• Title/Summary/Keyword: arc-discharge

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Magnetic Properties of Fe4N Nanoparticles and Magnetic Fe17Sm2Nx Powders (Fe4N 나노분말과 Fe17Sm2Nx 자성분말의 자기적 특성)

  • Oh, Young-Woo;Lee, Jung-Goo;Park, Sang-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2012
  • Nano-magnetic materials such as iron-nitrides have been actively studied as an alternative to the application of high density, high performance needs for next generation information storage and also alternative to the rare earth and neodymium magnet. $Fe_4N$ is the basic materials for magnetic storage media and is one of the important magnetic materials in focus because of its higher magnetic recording density and chemical stability. Single phase ${\gamma}^{\prime}-Fe_4N$ nanoparticles have been prepared by a PAD (Plasma Arc Discharge) method and nitriding in a $NH_3-H_2$ mixed gases at temperature, $400^{\circ}C$ for 4 hrs. Also $Fe_{17}Sm_2N_x$ powders were synthesized by nitriding after reduction/diffusion of $Fe_{17}Sm_2$ to compare the magnetic properties with nano-sized $Fe_4N$ particles. The saturation magnetization of $Fe_4N$ and $Fe_{17}Sm_2N_x$ were 149 and 117 emu/g, respectively, but the coercive force was considerably smaller than that of bulk or acicular $Fe_4N$.

Plasmatron Development for a Hydrogen Production (수소 생성을 위한 플라즈마트론 개발)

  • Kim, Seong-Cheon;Chun, Young-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal condition of the SynGas production by reforming of propane using plasmatron. Plasma was generated by air and arc discharge. The effects of applied steam, $CO_2$ or Ni-catalyst on propane conversion, yield of hydrogen and $H_2/CO$ ratio as well as correlation of syngas were studied. When the variations of $O_2/C_3H_8$ flow ratio, $H_2O/C_3H_8$ flow ratio and $CO_2/C_3H_8$ flow ratio were $0.94{\sim}1.48,\;4.3{\sim}10\;and\;0.8{\sim}3.05$ respectively, Under the condition mentioned above, result of $H_2O/C_3H_8$ flow ratio was maximum $H_2$ concentration, or $28.2{\sim}31.6%$, and result of $H_2O/C_3H_8$ flow ratio with catalyst was minimum CO concentration or $6.6{\sim}7.1%$ and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide($H_2/CO$) were $3.89{\sim}4.86$.

Simple one-step synthesis of carbon nanoparticles from aliphatic alcohols and n-hexane by stable solution plasma process

  • Park, Choon-Sang;Kum, Dae Sub;Kim, Jong Cheol;Shin, Jun-Goo;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Jung, Eun Young;Kim, Dong Ha;Kim, Daseulbi;Bae, Gyu Tae;Kim, Jae Young;Shin, Bhum Jae;Tae, Heung-Sik
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.28
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2018
  • This paper examines a simple one-step and catalyst-free method for synthesizing carbon nanoparticles from aliphatic alcohols and n-hexane with linear molecule formations by using a stable solution plasma process with a bipolar pulse and an external resistor. When the external resistor is adopted, it is observed that the current spikes are dramatically decreased, which induced production of a more stable discharge. Six aliphatic linear alcohols (methanol-hexanol) containing carbon with oxygen sources are studied as possible precursors for the massive production of carbon nanoparticles. Additional study is also carried out with the use of n-hexane containing many carbons without an oxygen source in order to enhance the formation of carbon nanoparticles and to eliminate unwanted oxygen effects. The obtained carbon nanoparticles are characterized with field emission-scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that with increasing carbon ratios in alcohol content, the synthesis rate of carbon nanoparticles is increased, whereas the size of the carbon nanoparticles is decreased. Moreover, the degree of graphitization of the carbon nanoparticles synthesized from 1-hexanol and n-hexane with a high carbon (C)/oxygen (O) ratio and low or no oxygen is observed to be greater than that of the carbon nanoparticles synthesized from the corresponding materials with a low C/O ratio.

