• Title/Summary/Keyword: arbitration

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Selective Arbitration Agreement in the multitiered Dispute Resolution Clause (선택적 중재합의와 단계적 분쟁해결조항)

  • 장문철
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.263-302
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    • 2003
  • Since new Korean arbitration law was modeledafter UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration Law, the judicial review on the arbitral award is at most limited to fundamental procedural justice. Thus, drafting valid arbitration clause is paramount important to enforce arbitral awards in the new legal environment. A losing party in arbitral process would often claim of the invalidity of arbitration agreement to challenge the arbitral award. Especially, the validity of arbitration clause in the construction contracts is often challenged in Korean courts. This is because the construction contracts usually include selective arbitration agreement in multi-tiered dispute resolution clause that is drafted ambiguous or uncertain. In this paper selective arbitration agreement means a clause in a contract that provides that party may choose arbitration or litigation to resolve disputes arising out of the concerned contract. On the hand multi-tiered dispute resolution clause means a clause in a contract that provides for distinct stages such as negotiation, mediation or arbitration. However, Korean courts are not in the same position on the validity of selective arbitration agreementin multi-tiered dispute resolution clause. Some courts in first instance recognized its validity on the ground that parties still intend to arbitrate in the contract despite the poor drafted arbitration clause. Other courts reject its validity on the ground that parties did not intend to resort to arbitration only with giving up their right to sue at courts to resolve their disputes by choosing selective arbitration agreement. Several cases are recently on pending at the Supreme Courts, which decision is expected to yield the court's position in uniform way. Having reviewed recent Korean courts' decisions on validity and applicability of arbitration agreement, this article suggests that courts are generally in favor of arbitration system It is also found that some courts' decisions narrowly interpreted the concerned stipulations in arbitration law despite they are in favorable position to the arbitration itself. However, most courts in major countries broadly interpret arbitration clause in favor of validity of selective arbitration agreement even if the arbitration clause is poorly drafted but parties are presume to intend to arbitrate. In conclusion it is desirable that selective arbitration agreement should be interpreted favorable to the validity of arbitration agreement. It is time for Korean courts to resolve this issue in the spirit of UNCITRAL model arbitration law which the new Korean arbitration law is based on.

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A Proposal for the Invigoration of Maritime Arbitration (해사중재 활성화를 위한 전제조건에 관한 논의)

  • Lee, Jung-Won
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.141-163
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    • 2012
  • In Korea, although nearly all maritime arbitration cases are dealt with by the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board (KCAB), the total number of cases that are referred to the KCAB is relatively small compared with the total number of maritime cases that occur in Korea. There may be reasons why maritime arbitration is not utilized more in Korea. However, of the above reasons, the superseding one may be that there is still a lack of confidence in the credibility and foreseeability of maritime arbitration in Korea. To expand the use of maritime arbitration in Korea, it is essential that the base surrounding maritime arbitration be expanded. In addition, it is also necessary that specialists receivetraining in maritime law. In this context, it is strongly recommended that maritime and admiralty law be taught in law schools and be included as a regular subject on the Korean bar exam. Additionally, to promote maritime arbitration, a rule should be introduced allowing for shortened arbitration proceedings in Korea. Although Chapter 8 of the KCAB Arbitration Rules provide for "Expedited Procedure," this process alone is not because the rules for Expedited Procedure generally apply in arbitration cases where both parties have agreed in a separate agreement to follow the procedures provided or in any domestic arbitration valued atless than 100,000,000 Korean won. Therefore, the KCAB Arbitration Rules for Expedited Procedure must be reformed to encompass international arbitrations. Additionally, experts who are experienced in the maritime sector should be elected as arbitrators. Given the factthat a fair number of arbitration cases can be characterized as international, it is important that businesspersons who are very fluent in English be appointed as arbitrators in order to increase the reliability of maritime arbitration in Korea and save costs. Meanwhile, because lawyers and scholars constitute a considerable portion of KCAB arbitrators, commercial persons from relevant industries should be enlisted as arbitrators. Even though there are arguments for the establishment of an independent maritime arbitration board in Korea, establishment of a separate maritime arbitration board will not directly guarantee the prosperity of maritime arbitration in Korea. Instead of instituting a new maritime arbitration board, it is better that a reorganized KCAB modify existing arbitration proceedings to make them faster and more economical if maritime arbitration is to prosper. In this regard, ad-hoc arbitration would be an option for speedy and thrifty maritime arbitration. Finally, to gain the confidence of domestic and foreign parties, we cannot ignore the importance of advertising the specialties and qualifications of the KCAB and its personnel among business entities.

