Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants and elements to enhance Korean international competitiveness, employing Porter's(1998) Diamond Model. Half of the 500 leading apparel exporters that were members of the Korea Apparel Industry Association in 2003 were selected as the target of this research. From May to June of 2003, survey questionnaires were sent to executives of these 250 companies in person or by telephone, e-mail, or fax. Seventy questionnaires were used for the final data anlysis. The items used were Reliability, Categorical Regression, and Frequency, using SPSS 11.5. The results were as follows: First, as a result of analyzing the influence of international competitiveness in Korean apparel industry, the firm's strategy, structure, and rivalry was the most influential factor. Others were related and supporting industries, government, chance, demand conditions, and factor conditions. Also, the elements that affect Korean international competitiveness were listed as the level of price competition in foreign markets, the level of labor cost, export marketing capacity, and exchange fluctuation. The most important element to improve the international competitiveness of the Korean apparel industry was a demand growth rate of the overseas markets(Demand Conditions), followed by the level of the labor costs(Factor Conditions), the capability of internationalization(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry), the change of currency(Chance), the quality and management of products(Demand Conditions), the capability of planning products(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry), free trade from 2005(Chance), and global sourcing strategy(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry). Korea's main rival country in apparel related and supporting industry factors is China. However, Korea has a higher level of technology development, quality, and price level than China.
The purpose of this study is to constitute the historical connection of apparel industry by investigation on development and upbringing policy of our apparel industry. Because of the administrative idea of Chosun period is Confucian idea and feudal class system based on the Confucianism, the agricultural industry is the most important one, and developed the economic thinking system that agricultural industry is the foundation of clothes and food industry. In the clothing manufacture of Chosun period, a garment which used in the royal household selected manual industry form by government establishment, but a garment which used in the people selected manual industry form of private. The commerce of Chosun period is based on the official commerce (Sijeon) connected with the official system of state and the private commerce is operated by private trader. Among the item which was traded on the market in this times, the cloting item is the important trade item second only to the grain, and was dealed with every market in the country.
Korea's clothing industry which has been country's leading export industry and basic strategical industry is now faced with many difficulties both domestically and internationally. Domestically it is faced with continuing shortage of manpower in both production line and management high labour cost causing increase in price putting more weight on behavior of consumers resulting in change of industrial environment and continuing structural problems of industry itself. Internationally it is faced with strengthening of import regulations and protectionism of developed countries and rapid emergence of underdeveloped countries as leading exporting nations. In reality export plays the most essential role in our economy and is especially sensitive to the external environmental factors. Already economic bloc phonomenon can be seen everywhere and is continuing to accelerate in place such as E. U in Europ, North & South America as NAFTA, and South East Asian contries which recent tendency of economic unity effort is present. These countries of such economic blocs are imposing heavy custom duties reinforcing provision of country origin and acting out strict inspection regulations in order to protect the interest of their own industry. Therefore it is vital to manufacture excellent quality goods For these reasons study in this area has brought attention in Korea as well as worldwide in the recent years. Apparel industry which requires professional technology and ability is the most competitive international business. In order to challenge the international market the high level of intelligence is most required to produce high quality goods. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between functions and roles of marketing and to approach problems in more efficient manner. Apparel industry is composed of various programs such as design pattern making merchandising and textile science. To succeed in the business is to give the highest satisfaction to the targeted market. Hence this study will example the factors that determine the Cost Quality and Performance of apparel products. The study will involve following steps; firstly establish relationship between the quality concept and productivity of apparel products Secondly inquire in to marketing strategy laying stress on apparel production related factors focusing on merchandising marketing production and operations Thirdly prospect 21st century apparel industry focusing on garment production and trade and also other countries structural improvement Fourthly establish the new dimension of competitive factors by grasping the actual circumstance of Korea's apparel industry in the international market. The research method will include; First reality approach method by analysing the present state of industry Second literal analysis such as marketing comparisons between leading apparel exporting countries.
