• Title, Summary, Keyword: biofilm

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A Comparative Study on Treatment Efficiencies by Anaerobic Packed and Fluidized-bed Biofilm of Livestock Wastewater (축산폐수의 혐기성 충전층과 유동층 생물막법에 의한 처리효율의 비교연구)

  • 김은호;박현건;장성호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted in order to evaluate the treatment efficiencies of anaerobic packed and fluidized-bed biofilm and to investigate applicability in treating livestock wastewater. Biocarbonate alkalinity(BA) and volatile fatty acid(VFA) were about 3,230-3,270 mg/l, 3,790-3,126 mg/l(as CaCO$_3$) and 224-402 mg/l, 141-387 mg/l(as CH$_3$COOH), and VFA/BA ratio was about 0.069~0.12, 0.045-0.12 in packed and fluidized-bed biofilm. When COD loading rate was 6.0 kg COD/$m^3\cdot$ day in packed and fluidized-bed biofilm, methane gas production were 3.23 l/day and 4.38 l/day, respectively. In the same COD loading rate, methane gas production volumes per kg COD removal were 0.25 m$^3$ CH$_4$/kg COD$_{rm}$ and $0.28 m^3 CH_4/kg COD^{rm}$, respectively. At this time, it could be estimated that fluidized-bed biofilm was more high. In case of HRT 0.94 day(6.0 kg COD/$m^3\cdot$ day) and 11 day(0.5 kg COD/$m^3\cdot$ day), packed-bed biofilm showed 59% and 81% COD removal efficiency, respectively. While fluidized-bed biofilm showed 72% and 85% removal efficiency, respectively. It was showed that fluidized-bed biofilm was more efficient. Packed-bed biofilm was higher than fluidized in treatment efficiencies of organic matters, but required continuous treatment using combined system, because it was very exceeded over an environmental standard solidified from '96 year. In operating fluidized-bed biofilm, if farm house consider high power cost according to high circulation ratio in an economic point of view, it would have an effect that farm house use packed-bed biofilm as combined system in treating livestock wastewater.

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A periodontitis-associated multispecies model of an oral biofilm

  • Park, Jong Hwa;Lee, Jae-Kwan;Um, Heung-Sik;Chang, Beom-Seok;Lee, Si-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: While single-species biofilms have been studied extensively, we know notably little regarding multispecies biofilms and their interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro multispecies dental biofilm model that aimed to mimic the environment of chronic periodontitis. Methods: Streptococcus gordonii KN1, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC23726, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC33384, and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC33277 were used for this experiment. The biofilms were grown on 12-well plates with a round glass slip (12 mm in diameter) with a supply of fresh medium. Four different single-species biofilms and multispecies biofilms with the four bacterial strains listed above were prepared. The biofilms were examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for four different planktonic single-species and multispecies bacteria were determined. The MICs of doxycycline and chlorhexidine for four different single-species biofilms and a multispecies biofilm were also determined. Results: The CLSM and SEM examination revealed that the growth pattern of the multispecies biofilm was similar to those of single-species biofilms. However, the multispecies biofilm became thicker than the single-species biofilms, and networks between bacteria were formed. The MICs of doxycycline and chlorhexidine were higher in the biofilm state than in the planktonic bacteria. The MIC of doxycycline for the multispecies biofilm was higher than were those for the single-species biofilms of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, or A. actinomycetemcomitans. The MIC of chlorhexidine for the multispecies biofilm was higher than were those for the single-species biofilms of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum. Conclusions: To mimic the natural dental biofilm, a multispecies biofilm composed of four bacterial species was grown. The 24-hour multispecies biofilm may be useful as a laboratory dental biofilm model system.

Control of Excessive Biofilm for the Treatment of High Strength Organic Wastewater by Biofilm Process (생물막공법에 의한 고농도 유기폐수 처리시 생물막 과부착 제어)

  • 임재명;권재혁;한동준
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed for minimization of excessive biofilm effects at the high strength organic wastewater treatment. As a results of biofilm attachment experiment using piggery wastewater, aggravation of water quality due to excessive biofilm showed after 15 days of operating times.4 excessive biofilm phase, the equivalent biofilm thickness and VSS contents per unit aura were observed in the range of 1,100 to $1,200{\mu}m$ and 2.5 to 3.0mg $VSS/cm^{2}$, respectively. In the aerobic fixed biofilm reactor/anoxic fixed biofilm reactor(AFBR/ANFBR) process with endogenous respiration phase, the BOD removal efficiency was obtained more than 90 percentage at the surface loading rate and volumetric loading rate of the AFBR maintained less than 17 g $BOD/m^{2}{\cdot}$day and 1.7kg $BOD/m^{3}{\cdot}$day, respectively. The removal efficiency of TKN and $NH_{3}$-N at the loading rates below 5.60g $NH_{3}-N/m^{2}{\cdot}day$ and 0.56kg $NH_{3}-N/m^{3}{\cdot}$day were above 76 percentage and 82 percentage, respectively. In order to reduced sludge production rate and aggravation of water quality, endogenous respiration phase was accepted at first AFBR reactor. As a results of this operating condition, sludge production was minimized and removal efficiency was maintained stability.