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A Study for International Standardization of China Arbitration System (중국중재제도의 국제표준화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Suk-Chul
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.117-138
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    • 2008
  • This study lies on building the International Standardization of China Arbitration System for improving a relationship of mutual trust and the safety trade between China and other worldwide countries, especially, South Korea as their one of the biggest trading partners through the comparative analysis of China and UNCITRAL Arbitration Law. In this analysis, the differences from China and UNCITRAL in arbitration law are like belows ; lack of arbitrator's international mind, the limitation of private property right, prohibition of Ad. hoc arbitration, arbitrator's biased nationalism, localism, and their short specialties. a deficiency of the objectiveness for arbitrator's election, a judgement rejection of claimants by using nonattendance and walkout, impossibility of prior and temporary property custody for execution of arbitration award. etc. For the improvement of the International Standardization of China Arbitration, this paper propose as follows: 1) Extension of private property right, reorganization of tax system, realization of open competition, exclusion of 'Sinocentrism', globalization of arbitration system 2) The abolition of old fashioned bureaucracy with approval for ad.hoc arbitration 3) An education for arbitrator's internationalization, specialty, and to promote legal knowledge 4) A settlement of the third country arbitrators' selection for reflecting interested party's decision by the court in a selection system of arbitration committee. 5) Institutionalization of arbitration judgment that prevent for claimant's avoidance by using a withdrawal and an intentional absent 6) A permission of the right of claimant's court custody directly before the begging of arbitration request for the prevention for destruction of evidence and property concealment 7) Grant of the arbitration tribunal's interim measures of protection for private property preservation to the third party, proof security, prevention from the loss that selling the corruptible goods 8) Improvement of arbitration's efficiency from the exclusion of the obstacles that are forgery, concealed evidence, and arbitrator's bribe taking Lastly, I hope that this study will serve to promote friendly economic relationship between China and South Korea and strive for international equilibrium through the achievement of China Arbitration's International Standardization. I will finish this paper with a firm belief that this will lead to more advanced studies.

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A Study on the Unification of Arbitration Procedures for Korean Enterprises in Quingdao (칭따오 진출 한국기업을 위한 중재절차 통일화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Suk-Chul
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.37-59
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    • 2005
  • Trade between Korea and Quingdao, Sandongseung has been developed into Private Trade from the Tributary Trade of Silla. Today there are around 6,000 Korean Enterprises in Quingdao, being $22.5\%$ of total Quingdao trades and $60\%$ in the number of investments and monetary scale. Korea is in the first rank among Quingdao's trade parteners. Trade Dispute Settlement System, however, is still in poor condition. It should be improved for the activation of trade. The big solution is the Unification of Arbitration Procedure. For it, First, The staff of The Korean Commercial Arbitration Board should be dispatched to Quingdao Arbitration Commission. Second, there should be common arbitration rules between two institutes.(The Korean Commercial Arbitration Board and Quingdao Arbitration Commission). Third, a single arbitration panel should be made. Fourth, there should be the unification of methods in choosing the place of arbitration and arbitrators. Finally, a common arbitration institute should be installed.

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Legal Review of the Writing Requirements on Arbitration Agreement: The U.S. Statutes and Cases (미국법상 중재합의의 서면요건에 관한 고찰)

  • Ha, Choong Lyong
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2017
  • This paper reviews and analyzes the U.S. cases and statutes on the writing requirements of arbitration agreement. In order to discuss the legal aspects of writing requirement on arbitration agreement in the U.S., it is necessary to delve into both the contractual aspects of arbitration agreement and statutory specifications of the writing requirements of arbitration agreement. Statute of frauds and parole evidence rule were reviewed and employed to find legal implications on the writing requirement of arbitration agreement. Relevant cases were analyzed to verify how the courts have been responded to the conflicts regarding the validity of the arbitration contract with respect to writing requirement. International treaties absorbed into the U.S legal system were also reviewed and commented to analyze their implications on the writing requirement of arbitration agreement, including the UNCITRAL Model Arbitration Law and the New York Convention.

A Study on the Delay of Process Owing to Problems in Arbitration Agreement (중재합의 문제로 인한 중재절차 지연에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Koon-Jae
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.43-62
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    • 2016
  • The international arbitration system has been a useful method of settling disputes arising from international transactions. Arbitration provides the opportunity for the parties to choose a fair and neutral forum and to participate in the selection of the decision maker and the rules that will be applied. Because arbitration is a creature of contract, there is no agreement to arbitrate if there is no contract. An arbitration clause should be designed to fit the circumstances of the transaction and the parties' needs. The parties draft an arbitration clause with insufficient attention to the transaction to which it relates. Insufficient attention to arbitration agreement has caused the delay of arbitration procedure or even the inability to arbitrate. Therefore the parties pay sufficient attention to the underlying transaction so that the arbitration clause can be tailored to their particular requirements and to possible disputes that may reasonably be anticipated.