This study examined the comparative advantage of manmade textile (MMT) industries in the United States (US) and South Korea (SK). The Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) framework was used to assess the MMT industries' performance in both countries from 2004 to 2013. With the recent ratification of the United States-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA), it is important to understand the current state of these industries. Using UN Comtrade export data, the RCA index values were calculated and analyzed for 27 MMT commodities, three aggregate groups, and the whole industry. It was found that SK had a consistent comparative advantage for the whole industry. Furthermore, SK had a larger number of products with a comparative advantage. The research findings indicate that the MMT industry in SK is likely to outperform the US following the complete ratification of the KORUS FTA.
This paper aims at examining the regional difference of changes in the business organization of retailing in the Seoul metropolitan areas, as an attempt to understand regional structure of retailing within metropolitan areas showing the trend of suburbanization. On the national level, retail sales have concentrated on the large metropolitan areas, especially on the Seoul metropolitan area, with the concentration of population and income. Within metropolitan areas, the suburbanization of retailing has made the larger structure of retail and multi-store retail appeared. In order to confirm such phenomenon, this paper is to analyze and to compare the industrial composition of retailing using industry data of 1979 and 1991. And this paper is to analyze the regional changes in the characteristics of business organization of retailing, with the index including the percentages of establishments with less than under four employees, juridical establishments, employees of ordinary times, and the annual sales per establishment of detailing. The characteristics of business organization of retailing in analyzed by principal components analysis, and the types with component in each district (city, county, ward) is analyzed by cluster analysis(Ward method). The data of 1979 were obtained from the statistics in the Census of Wholesale and Retail Trade published by the National Bureau of Statistics of Economic Planning Board, and that of 1991 were obtained from the statistics in the Report on Establishment Census (Vol.3 Wholesale and Retail Trade) published by the National Statistics Office. The following are resultant findings. 1. In Seoul metropolitan area, changes in the industrial composition of retailing with annual sales from, 1979 to 1991 show very higher composition rates of 'general merchandise stores' and 'retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations', but comparatively lower composition rates of 'retailing of food, beverages and tobacco', 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessaries', 'general retail trade, n.e.c.',and 'retailing of household fuel'. 2. The characteristics of business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area presents the prevailence of small, personal business organization and especially larger employees of ordinary times. 3. Business components of retailing by principal components analysis in Seoul metropolitan area are follows: 1 All retaining industries are larger business scale. 2. Larger business take the 'retailing of taxtiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of furniture, home furnishing and equipment', and 'retailing of jewellery and watches' is main characteristic legal organization and employees of ordinary times. 4. Types changes in business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area represent legal organization and employees of ordinary times taking the 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of furniture, home furnishing and equipment',and 'retailing of jewellery and equipment', and 'retailing of jewellery and watches', and legal organization taking 'general retail trade, n.e.c.' in 1979. All retailing industries are changed into larger business scale, in 1991. These phenomena of business changes appeared southeastern regions in Kyunggi-do(province). And larger business scale taking the 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of jewellery and watches', and 'general retail trade, n.e.c.; are appeared in the legal organization in 1979. 'Retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations' are appeared in employees of ordinary times in 1991. These phenomena of business changes in appeared in eastern and northern regions in Kyunggi-do. 5. Changes in the business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area is appeared in legal organization and employees of ordinary times for some industries in 1979, larger business scale of retailing and employees of ordinary times in 'retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations' are the characteristics in 1991.
