• Title, Summary, Keyword: bench curing

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Bench-Curing Acrylic Resins (ACRYLIC RESIN의 BENCH-CURING에 관하여)

  • Kim, Hyun-Mi
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.103-106
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    • 1990
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if homogeneity of the resin associated with benchcuring could be obtained in the curing unit as the water increased from room temperature to curing temperature. The results of the experiment were as follows : 1. Long periods of bench-curing are not necessary. 2. Bench-curing can take place in the water bath of the curing unit. When this procedure is used, the water should be far enough below the temerature at which active polymerization of the resin proceeds to allow the bench-curing to occur.

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A Study on the Linear Distoration of Self-Curing Resin by Various Curing Technics (다양한 온성방법에 따른 즉시 중합 수지의 선변형에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Do-Kyung
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.91-94
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    • 1992
  • This study was made to change dimension of self-curing resin by various curing technics. Specimens were fabricated 45 by 7 curing method. Six measurements(distances AB,BC,CD, AD, AC, and BD) were made of mold section and recorded with micrometer(1/20 mm). The results of the experiment were as follows : 1. The air pressure cured specimens exhibited more distoration than the bench-cured, watercured, and monomer atmosphere-cured specimens(P < 0.05). 2. The water pressure cured specimens exhibited more distoration sphere-cured specimens (P < 0.(15).

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A Study on Quality Characteristic of PC Concrete According to the Accelerated Curing Conditions (촉진양생조건에 따른 PC 콘크리트의 품질 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kwan-Ho;Park, Kwang-Soo;Shin, Su-Gyun;Lee, Joon-Gu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2001
  • Annual demand of a precast concrete bench flume used in the irrigation canal of arable land readjustment has continuously increased units recently. The average life time of the precast concrete bench flume was estimated $8{\sim}10$ years, which is too shorter than the life time of in-site placed concrete structures. In order to increase the compressive strength of the precast concrete bench flumes, the highest temperature of being lower than $95^{\circ}C$ was suggested in this study, Through analyzing the relation between the compressive strength and the amount of chloride penetration into concrete specimens, a new formula early estimating durability of the concrete structure was suggested.

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Flexual strength of resins for provisional fixed prostheses (임시 고정성 보철물 제작용 레진의 굽힘강도)

  • Choi, Myoung-Ah;Ahn, Seung-Geun;Cho, Kuk-Hyeon
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2000
  • Provisional fixed partial dentures(FPDs) are an important part of many prosthodontic treatment procedures. These provisional fixed prostheses must fulfill biologic, mechanical, and esthetic requirements to be considered successful. Consideration of all these factors and requirements are important because provisional resin restorations may be worn over a long period to assess the results of periodontal and endodontics therapies, and also during the restorative phase of implant reconstructive procedures. This in vitro study examined flexual strength of four resins commonly used for fixed provisional prostheses. The effects of polymerization conditions were also evaluated. The four resins tested were : Caulk Temporary bridge resin(L.D. Caulk Co. Dentsply International Millford), Jet(Lang Dental Mfg. Co. Chicago. ILL. U.S.A), Alike (Coe Laboratories. Inc. Chicago. ILL. U.S.A) and Tokuso Curefast (Coe Laboratories. Inc. Chicago. ILL. U.S.A) The test specimens were 65mm long, 14mm wide, and 3.5mm thickness. 10 specimens of four resins were cured for 15 minutes at atmospheric pressure and 10 specimens of four resins were cured at an additional pressure of approximately 20 psi. A total of 80 specimens were prepared. The flexual strength was determined by three-point bending test. Data were analysed with the Paired samples T-test and Tukey student-range test Within the limitations imposed in this study, the following conclusions can be drawn : 1. Under the condition of bench curing, Caulk Temporary bridge resin showed the highest flexual strength. In decreasing order, the flexual strength of the other materials was as follows : Jet, Tokuso Curefast, Alike, and Caulk Temporary bridge resin demonstrated significantly higher strength than other resins. 2. Under the condition of pressure curing, Jet showed the highest flexual strength. In decreasing order, the flexual strength of the other materials was as follows : Caulk Temporary bridge resin, Tokuso Curefast, and Alike. There were all statistically significant differences among four resins 3. There was a statistically significant difference between bench- and pressure-cured specimens in all four materials.