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Identification and morphology of scanning electron microscopy(sem) of bacteria isolated from dental biofilm (덴탈 바이오필름에서 분리한 세균의 주사전자현미경적 관찰 및 동정)

  • Jang, Gye-won
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.241-250
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    • 2008
  • In this study, specimens such as tongue, supragingival and subgingival biofilm were taken from total 20 scaling subjects who visited the oral prophylaxis practice lab at department of dental hygienics, J Health College in order to observe bacterial distributions and morphology using scanning electron microscopy(sem). as a result, this study came to the following conclusions: 1. According to observation of tongue, supragingival and subgingival biofilm through sem, it is found that there are round colonies of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli on blood agar medium. 2. The observation of bacterial morphology on dental biofilm through sem, cocci in chain cocci in cluster and bacillus(rod) respectively. 3. For tongue biofilm, it is found that a variety of bacterial species are detected, such as Granulicatolla adiacens(1), Gemella morbillorum(3), Streptococcus mitis(2), Streptococcus sanguinis(1), Aerococcus viridans (2), Streptococcus equinus(1), Leuconostoc spp.(1), Gemella haemolysans (1) and Lactococcus lactis spp.(1) respectively. 4. For supragingival biofilm, it is found that a variety of bacterial species detected, such as Aerococcus viridans(1), Gemella haemolysans(2), Leuconostoc spp.(2), Gemella morbillorum(1) and Pseudomonas fluoescens (1) respectively. 5. For subgingival biofilm, it is found that a variety of bacterial species detected, such as Leuconostoc spp.(1), Staphylococcus lugdunensis(1) and Streptococcus salivarius(1) respectively.

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Bacterial Dynamics of Biofilm Development During Toluene Degradation by Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 in a Gas Phase Membrane Bioreactor

  • Kumar, Amit;Dewulf, Jo;Wiele, Tom Van De;Langenhove, Herman Van
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1028-1033
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the dynamics of living cells (LC) and dead cells (DC) in a laboratory-scale biofilm membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment was examined. Toluene was used as a model pollutant. The bacterial cells were enumerated as fluoromicroscopic counts during a 140 operating day period using BacLight nucleic acid staining in combination with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM). Overall, five different phases could be distinguished during the biofilm development: (A) cell attachment, (B) pollutant limitation, (C) biofilm establishment and colonization, (D) colonized biofilm, and (E) biofilm erosion. The bioreactor was operated under different conditions by applying different pollutant concentrations. An optimum toluene removal of 89% was observed at a loading rate of 14.4 kg $m^{-3}d^{-1}$. A direct correlation between the biodegradation rate of the reactor and the dynamics of biofilm development could be demonstrated. This study shows the first description of biofilm development during gaseous toluene degradation in MBR.

Anti-Biofilm Effect of Egg Yolk Phosvitin by Inhibition of Biomass Production and Adherence Activity against Streptococcus mutans

  • Kim, Hyeon Joong;Lee, Jae Hoon;Ahn, Dong Uk;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.1001-1013
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    • 2020
  • The formation of biofilms on the enamel surface of teeth by Streptococcus mutans is an important step in dental plaque formation, demineralization, and early caries because the biofilm is where other bacteria involved in dental caries attach, grow, and proliferate. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of phosvitin (PSV) on the biofilm formation, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, adherence activity of S. mutans, and the expression of genes related to the compounds essential for biofilm formation (quorum-sensing inducers and components of biofilm matrix) by S. mutans. PSV significantly reduced the biofilm-forming activity of S. mutans and increased the degradation of preformed biofilms by S. mutans. PSV inhibited the adherence activity of S. mutans by 31.9%-33.6%, and the production of EPS by 62%-65% depending upon the strains and the amount of PSV added. The expressions of genes regulating the production of EPS and the quorum-sensing-inducers (gtfA, gtfD, ftf, relA, vicR, brpA, and comDE) in all S. mutans strains were down-regulated by PSV, but gtfB was down-regulated only in S. mutans KCTC 5316. Therefore, the anti-biofilm-forming activity of PSV was accomplished through the inhibition of biofilm formation, adherence activity, and the production of quorum-sensing inducers and EPS by S. mutans.