Using hybrid channel affords the benefits of achieving control through the direct channel and achieving flexibility through the indirect channel. However, using a hybrid channel also poses special challenges to a manufacturer, including the problem of managing multiple channel members with disparate goals and priorities. The purpose of this study is to enhance our understanding on the management of hybrid channel. We study marketing channels for fashion apparel to examine governance challenges and solutions of a hybrid channel. We have two objectives to fulfill that purpose. First, we aim to tie two largely separate research streams of salesforce management and marketing channel management together by examining both intrafrim governance and interfirm governance issues under one conceptual framework. Second, we aim to lay a ground work for rigorous further research on this topic by tying two major theoretical approaches of governance together under one conceptual framework. Our predictions were tested with data from the survey of apparel manufacturers and retailers. The analysis results support the predictions moderately.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
During 40 years, clothing industry which took a charge of a pivotal role to lead Korea's economy development falls in a harsh state to maintain an international competitiveness by means of low wage-based-export and tech-deficit-past competitive advantage. From January first 2005 when the World Trade Organization started that developed countries abolished import quota on textile and apparel products. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze Korea's apparel international market share, grasp Korea's apparel international competitiveness position, and examine the export features to enhance international competitiveness. We targeted members of Korea Apparel Industry Association among the 500's exporters of textile and clothing items in 'The Import and Export Textile Product 2003' Total 70 sheets were used of final data analyzing. Also, the statistical data of WTO wereselected for inquiry about the position of international competitiveness of clothing products made in Korea. First, the comparative analysis of the amount of export and international market share of each country's clothing products to capture the position of Korea's international competitiveness of clothing industry under the statistical data of WTO showed that Korea's international market share has been decreasing since 1989, and ranked in the 19th showing 1.31% in 2004. Second, as concerned with Korea's clothing export features, the experience of clothing companies in Korea was uniformly distributed like less than 10 to 30 and more than 30 years and knitted and woven male and female wears which cost mid price were exported to U.S.A. and Europe and Japan. Export items wereusually manufactured by Original Equipment Manufacturing way and directly exported through an exclusive responsible part for export.
Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
The strengthening of multilateral international sanctions against North Korea has raised questions as to how effective they are in exerting pressure on the country's economy. In this paper, we address this question by examining their impact on the country's integration into regional and global apparel production networks. North Korea has in the past decade become an increasingly competitive exporter of apparel on the basis of consignment-based processing arrangements. Official trade data shows a sharp drop in North Korean exports of clothing since the sectoral ban in 2017. There is evidence to suggest, however, that exports have continued on a more informal and clandestine basis. North Korea's integration into apparel production networks has also taken the form of the dispatch of workers to factories in China's northeastern border regions. Yet there is evidence that the recent sanctions imposed on such practices has similarly led to illicit practices such as working on visitors' visas, often with the help of Chinese enterprises and local government. The resilience of North Korea's integration into apparel production networks follows a capitalist logic and is result of the highly profitable nature of apparel production for all actors concerned and a correspondingly strong desire to evade sanctions. As such, the analysis contributes to the literature on sanctions that suggests that the measures may contribute to emergence of growing informal and illicit practices and to the role of the clandestine economy.
China adopted a free market economy system and is about to enter into the WTO(World Trade Organization). It has now emerged as one of the most promising markets in the world for the near future. The purpose of this study was to investigate in Chinese and Korea women's street fashion and to suggest basic information for high quality clothing merchandising for China. The subjects in this study were 800 photos it was taken at the fashion street and college in Beijing(400) and Seoul(400). The survey was taken from December, 1999. SAS(Statistical Analysis System) is used for frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, $X^2$-test. The results of this study are as follows. Examination on the Korean and Chinese street fashion showed that Korean and Chinese have different preference for silhouette, length, and color. China has different sensibility of the items of clothing. The Chinese students prefer classical and individual Chinese street clothing. Korean student has shown very fashionable street clothing all items. It is needed to different merchandising project for clothing in China.
To be successful, Korean exporters must understand how importers identify and select suppliers. This empirically based study investigate Korean exporter\`s perceptions of the supply selection criteria and information sources in US importers use. The specific purposes of this study were to identify the importance of the supply selection criteria and information sources and to examine the effects of the amount of export on the supply selection criteria and information sources in US importer use. For this study, data were obtained from Korean exporters by means of self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of a series of statements covering a broad of specific selection criteria and information sources and exports\` characteristics including average annual amount of export. Using a base of 312 exporters, data were analysed by using mean, one-way ANOVA, and Ducan test. Major findings if this study summarized as follows; 1) Korean exporters perceived that US importers would place importances on product price, deliverly reliability, product wordsmanship-quality, and length of deliverly lead-time, in orders. Also, the more amount of export was, the higher product wordsmanship-quality, availability of piece goods and trims, and communication channel were importantly rate. 2) Korean exporters considered the third party sources, such as recommendation from trade association and buying office and import agency, as the most important information source in US importer use. Also, There was tendency that the more amount of export was, the more information sources on suppliers was importantly evaluated. From this study, several recommendation were suggested forward to encourage export in international apparel market.
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