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Partial replacement of fine aggregates with laterite in GGBS-blended-concrete

  • Karra, Ram Chandar;Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah;Manjunath, B.
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.221-230
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents a preliminary study on the influence of laterite soil replacing conventional fine aggregates on the strength properties of GGBS-blended-concrete. For this purpose, GGBS-blended-concrete samples with 40% GGBS, 60% Portland cement (PC), and locally available laterite soil was used. Laterite soils at 0, 25, 50 and 75% by weight were used in trails to replace the conventional fine aggregates. A control mix using only PC, river sand, course aggregates and water served as bench mark in comparing the performance of the composite concrete mix. Test blocks including 60 cubes for compression test; 20 cylinders for split tensile test; and 20 beams for flexural strength test were prepared in the laboratory. Results showed decreasing trends in strength parameters with increasing laterite content in GGBS-blended-concrete. 25% and 50% laterite replacement showed convincing strength (with small decrease) after 28 day curing, which is about 87-90% and 72-85% respectively in comparison to that achieved by the control mix.

Development of Mach Small-scaled Composite Blade for Helicopter Articulated Rotor System (헬리콥터 관절형 로터 시스템용 마하 축소 복합재료 블레이드 개발)

  • Kim, Deog-Kwan;Song, Keun-Woong;Kim, Joune-Ho;Joo, Gene
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.57-60
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    • 2003
  • This Paper contains the development procedure of Mach small-scaled composite rotor blade for helicopter articulated rotor system. This mach small-scaled composite blade design is conducted by using CORDAS program developed by KARI. The Dynamic analysis for an articulated rotor system with this blade is conducted by using FLIGHTLAB which is commercial software for helicopter analysis. Also the optimizing procedure of iterative design was described. The designed composite blades were manufactured after establishing the effective curing method. For small-scaled rotor test, strain gauges were embedded in composite blade spar to obtain bending & torsion strain value. To verify sectional properties of a blade, the bench test is accomplished. After comparing a designed data and tested data, Dynamic Calculation was repeated using tested data. Through this research, experiences of mach small-scaled composite blade development were accumulated and will be applied to the related research field.

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Recycle of the Glass fiber Obtained from the Roving Cloth of FRP II: Study for the Physical Properties of fiber-reinforced Concrete (폐 FRP 선박의 로빙층에서 분리한 유리섬유의 재활용 II: 섬유강화 콘크리트의 물성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Seop;Lee, Seung-Hee;Yoon, Koo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 2008
  • Recycling glass fiber, 'F-fiber,' was obtained by the separation of the roving layer from waste FRP and the concrete products or structures were considered for its application. Experiment was carried out for the bending strength of aggregate (2.45 of cement) by weight and F-fiber (density of 1.45, volume ratio to all of the aggregate and the cement). Whereas the specimen containing 1% F-fiber showed the bending strength 23% higher than that without F-fiber after curing far 28 days, the one with 0.5% F-fiber did not give any change. It could be found, therefore, that the minimum mixing amount should be larger than 0.5% fur the strength reinforcement. One of the reinforcing concrete product, bench flume, containing 1% F-fiber showed 21% increment of bending strength In contrast to that without F-fiber.

