• Title, Summary, Keyword: biofilm

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The Effects of Biofilm Care on Subgingival Bacterial Motility and Halitosis

  • Kim, Yu-Rin
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.162-169
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    • 2019
  • Background: Oral diseases are caused by various systemic and local factors, the most closely related being the biofilm. However, the challenges involved in removing an established biofilm necessitate professional care for its removal. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of professional self and professional biofilm care in healthy patients to prevent the development of periodontal diseases. Methods: Thirty-seven patients who visited the dental clinic between September 2018 and February 2019 were included in this study. Self-biofilm care was performed by routine tooth brushing and professional biofilm care was provided using the toothpick method (TPM) or the oral prophylaxis (OP) method using a rubber cup. Subgingival bacterial motility and halitosis (levels of hydrogen sulfide, $H_2S$; methyl mercaptan, $CH_3SH$; and di-methyl sulfide, $(CH_3)_2S$) were measured before, immediately after, and 5 hours after the preventive treatment in the three groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was performed to determine significant differences among the groups. Results: TPM was effective immediately after the prevention treatment, whereas OP was more effective after 5 hours (proximal surfaces, F=16.353, p<0.001; smooth surfaces, F=66.575, p<0.001). The three components responsible for halitosis were effectively reduced by professional biofilm care immediately after the preventive treatment; however, self-biofilm care was more effective after 5 hours ($H_2S$, F=3.564, p=0.011; $CH_3SH$, F=6.657, p<0.001; $(CH_3)_2S$, F=21.135, p<0.001). Conclusion: To prevent oral diseases, it is critical to monitor the biofilm. The dental hygienist should check the oral hygiene status and the ability of the patient to administer oral care. Professional biofilm care should be provided by assessing and treating each surface of the tooth. We hope to strengthen our professional in biofilm care through continuous clinical research.

Effect of Polymer Coating on the Initial Microorganism Attachment and the Biofilm Growth (고분자 물질 도포가 미생물 부착과 생물막 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • 박영식;송승구
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.104-109
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of polymer coating on the initial microorganism attachment and the biofilm growth. Such as nonion(polyacrylamine), anion(CMC-Na) and cation polymer coagulant(chitosan and PEI) were used for coating material of the support carrier(acryl plate). When polymer coagulant was coated with 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 100 and 200 mg/l on the surface of acryl plate, initial microorganism attachment increased and optimum concentration for the attachment was 35 mg/l. Biofilm growth experiments were conducted with the substrate loading of 12.7gSCOD/$m^2\cdot$ day using RBC. The polymer coagulants such as CMC-Na, polyacrylamide, PEI and chitosan coating on the acryl plate facilitated the biofilm growth of microorganisms. Until the biofilm dry weight grows up to 0. 0038g/cm$^2$, biofilm growth on the plate coated with cation polymer like chitosan was better than that on the coated plate of nonion(polyacrylamine), anion(CMC-Na) polymer coagulant.

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Development of an Escherichia coli Biofilm Model on Transwell®

  • Kim, Bok Yung;Thyiam, General;Kang, Ji-Eun;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Sang-Hee;Kim, Jung-Sun;Abraham, Marion
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2012
  • Escherichia coli biofilm, reported to be produced in the human intestine causing a significant health risk, was successfully grown on transwell$^{(R)}$. This biofilm layer was identified by crystal violet staining and prepared for the in vitro E. coli biofilm system which can be used to screen for inhibitors. The biofilm formation did not show a change in transepithelial electrical resistance values. Furthermore, rhodamine 123 staining showed that the dye did not pass through the membrane once biofilm was formed.

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Effect of Hydraulic Loading on Biofilm Characteristics in an Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor (역 유동층 생물막 반응기에서 수리학적 부하가 생물막 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동석;최윤찬
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 1995
  • Stability of reactor and effect on biofilm characteristics were investigated by varying the hydraulic residence time in an inverse fluidized bed biofilm reactor(IFBBR). The SCOD removal efficiency was maintained above 90 % in the HRT range of 12hr to 2hr, but the TCOD removal efficiency was dropped down to 50% because of biomass detachment from overgrown bioparticles. The reactor was stably operated up to the conditions of HRT of 2hr and F/M ratio of 4.5kgCOD/$m^3$/day, but above the range there was an abrupt increase of filamentous microorganisms. The optimum biofilm thickness and the biofilm dry density in this experiment were shown as $200\mu\textrm{m}$ and $0.08 g/cm^3$, respectively. The substrate removal rate of this system was found as 1st order because the biofilm was maintained slightly thin by the increased hydraulic loading rate.

