platyphylla and S. sarmentosum. Volumetric water content and the amount of evapotranspiration consistently declined in all plant species. The analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence results that S. sarmentosum, which had relatively high drought tolerance, was the last to decline, while Z. japonica and S. sarmentosum withered after rapid reduction. At first, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate showed high activity, but they lowered as the plant body closed stomata owing to the decrease in volumetric water content. Measuring antioxidants showed that when drought stress increased, the amount of antioxidants grew as well. However, when high moisture stress was maintained, this compound was continuously consumed. Therefore, the variation of antioxidants was considered possible for use as one of the indicators of drought tolerance evaluation.

Perilla frutescens Sprout Extracts Protected Against Cytokine-induced Cell Damage of Pancreatic RINm5F Cells via NF-κB Pathway (들깨 새싹 추출물의 췌장 RINm5F 세포에서 NF-κB 경로를 통한 사이토카인에 의한 손상 예방 효과)

  • Kim, Da Hye;Kim, Sang Jun;Jeong, Seung-Il;Yu, Kang-Yeol;Cheon, Chun Jin;Kim, Jang-Ho;Kim, Seon-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2017
  • Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. sprouts (PFS) is a plant of the labiatae family. The purpose of this work was to assess the preventive effects of PFS ethanolic extracts (PFSEs) on cytokine-induced ${\beta}$-cell damage. Cytokines, which are released by the infiltration of inflammatory cells around the pancreatic islets, are involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The combination of interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-1), interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$), and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulation of intracellular ROS led to ${\beta}$-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. PFSEs possess antioxidant activity and thus lead to downregulation of ROS generation. Cytokines decrease cell viability, stimulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and induce the production of nitric oxide (NO). PFSEs prevented cytokine-induced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with PFSE resulted in significant reduction in cytokine-induced NO production that correlated with reduced levels of the iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Furthermore, PFSE significantly decreased the activation of nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) by inhibition of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ phosphorylation in RINm5F cells. In summary, our results suggest that the protective effects of PFSE might serve to counteract cytokine-induced ${\beta}$-cell destruction. Findings indicate that consumption of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. sprouts alleviates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced ${\beta}$-cell damage and thus has beneficial anti-diabetic effects.

Memory improvement effect of Artemisia argyi H. fermented with Monascus purpureus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (스트렙토조토신으로 유도된 당뇨 마우스에서 Monascus purpureus을 이용한 발효 쑥의 기억력 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Chang Jun;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jeong Eun;Kwon, Bong Seok;Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Su Bin;Ha, Gi-Jeong;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.550-558
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    • 2017
  • The effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM) on cognitive impairments has been studied in a mice model of diabetes-associated cognitive decline induced by streptozotocin (STZ). C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks of age, male) were separated into four groups: a normal control, STZ-induced diabetic mouse group (STZ group), Artemisia argyi H. (AA) 10 group (diabetic mouse+AA 10 mg/kg/day), AAFM 10 group (diabetic mouse+AAFM 10 mg/kg/day). Administration of AA and AAFM significantly improved glucose tolerance, as shown by the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and ameliorated cognitive deficit, as shown by the behavioral tests including passive avoidance, Morris water maze, and Y-maze tests. After behavioral tests, the cholinergic system was examined by assessment of the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the antioxidant system was also assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain and liver.

Skin Protection Effect of Grape Pruning Stem Extract on UVB-induced Connective Tissue Injury (포도전정가지 추출물이 UVB로 유도된 결합 조직 손상에 미치는 피부 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Joung-Hee;Kim, Keuk-Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to analyze the contents of rutin, procyanidin B3, quercetin, and kaempferol, known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects, among the polyphenol types contained in grape pruning stem extracts (GPSE). It utilized grape stems discarded after harvest to measure the effects of GPSE on skin moisture, inhibition of skin cell proliferation, and anti-inflammatory activity on the damaged skin of HR-1 mice induced with ultraviolet B (UVB), and to verify the applicability of GPSE as a material for functional food and functional cosmetics. The polyphenol was extracted from grape pruning stems with 80% EtOH, and then the extract was used while storing at $-20^{\circ}C$, after filtering, concentrating, and freeze-drying it. The content of an active ingredient of GPSE was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From 53 kg of the grape pruning stem specimen, 2.34 kg of the EtOH fraction extracts were extracted to achieve a 4.42% yield ratio. Analysis of the active ingredients showed 0.28 mg/g of procyanidin B3, 12.81 mg/g of rutin, 0.51 mg/g of quercetin, and 8.24 mg/g of kaempferol. After UVB irradiation on the dermis, to confirm the degree of inhibition of collagen synthesis, we examined the protein expression of MMP-9 using immunohistochemical staining. The results of this study confirm the existence of active polyphenol types, such as rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, and procyanidin B3, in GPSE. Moreover, the study found that GPSE has anti-collagenase effects and it decreases the effects of UV damage on skin barrier function. GPSE is a functional ingredient with a potential for skin protection effects, and it has high utilization potential as an ingredient for functional cosmetics.