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MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF C-SHAPED ROOT USING 3-D RECONSTRUCTION (3차원 재구성법에 의한 C-shaped root의 형태분석)

  • Jung, Eun-Hee;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.421-431
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    • 2002
  • C-shaped canal configuration is very difficult to treat because that clues about preoperative canal anatomy cannot be ascertained from clinical crown morphology and limited information can be derived from radiographic examination. This study was done to get more informations about the root and canal configuration of C-shape root by 3-dimensionally reconstructing for the purpose of enhancing success rate of endodontic treatment. 30 mandibular molars with C-shaped root were selected. Six photo images from occlusal, apical, mesial, distal, buccal, lingual directions and radiographic view were taken as preoperative ones to compare them with 3-D image. After crown reduction to the level of 1-2mm over pulpal floor was performed, teeth were stored in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for the removal of pulp tissue and debris. They were cleaned under running water, allowed to bench dry and embedded in a self-curing resin. This resin block was serially ground with a microtome (Accutom-50, Struers, Denmark) and the image of each level was recorded by digital camera (FinePix S1-pro, Fuji Co., Japan). The thickness of each section was 0.25mm. Photographs of serial sections through all root canal were digitized using Adobe Photoshop 5.0 and then minimum thickness of open and closed sites were measured (open site is the surface containing occluso-apical groove closed site is oppsite). After dizitization using 3-D Doctor (Able software Corp, USA). 3D reconstruction of the outer surface of tooth and the inner surface of pulp space was made. Canal classsification of C-shaped roots was performed from this 3-D reconstructed image. The results were as follows : 1. Most C-shape rooted teeth showed lingual groove (28/30). 2 According to Vertuccis' calssification, type I, II, III, IV, VII were observed. but also new canal types suck as 2-3-2, 1-2-3-2. 2-3-2-1, 2-3-2-3 were shown. 3 There was little difference in minimum thickness on coronal and apical portions, but open site were thinner than closed site on mid portion. Conclusively, 3D reconstruction method could make the exact configurations of C-shape root possible to be visualized and analyzed from multi-directions. Data from minimum thickness recommend cleaning and shaping be more carefully done on dangerous mid portion.

STRAIN AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES DURING THE POLYMERIZATION OF AUTOPOLYMERIZING ACRYLIC RESINS

  • Ahn Hyung-Jun;Kim Chang-Whe;Kim Yung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.709-734
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    • 2001
  • The aims of this experiment were to investigate the strain and temperature changes simultaneously within autopolymerzing acrylic resin specimens. A computerized data acquisition system with an electrical resistance strain gauge and a thermocouple was used over time periods up to 180 minutes. The overall strain kinetics, the effects of stress relaxation and additional heat supply during the polymerization were evaluated. Stone mold replicas with an inner butt-joint rectangular cavity ($40.0{\times}25.0mm$, 5.0mm in depth) were duplicated from a brass master mold. A strain gauge (AE-11-S50N-120-EC, CAS Inc., Korea) and a thermocouple were installed within the cavity, which had been connected to a personal computer and a precision signal conditioning amplifier (DA1600 Dynamic Strain Amplifier, CAS Inc., Korea) so that real-time recordings of both polymerization-induced strain and temperature changes were performed. After each of fresh resin mixture was poured into the mold replica, data recording was done up to 180 minutes with three-second interval. Each of two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (Duralay, Vertex) and a vinyl ethyl methacrylate product (Snap) was examined repeatedly ten times. Additionally, removal procedures were done after 15, 30 and 60 minutes from the start of mixing to evaluate the effect of stress relaxation after deflasking. Six specimens for each of nine conditions were examined. After removal from the mold, the specimen continued bench-curing up to 180 minutes. Using a waterbath (Hanau Junior Curing Unit, Model No.76-0, Teledyne Hanau, New York, U.S.A.) with its temperature control maintained at $50^{\circ}C$, heat-soaking procedures with two different durations (15 and 45 minutes) were done to evaluate the effect of additional heat supply on the strain and temperature changes within the specimen during the polymerization. Five specimens for each of six conditions were examined. Within the parameters of this study the following results were drawn: 1. The mean shrinkage strains reached $-3095{\mu}{\epsilon},\;-1796{\mu}{\epsilon}$ and $-2959{\mu}{\epsilon}$ for Duralay, Snap and Vertex, respectively. The mean maximum temperature rise reached $56.7^{\circ}C,\;41.3^{\circ}C$ and $56.1^{\circ}C$ for Duralay, Snap, and Vertex, respectively. A vinyl ethyl methacrylate product (Snap) showed significantly less polymerization shrinkage strain (p<0.01) and significantly lower maximum temperature rise (p<0.01) than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (Duralay, Vertex). 2. Mean maximum shrinkage rate for each resin was calculated to $-31.8{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec,\;-15.9{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec$ and $-31.8{\mu}{\epsilon}/sec$ for Duralay, Snap and Vertex, respectively. Snap showed significantly lower maximum shrinkage rate than Duralay and Vertex (p<0.01). 3. From the second experiment, some expansion was observed immediately after removal of specimen from the mold, and the amount of expansion increased as the removal time was delayed. For each removal time, Snap showed significantly less strain changes than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (p<0.05). 4. During the external heat supply for the resins, higher maximum temperature rises were found. Meanwhile, the maximum shrinkage rates were not different from those of room temperature polymerizations. 5. From the third experiment, the external heat supply for the resins during polymerization could temporarily decrease or even reverse shrinkage strains of each material. But, shrinkage re-occurred in the linear nature after completion of heat supply. 6. Linear thermal expansion coefficients obtained from the end of heat supply continuing for an additional 5 minutes, showed that Snap exhibited significantly lower values than the other two poly(methyl methacrylate) products (p<0.01). Moreover, little difference was found between the mean linear thermal expansion coefficients obtained from two different heating durations (p>0.05).