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Nitrogen Sources Inhibit Biofilm Formation by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

  • Ham, Youngseok;Kim, Tae-Jong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.2071-2078
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    • 2018
  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, which results in severe economic damage to rice farms. Xoo produces biofilms for pathogenesis and survival both inside and outside the host. Biofilms, which are important virulence factors, play a key role in causing the symptoms of Xoo infection. In the present study, we investigated the nutritional conditions for biofilm formation by Xoo. Although Xoo biofilm formation may be initiated by interactions with the host, Xoo biofilm cannot mature without the support of favorable nutritional conditions. Nitrogen sources inhibited Xoo biofilm formation by overwhelming the positive effect that cell growth has on it. However, limited nutrients with low amino acid concentration supported biofilm formation by Xoo in the xylem sap rather than in the phloem sap of rice.

Conditions for Preparing Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract for Inhibiting Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans

  • Ham, Youngseok;Kim, Tae-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.178-188
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    • 2019
  • Licorice, which has an extensive history of use as an herbal medicine, has been suggested to have oral health benefits. However, to date, no systematic study has been conducted on the preparation method of licorice extracts for oral health. In this study, licorice extracts prepared using water and ethanol were investigated for its ability to inhibit the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. The licorice extract prepared with around 60% ethanol effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans. Licorice extracted with 50% ethanol almost completely inhibited the biofilm formation at 1.5 g/L of licorice extract. This inhibitory activity was confirmed in a microplate assay and a flow cell system. Glycyrrhetic acid was extracted from licorice effectively with 60% ethanol concentration. The strong inhibitory activity of glycyrrhetic acid and the synergistic inhibition with glycyrrhizin on biofilm formation were suggested as major reasons for a concentration-specific extraction. These results suggest that licorice extract prepared using around 60% ethanol effectively inhibits the biofilm formation of S. mutans.

Anti-Biofilm Activity of Cell-Free Supernatant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against Staphylococcus aureus

  • Kim, Yeon Jin;Yu, Hwan Hee;Park, Yeong Jin;Lee, Na-Kyoung;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1854-1861
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    • 2020
  • Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common microorganisms and causes foodborne diseases. In particular, biofilm-forming S. aureus is more resistant to antimicrobial agents and sanitizing treatments than planktonic cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from cucumber jangajji compared to grapefruit seed extract (GSE). CFS and GSE inhibited and degraded S. aureus biofilms. The adhesion ability, auto-aggregation, and exopolysaccharide production of CFS-treated S. aureus, compared to those of the control, were significantly decreased. Moreover, biofilm-related gene expression was altered upon CFS treatment. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that CFS exerted anti-biofilm effects against S. aureus. Therefore, these results suggest that S. cerevisiae CFS has anti-biofilm potential against S. aureus strains.

Dental biofilm control of the disabled patients (장애인 치과환자의 치면세균막 관리)

  • Cho, Hyun-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.56 no.8
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    • pp.432-436
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    • 2018
  • Dental caries and periodontitis are the major concerns of oral disease to human, and its etiologic factor is dental biofilm. The aim of this study is to discuss the clinical application method and the meaning of dental biofilm control in the disabled patients. Generally, ultrasonic scaler are likely to generate excessive stimulus to the disabled patients. Rubber cup application using Ni-Ti engine could remove dental biofilm more comfortably to the disabled patients.

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Perturbation of host responses by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm (Porphyromonas gingivalis 바이오필름에 의한 숙주 면역반응의 교란)

  • Jeon, Woo-Seok;Kim, Sung-Jo;Choi, Jeom-Il
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.827-836
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    • 2002
  • The present study was performed to evaluate how cellular and humoral immune responses were perturbed by immunization of mixed periodontal bacterial biofilms. Each group of mice was immunizared with 1) Poqhyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivaliis) grown as a planktonic culture, 2) Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), 3) P. gingivalis grown as a biofilm, or 4) mixed P. gingivalis plus F. nucleatum grown as a biofilm culture, respectively. Immune mouse sera were collected from each mouse. Spleens were harvested to isolate T cells and consequently stimulated with antigen presenting cells and P. gingivalis whole cell antigen to establish P. gingivalis-specific T cell lines. There were no significant differences in the mean anti- gingivalis IgG antibody titers among mouse groups. Immunization of mice with pure P. gingivalis biofilm or mixed P gingivalis plus F. nucleatum biofilm resulted in significant reduction o f antibody avidity and opsonophagocytois function. INF-$\gamma$production by P. gingivalis-specific T cell lines was also substantially recluced in mouse groups immunized with the biofilm. It was concluded that P. gingivalis biofilm perturbs the cellular and humoral immune responses in periodontal disease.

Biofilm modeling systems (생물막 모델 시스템)

  • Kim, Soo-Kyoung;Lee, Joon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2016
  • Biofilms are considered a complexly structured community of microorganisms derived from their attached growth to abiotic and biotic surfaces. In human life, they mediate serious infections and cause many problems in civil and industrial facilities. While it is of huge interest for scientists to understand biofilms, it has been very hard to directly analyze the various biofilms in nature. A variety of biofilm models have been suggested for laboratory-scale biofilm formation and many methods based on these models are widely used for the biofilm researches. These biofilm models mimic characteristics of environmental biofilms with different advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we will introduce these currently used biofilm model systems and explain their relative merits.