Quantitative Analysis of Paeoniflorin and Paeonol in Peony Extracts and Quality Control Standards (모란 추출액에서 paeoniflorin과 paeonol 동시 정량 분석 및 화장품 원료의 품질관리 기준 설정)

  • Yun, Ki-Hun;Chi, Yong-Ha;Lee, Dong-Kyu;Paik, Soo-Heui
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.235-246
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    • 2018
  • Paeony has pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-bacterial, central inhibitory, gastric secretion inhibition, and antispasmodic activities. In addition, its antioxidant activity and whitening effect being reported, thus it is being explored as raw materials for cosmetics. We compared the changes in the contents of paeoniflorin and paeonol in Peony extracts, depending on the changes of extracting solvents, temperature and time. The HPLC method was set up for simultaneous analysis, the system suitabilities were confirmed by using the calibration curves and the QC samples for each assay batch. Paeonol was detected only in roots, and paeoniflorin was higher in leaf and flower than root. Higher concentrations of both ingredients were extracted when the root was used after grinding to a suitable size, and when 30% 1,3-butylene glycol was used as the extraction solvent. Also the concentrations tended to increase at higher temperature and longer time, but the increase was gradual at over $75^{\circ}C$ and 4 hours. The ratio of root, leaf and flower was determined to be 2+2+1g/0.5kg of batch, reaching the contents criteria of paeoniflorin and paeonol. Finally, we selected as the best extraction condition when the raw materials are mixed with 2+2+1g/0.5kg and extracted with 30% 1,3-butylene glycol as an extraction solvent at $75^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours, considering both the concentrations of two components and the cost of raw materials and manufacturing process, The extraction units were scaled up to 10 kg under this condition.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Purpurogallin Carboxylic Acid, An Oxidation Product of Gallic Acid in Fermented Tea (발효차중의 미량 성분인 gallic acid 산화물 purpurogallin carboxylic acid의 항염증 효과)

  • Jhoo, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.707-711
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of the current study was to isolate a purpurogallin derivative as an oxidation product from gallic acid, in an effort to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Purpurogallin derivative is known to be the one of the oxidation products of gallic acid. This compound has been identified as a minor chemical component in fermented tea products. It has been previously demonstrated that theaflavins, the oxidation products of catechins found in fermented tea products, exert profound antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the biological activities of a minor chemical component in fermented teas have yet to be evaluated. Purpurogallin carboxylic acid (PCA) was identified as a major oxidation product of gallic acid from a peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide oxidation model system. The identity of the PCA was verified by $^{1}H$ NMR, $^{13}C$ NMR and MS techniques. PCA treatment significantly suppressed the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. According to the nitrite assay, PCA 100, 75, and $50{\mu}g/mL$ treatment dose-dependently inhibited NO production by 57.6, 41.5, and 21.8%, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Moreover, IL-6 production was inhibited to a significant degree with PCA treatment of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$ at 43.1 and 23.9%, respectively. PCA treatment also significantly suppressed $PGE_2$ production at levels of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$. These results showed that PCA exerts inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators.

Lipid Compositions Changes of Seasoned Pork Prepared with Medicinal Plant Extracts During Storage (한약재 추출물을 첨가한 양념 돈육의 저장 중 지질성분의 변화)

  • Cho, Hee-Sook;Shin, Jung-Hye;Lee, Soo-Jung;Kang, Min-Jung;Cho, Hyun-So;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1675-1681
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    • 2007
  • The seasoned porks loins manufactured using with seasoning sauce that were prepared with difference composites of medicinal plant extracts (T-0; medicinal plants extract not added, $T-1{\sim}3$ ; pork treated with mixture of 6 kinds medicinal plant, respectively). And the changes of lipids were investigated during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 15 days. Content of TBARS in raw pork was $0.15{\pm}0.03$ MA mg/kg at beginning storage stage, in seasoned pork group (T-1), TBARS content was $0.35{\pm}0.01$ MA mg/kg after storage for 15 days. But TBARS contents were ranged from 0.27 to 0.3MA mg/kg in seasoned pork groups (T-1, T-2 and T-3) and it significantly lower than T-0 group. Unsaturated fatty acid content tended to increase during storage, but decreased after storage 9 days. These tendency was equally appeared in the cholesterol content of $T-1{\sim}3$ groups. In conclusion, the addition of medicinal plant composites enhanced antioxidant activity of the seasoned pork.