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CROSS-SECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY AND MINIMUM CANAL WALL WIDTHS IN C-SHAPED ROOT OF MANDIBULAR MOLARS (C-shaped canal의 절단면 분석을 통한 근관형태의 변화와 근관과 치아외벽간의 최소거리 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Byung-Chul;Cho, Yong-Bum
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2007
  • The C-shaped canal system is an anatomical variation mostly seen in mandibular second molars, although it can also occur in maxillary and other mandibular molars. The main anatomical feature of C-shaped canals is the presence of fins or web connecting the individual root canals. The complexity of C-shaped canals prevents these canals from being cleaned, shaped, and obturated effectively during root canal therapy, and sometimes it leads to an iatrogenic perforation from the extravagant preparation. The purpose of this study was to provide further knowledge of the anatomical configuration and the minimal thickness of dentinal wall according to the level of the root. Thirty extracted mandibular second molars with fused roots and longitudinal grooves on lingual or buccal surface of the root were collected from a native Korean population. The photo images and radiographs from buccal, lingual, apical direction were taken. After access cavity was prepared, teeth were placed in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 hours to dissolve the organic tissue of the root surface and from the root canal system. After bench dried and all the teeth were embedded in a self-curing resin. Each block was sectioned using a microtome (Accutom-50, Struers, Denmark) at interval of 1 mm. The sectioned surface photograph was taken using a digital camera (Coolpix 995, Nikon, Japan) connected to the microscope. 197 images were evaluated for canal configurations and the minimal thickness of dentinal wall between canal and external wall using 'Root Thickness Gauge Program' designed with Visual Basic. The results were as follows : 1. At the orifice level of all teeth, the most frequent observed configuration was Melton's Type C I (73%), however the patterns were changed to type C II and C III when the sections were observed at the apical third. On the other hand, the type C III was observed at the orifice level of only 2 teeth but this type could be seen at apical region of the rest of the teeth. 2. The C-shaped canal showed continuous and semi-colon shape at the orifice level, but at the apical portion of the canal there was high possibility of having 2 or 3 canals 3. Lingual wall was thinner than buccal wall at coronal, middle, apical thirds of root but there was no statistical differences.