Characteristic of Partial Oxidation of Methane and Ni Catalyst Reforming using GlidArc Plasma (GlidArc 플라즈마를 이용한 메탄 부분산화 및 Ni 촉매 개질 특성)

  • Kim, Seong-Cheon;Chun, Young-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1268-1272
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    • 2008
  • Low temperature plasma applied with partial oxidation is a technique to produce synthesis gas from methane. Low temperature plasma reformer has superior miniaturization and start-up characteristics to reformers using steam reforming or CO$_2$ reforming. In this research, a low temperature plasma reformer using GlidArc discharge was proposed. Reforming characteristics for each of the following variables were studied: gas components ratio (O$_2$/CH$_4$), the amount of steam, comparison of reaction on nickle and iron catalysts and the amount of CO$_2$. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production from methane was found. The maximum Hydrogen concentration of 41.1% was obtained under the following in this condition: O$_2$/C ratio of 0.64, total gas flow of 14.2 L/min, catalyst reactor temperature of 672$^{\circ}C$, the amount of steam was 0.8, reformer energy density of 1.1 kJ/L with Ni catalyst in the catalyst reactor. At this point, the methane conversion rate, hydrogen selectivity and reformer thermal efficiency were 66%, 93% and 35.2%, respectively.

Study on Hydrogen Production and CO Oxidation Reaction using Plasma Reforming System with PEMFC (고분자 전해질 연료전지용 플라즈마 개질 시스템에서 수소 생산 및 CO 산화반응에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Suck Joo;Lim, Mun Sup;Chun, Young Nam
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.656-662
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    • 2007
  • Fuel reformer using plasma and shift reactor for CO oxidation were designed and manufactured as $H_2$ supply device to operate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). $H_2$ selectivity was increased by non-thermal plasma reformer using GlidArc discharge with Ni catalyst simultaneously. Shift reactor was consisted of steam generator, low temperature shifter, high temperature shifter and preferential oxidation reactor. Parametric screening studies of fuel reformer were conducted, in which there were the variations of the catalyst temperature, gas component ratio, total gas ratio and input power. and parametric screening studies of shift reactor were conducted, in which there were the variations of the air flow rate, stema flow rate and temperature. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.64, total gas flow rate was 14.2 l/min, catalytic reactor temperature was $672^{\circ}C$ and input power 1.1 kJ/L, the production of $H_2$ was maximized 41.1%. And $CH_4$ conversion rate, $H_2$ yield and reformer energy density were 88.7%, 54% and 35.2% respectively. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.3 in the PrOx reactor, steam flow ratio was 2.8 in the HTS, and temperature were 475, 314, 260, $235^{\circ}C$ in the HTS, LTS, PrOx, the conversion of CO was optimized conditions of shift reactor using simulated reformate gas. Preheat time of the reactor using plasma was 30 min, component of reformed gas from shift reactor were $H_2$ 38%, CO<10 ppm, $N_2$ 36%, $CO_2$ 21% and $CH_4$ 4%.

Recovery of $SF_6$ gas from Gaseous Mixture ($SF_6/N_2/O_2/CF_4$) through Polymeric Membranes (고분자 분리막을 이용한 혼합가스($SF_6/N_2/O_2/CF_4$)로부터 $SF_6$의 회수)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Min-Woo;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Choi, Ho-Sang;Lee, Sang-Hyup
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2011
  • During the maintenance, repair and replacement process of circuit breaker, $SF_6$ reacted with input air in arc discharge, which led to the production of by-product gases (eg, $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$, $SO_2$, $H_2O$, HF, $SOF_2$, $CuF_2$, $WO_3$). Among these various by-product gases, $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$ is major component. Therefore, the effective separation process is necessary to recycle the $SF_6$ gas from the mixture gas containing $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$. In this study, the membrane separation process was applied to recycle the $SF_6$ gas from the mixture gas containing $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$. The concentration of $SF_6$ gas in gas produced from the electric power industry is over than 90 vol%. Therefore, we made the simulated gas containing $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$, $SF_6$ which the concentration of $SF_6$ gas is minimum 90 vol%. From the results of membrane separation process of $SF_6$ gas from $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$ $SF_6$ mixture gases, PSF membrane shown the highest recovery efficiency 92.7%, in $25^{\circ}C$ and 150 cc/min of retentate flow rate. On the other hand, PC membrane shown the highest recovery efficiency 74.8%, in $45^{\circ}C$ and 150 cc/min of retentate flow rate. Also, the highest rejection rate of $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$ is 80, 74 and 58.9% seperately in the same operation condition of highest recovery efficiency. From the results, we supposed the membrane separation process as the effective $SF_6$ separation and recycle process from the mixture gas containing $N_2$, $O_2$, $CF_4$, $SF_6$.