Effect of Feeding By-product of Pleurotus eryngii in Pigs on Pork Quality (새송이 버섯파치 발효액의 급이가 돈육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Kang, Min-Jung;Chung, Mi-Ja;Lee, Hyun-Uk;Seo, Jong-Kwon;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1521-1531
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    • 2008
  • After pigs was fed by commercial diets supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5%) of the fermented mushroom by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, the meat qualities and the serum lipid compositions of the individual pig groups were investigated. The levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the serum were significantly lower when the pigs were fed with the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product than those of the control pigs. HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL-cholesterol contents in the serum exhibited no significant difference between the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product and the control group. In comparison to the control group, the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product showed significantly lower level of AI, CRF, GOT, and LDH values in the serum, whereas the difference in the level of antioxidant activity of the serum was not significant. Sensory evaluation regarding color, off-flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability also showed that the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product ($0.5{\sim}1.5%$) was better than that from the control group. Although enhancement in the lghtness ($a^*$) value of the pork was significant in 20 days of storage at $4^{\circ}C$, the redness ($L^*$) value was not significantly differential during the storage periods regardless of the supplementation of the fermented mushroom by-product into the diet. The cooking loss of the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product (1% and 1.5%) decreased in the storage 10 days, but it increased in the storage 20 days. After storage for 20 days at $4^{\circ}C$, shear force of the pork obtained from the pigs fed by the diet supplemented with $1%{\sim}1.5%$ fermented mushroom by-product appeared to become significantly lower than that of the control. There were, however, no significant changes between two groups in the level of moisture content, crude lipid, and pH during the storage period. Although the TBARS content was enhanced in all groups during the storage period, the enhancement appeared to be more significant in the pork from the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product in comparison to the control. On the other hand, the ratio of UFA/SFA for the pork obtained from the individual pig groups showed no considerable diet-associated alterations during the storage period.

Effects of the Red Garlic Extract for Anti-Obesity and Hypolipidemic in Obese Rats Induced High Fat Diet (홍마늘 추출물이 고지방식이로 유도된 비만 흰쥐의 항비만 및 지질개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Kim, Ra-Jeong;Ryu, Ji-Hyun;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, In-Soo;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2011
  • This study tested the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of red garlic extract in obese rats induced by a high fat diet over a period of 4 weeks. Red garlic extract of 15 brix was added in 1, 3, 5 and 7% ratios in diets. The obesity index and body fat content significantly decreased in rats fed a diet with over 3% red garlic extract compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in weight of visceral and epididymal fat in rats fed red garlic extract. Total lipid and triglyceride levels in serum were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, and AI and CRF also fell. ALT and AST activities in groups fed red garlic extract were decreased compared to the control group. Total lipid level in liver tissue of the groups fed 5-7% red garlic extract exhibited a significant decrease compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in feces were significantly increased in rats fed a diet with over 5% red garlic extract. Lipid peroxide levels were significantly decreased in the groups fed diets with 5-7% red garlic and antioxidant activity in serum was significantly increased in the group fed a diet with 7% red garlic extract compared to the control group. Our results suggest that red garlic extract could have anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects for suppressing obesity index and decreasing lipid profiles.

Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipogenesis by Aged Black Garlic Extracts in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (흑마늘 추출물에 의한 3T3-L1 지방전구세포의 분화 및 adipogenesis 억제에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Ae;Park, Cheol;Han, Min-Ho;Kim, Byung-Woo;Chung, Yoon-Ho;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2011
  • Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a source food as well as a traditional folk medicine ingredient since ancient times. Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic and is expected to have stronger anticancer and antioxidant activities than raw garlic. However, the mechanisms of their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of water extracts of raw garlic (WERG) and aged black garlic (WEABG) on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were investigated. Treatment with WEABG significantly suppressed terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as confirmed by a decrease in lipid droplet number and lipid content through Oil Red O staining, however WERG had no such effect. In addition, WEABG reduced accumulation of cellular triglyceride, which is associated with a significant inhibition of key pro-adipogenic transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR${\gamma}$), cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$ (C/EBP${\alpha}$) and C/EBP${\beta}$. Taken together, these results provide important new insight that aged black garlic might inhibit adipogenesis by suppressing the pro-adipogenic transcription factors in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and further studies will be needed to identify the active compounds that confer the anti-obesity activity of aged black garlic.