Biofilm Formation Characteristics of Major Foodborne Pathogens on Polyethylene and Stainless Steel Surfaces

  • Kim, Hyeong-Eun;Kim, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2020
  • This research was investigated the effects of temperature and time against the formation of biofilms by foodborne pathogens on surfaces of polyethylene and stainless steel. After preliminary experiments with 32 strains from 6 species of foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella Typhimurium), one strain from each species with the highest biofilm formation efficiency was selected. All foodborne pathogens showed a tendency toward an increased ability for biofilm formation with increasing temperature, but there was no consistency between the two materials and between foodborne pathogens. At all tested temperatures, the biofilm formation ability of E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the polyethylene surface was higher than that on the stainless steel surface with significant differences. The foodborne pathogens all formed biofilms immediately upon inoculation, and biofilm formation by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. Typhimurium increased on both the polyethylene and stainless steel surfaces at 1 h after inoculation compared to at 0 h. At 7 days after biofilm formation, the other strains except S. aureus showed no difference in survival rates on polyethylene and stainless steel. The ability of these 6 foodborne pathogens to form biofilms showed different trends depending on the type of bacteria and the instrument material, i.e., polyethylene and stainless steel.

Detection of $Bacillus$ $cereus$ Group from Raw Rice and Characteristics of Biofilm Formation (쌀로부터 $Bacillus$ $cereus$ Group의 분리와 Biofilm 형성 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Yoo, Hye-Lim;Lee, Young-Duck;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.657-663
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    • 2011
  • $Bacillus$ $cereus$ is widely distributed on various foods and is known to cause clinical infections, food poisoning toxin induced diarrhea and vomiting. In this study, $B.$ $cereus$ group detected and analyzed rice, rice bran, and biofilm characterization of $B.$ $cereus$ confirmed. $B.$ $cereus$ was identified in approximately 34.6% of brown rice and 50.0% of rice bran. $B.$ $thuringiensis$ was detected in 3.9% of brown rice and 23% of rice bran, and $B.$ $mycoides$ was isolated from rice bran. The microtiter plate assay detected differences in biofilm-forming ability among $B.$ $cereus$ group isolates. Biofilm of $B.$ $cereus$ seemed to increase the MIC values of antimicrobial agent and antibiotic compounds compared with planktonic cells. Therefore, sufficient attention should be given to good manufacturing practice and good agriculture practice to avoid contamination of $B.$ $cereus$ group raw material including rice.

Spatial Pattern of Copper Phosphate Precipitation Involves in Copper Accumulation and Resistance of Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 Biofilm

  • Chen, Guangcun;Lin, Huirong;Chen, Xincai
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2116-2126
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    • 2016
  • Bacterial biofilms are spatially structured communities that contain bacterial cells with a wide range of physiological states. The spatial distribution and speciation of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms that accumulated 147.0 mg copper per g dry weight were determined by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and micro-X-ray fluorescence microscopy coupled with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) analysis. It was found that copper was mainly precipitated in a $75{\mu}m$ thick layer as copper phosphate in the middle of the biofilm, while there were two living cell layers in the air-biofilm and biofilm-medium interfaces, respectively, distinguished from the copper precipitation layer by two interfaces. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of biofilm revealed that species resembling $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$ predominated in biofilm, followed by Cu-Citrate- and Cu-Glutathione-like species. Further analysis by micro-XANES revealed that 94.4% of copper were $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$-like species in the layer next to the air interface, whereas the copper species of the layer next to the medium interface were composed by 75.4% $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$, 10.9% Cu-Citrate-like species, and 11.2% Cu-Glutathione-like species. Thereby, it was suggested that copper was initially acquired by cells in the biofilm-air interface as a citrate complex, and then transported out and bound by out membranes of cells, released from the copper-bound membranes, and finally precipitated with phosphate in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. These results revealed a clear spatial pattern of copper precipitation in unsaturated biofilm, which was responsible for the high copper tolerance and accumulation of the biofilm.

Anti-Biofilm Activity of Grapefruit Seed Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

  • Song, Ye Ji;Yu, Hwan Hee;Kim, Yeon Jin;Lee, Na-Kyoung;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1183
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    • 2019
  • Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is a safe and effective preservative that is used widely in the food industry. However, there are few studies addressing the anti-biofilm effect of GSE. In this study, the anti-biofilm effect of GSE was investigated against biofilm-forming strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The GSE minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus and E. coli were $25{\mu}g/ml$ and $250{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. To investigate biofilm inhibition and degradation effect, crystal violet assay and stainless steel were used. Biofilm formation rates of four strains (S. aureus 7, S. aureus 8, E. coli ATCC 25922, and E. coli O157:H4 FRIK 125) were 55.8%, 70.2%, 55.4%, and 20.6% at $1/2{\times}MIC$ of GSE, respectively. The degradation effect of GSE on biofilms attached to stainless steel coupons was observed (${\geq}1$ log CFU/coupon) after exposure to concentrations above the MIC for all strains and $1/2{\times}MIC$ for S. aureus 7. In addition, the specific mechanisms of this anti-biofilm effect were investigated by evaluating hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production rate, and motility. Significant changes in EPS production rate and motility were observed in both S. aureus and E. coli in the presence of GSE, while changes in hydrophobicity were observed only in E. coli. No relationship was seen between auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Therefore, our results suggest that GSE might be used as an anti-biofilm agent that is effective against S. aureus and E. coli.