A Study on the Practices of Online Arbitration System of Guangzhou Arbitration Commission in China (중국 광저우(廣州)중재위원회의 온라인중재 운용에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Kyung-Ja;Choi, Sung-Il
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.215-237
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    • 2011
  • There are more than two hundred arbitral institutions in China. Some of them are active in the development of online arbitration system, such as CIETAC and Guangzhou Arbitration Commission(GAC). GAC, founded in 1995, is the second largest arbitral institution in China which accepts more than 4,000 cases a year. With extensive experiences in arbitration, GAC has conducted online arbitration procedures since 2007. Moreover it opened the whole process of online hearing to the public through the Internet. With this background, this article aims to support the development of online arbitration through the analysis of GAC practices. To meet the purpose, status quo, rules and procedure of online arbitration of GAC are outlined, followed by introducing nine cases conducted by GAC. The scope of GAC online arbitration is comparatively narrow and the institution is still under the government supervision. But the practices of GAC proved that online arbitration is fully admissible and effective under the current legal framework.

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A study on the Arbitration system in the CIETAC and the International Arbitration problems of Korea and China (중국(中國) CIETAC의 중재제도(仲裁制度)와 한중양국(韓中兩國)의 주요중재문제(主要仲裁問題))

  • Kim, Deok-Su;Ju, Geon-Rim
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.87-122
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    • 1998
  • This study reports on the Arbitration system in the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration commission (CIETAC) and the International Arbitration problems of Korea and China. The Chines laws including Arbitration laws are influenced by the civil Code system Particulary the German system. China is contracting state of the U N Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention), which became effective in the China April 22, 1987. International Commercial Arbitration is popular in China. CIETAC is the sole International Commercial Arbitration body in China. CIETAC has two sub-commissions, on is shen zhem S E Z and the other in shanghai. The CIETAC rules, are similar to the rules in effect in Countries using a civil Code system. Both an agreement to submit an existing dispute to Arbitration and an Arbitration clause in a contract relating to future disputes are recognizeal as valiad Arbitration agreements. CIETAC has the power to make a decision on disputes concering the validity of the Arbitration agreements, or jurisdiction over a specicific case.

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A Study on the Sectoral Spread of Arbitration in Korea: Focusing on the Introduction of Criminal Arbitration (한국중재의 분야별 확산에 관한 검토 - 형사중재의 도입을 중심으로 -)

  • Nam, Seon-Mo
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 2012
  • Defamation on the Internet is a criminal offense. Of late, the damage it has been causing has grown exponentially. Here, we suggest some ideas to expand the use of arbitration in Korea. We suggest that all disputes arising in connection with current contracts be settled under the rules of conciliation and arbitration. As a countermeasure to the requirements for defamation or damages, the field of criminal arbitration regulations needs to be defined strictly. In conclusion, the UK does not make provisions for arbitration as a specific subject. With respect to foreign legislation, it is necessary to take a look at ways to expand arbitration in our country. The scale of arbitration must be expanded to allow for greater protection of criminals in exchange for their cooperation in arbitration cases and relative to the amount of the damages in dollars. There must also be detailed instructions regarding the eligibility criteria for and proper handling of these arbitration cases.

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The Role of State Courts Aiding Arbitration (중재에 있어서 법원의 역할)

  • Park, Eun-Ok
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.30
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    • pp.91-120
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    • 2006
  • An Arbitration agreement is one kind of contracts between two or more contracting parties; any possible disputes that arise concerning a contract will be settled by arbitration. Contracting parties who have made a valid arbitration agreement will submit a dispute for settlement to private persons(arbitrators) instead of to a court. Arbitration may depend upon the agreement of the private parties, but it is also a system which has been built on the law and which relies upon that law in order to make it effective both nationally and internationally. That is to say, arbitration is wholly dependent on the underlying support of the court. The complementarity of the courts and of the arbitrators is a well-established fact; they seek for the common purpose, the efficacy of international commercial arbitration. Most states' laws contain the provisions which have been set for the supportive role of the courts relating to arbitration; (1) the enforcement of the arbitration agreement(rulings on validity of the arbitration agreement), and the establishment of the tribunal at the beginning of the arbitration, (2) challenge of arbitrators, interim measures, and intervention during evidence in the middle of the arbitral proceedings, (3) filing of the award, challenge of the arbitral award, and recognition and enforcement of the arbitral award at the end of the arbitration. Most international instruments and national laws concerning arbitration believe that authoritative courts should play their power not to control and supervise arbitration but to support and develop the merits of arbitration at most. 1985 UNCITRAL Model Law also expressly limit the scope of court's intervention to assist arbitration, not to control it.

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