An Experimental Study to Improve Permeability and Cleaning Efficiency of Oil Contaminated Soil by Plasma Blasting (플라즈마 블라스팅을 이용한 유류오염토양의 투수성과 정화효율 개선을 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Jang, Hyun-Shic;Kim, Ki-Joon;Song, Jae-Yong;An, Sang-Gon;Jang, Bo-An
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.557-575
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    • 2020
  • Plasma blasting which is generated by high voltage arc discharge of electricity is applied to soil mass to improve permeability of soil and cleaning efficiency of oil contamination. A new high voltage generator was manufactured and three types of soil including silty sand, silty sand mixed with lime and silty sand mixed with cement were prepared. Small and large soil columns were produced using these types of soil and plasma blasting was performed within soil columns to investigate the variation of soil volume penetrated by fluid and permeability. Soil volume penetrated by fluid increased by 11~71% when plasma blasting was applied in soil. Although plasma blasting with low electricity voltage induced horizontal fracture and fluid penetrated along this weak plane, plasma blasting with high voltage induced spherical penetration of fluid. Plasma blasting increased the permeability of soil. Permeabilty of soils mixed with lime and cement increased by 450~1,052% with plasma blasting. Permeability of soil increased as discharge voltage increased when plasma blasing was applied once. However, several blastings with the same discharge voltage increase or decrease permeability of soil. Oil contaminated soil was prepared by adding diesel into soil artificially and plasma blasting was performed in these oil contaminated soil. Cleaning efficiency increased by average of 393% for soil located nearby the blasting and by average of 239% for soil located far from the blasting. Cleaning efficiency did not show any correlation with discharge voltage. All these results indicated that plasma blasting might be used for in-situ cleaning of oil contaminated soil because plasma blasting increased permeability of soil and cleaning efficiency.

Improvement of Fluid Penetration Efficiency in Soil Using Plasma Blasting (플라즈마 발파를 이용한 토양 내 유체의 침투 효율 개선)

  • Baek, In-Joon;Jang, Hyun-Shic;Song, Jae-Yong;Lee, Geun-Chun;Jang, Bo-An
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.433-445
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    • 2021
  • Plasma blasting by high voltage arc discharge were performed in laboratory-scale soil samples to investigate the fluid penetration efficiency. A plasma blasting device with a large-capacity capacitor and columnar soil samples with a diameter of 80 cm and a height of 60 cm were prepared. Columnar soil samples consist of seven A-samples mixed with sand and silt by ratio of 7:3 and three B-samples by ratio of 9:1. When fluid was injected into A-sample by pressure without plasma blasting, fluid penetrated into soil only near around the borehole, and penetration area ratio was less than 5%. Fluid was injected by plasma blasting with three different discharge energies of 1 kJ, 4 kJ and 9 kJ. When plasma blasting was performed once in the A-samples, penetration area ratios of the fluid were 16-25%. Penetration area ratios were 30-48% when blastings were executed five times consecutively. The largest penetration area by plasma blasting was 9.6 times larger than that by fluid injection by pressure. This indicates that the higher discharge energy of plasma blasting and the more numbers of blasting are, the larger are fluid penetration areas. When five consecutive plasma blasting were carried out in B-sample, fluid penetration area ratios were 33-59%. Penetration areas into B-samples were 1.1-1.4 times larger than those in A-samples when test conditions were the same, indicating that the higher permeability of soil is, the larger is fluid penetration area. The fluid penetration radius was calculated to figure out fluid penetration volume. When the fluid was injected by pressure, the penetration radius was 9 cm. Whereas, the penetration radius was 27-30 cm when blasting were performed 5 times with energy of 9 kJ. The radius increased up to 333% by plasma blasting. All these results indicate that cleaning agent penetrates further and remediation efficiency of contaminated soil will be improved if plasma blasting technology is applied to in situ cleaning of contaminated soil with low permeability.