• Title, Summary, Keyword: biofilm

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Relationship between biofilm formation and the antimicrobial resistance in the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from animal and air

  • Seo, Yeon-Soo;Lee, Deog Young;Kang, Mi Lan;Lee, Won Jung;Yoo, Han Sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2009
  • Biofilm has been described as a barrier, which produced by microorganisms to survive and protect themselves against various environments, like antibiotic agents. Staphylococcus spp. is a common cause of nosocomial and environmental infection. Thirty-six and thirty-five Staphylococci were isolated from animals and air, respectively. Based on the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium reported in our previous report, relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic-resistance was investigated in this study. Regarding antibiotics susceptibility, cefazolin was the most effective agent to the bacteria. Strong biofilm-forming Staphylococcus spp. isolates might have a higher antibiotic resistance than weak biofilm isolates regardless of the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (p < 0.05). This result suggested that the chemical complexity of the biofilm might increase the antibiotic resistance due to the decrease of antibiotic diffusion into cells through the extensive matrix.

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on biofilm formation by MBR sludge

  • Song, WonJung;Lade, Harshad;Yu, YoungJae;Kweon, JiHyang
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2018
  • N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been widely used as an initial mucolytic agent and is generally used as an antioxidant to help alleviate various inflammatory symptoms. NAC reduces bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, bacterial adhesion to the surface and strength of mature biofilm. The efficacy has been shown to inhibit proliferation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes, which contain a variety of gram negative bacteria, biofilm formation has become a serious problem in stable operation. In this study, use of NAC as an inhibitor of biofilm contamination was investigated using the center for disease control (CDC) reactors with MBR sludge. Biomass reduction was confirmed with CLSM images of membrane surfaces by addition of NAC, which was more efficient as the concentration of NAC was increased to 1.5 mg/mL. NAC addition also showed decreases in EPS concentrations of the preformed biofilm, indicating that NAC was able to degrade EPS in the mature biofilm. NAC addition was also effective to inhibit biofilm formation by MBR sludge, which consisted of various microorganisms in consortia.

Factors that Influence Biofilm Formation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (장염비브리오의 biofilm 형성에 영향을 미치는 인자)

  • No, A-Reum;Park, Kwon-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.456-460
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    • 2009
  • Biofilm is a structured community of microorganism encapsulated within a self-developed polymeric matrix and adherent to a living or a solid surface. In this study, we investigated the effects of various substrates on the formation of biofilm in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We found that biofilm formation profoundly increased in a substrate, that consisted of calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, and calcium sulfate in 1% peptone water. On the other hand, a dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a substrate, that consisted of glucose and ferric chloride in LB broth. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus prefer to form a biofilm on the surface of a crustacean or a clam, where calcium ion is rich, and also where seawater temperature is relatively lower. In contrast, high levels of glucose in a crustacean or a clam body resulting from increased seawater temperature, can make V. parahaemolyticus detach from it and lead to free floating.

Mathematical Models for the Biofilm Formation of Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus on Stainless Steel Surface in Whole Milk

  • Karaca, Basar;Buzrul, Sencer;Cihan, Arzu Coleri
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.288-299
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    • 2021
  • Biofilm formation of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in milk on stainless steel were monitored at 55℃, 60℃, and 65℃ for various incubation times. Although species of Geobacillus showed a rapid response and produced biofilm within 4 h on stainless steel, a delay (lag time) was observed for Anoxybacillus. A hyperbolic equation and a hyperbolic equation with lag could be used to describe the biofilm formation of Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus, respectively. The highest biofilm formation amount was obtained at 60℃ for both Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus. However, the biofilm formation rates indicated that the lowest rates of formation were obtained at 60℃ for Geobacillus. Moreover, biofilm formation rates of G. thermodenitrificans (1.2-1.6 Log10CFU/mL∙h) were higher than G. thermoglucosidans (0.4-0.7 Log10CFU/mL∙h). Although A. flavithermus had the highest formation rate values (2.7-3.6 Log10CFU/mL∙h), this was attained after the lag period (4 or 5 h). This study revealed that modeling could be used to describe the biofilm formation of thermophilic bacilli in milk.

The High Rate Denitrification of Nitric Acid Wastewater in a Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor (유동층 생물막 반응기를 이용한 고농도 질산성 폐수의 탈질화에 관한 연구)

  • 신승훈;김민수;박동일;안재동;장인용
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 1997
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of media on the removal efficiency of nitrate-nitrogen and the biofilm thickness in the fluidized bed biofilm reactor(FBBR) used for the high rate denitrification of nitric acid wastewater. Granular activated carbon(GAC) of 1.274 mm diameter and sand of 0.455 mm diameter were used as the media in the FBBR of 0.05 m diameter and 1.5 m height. As the nitrate-nitrogen concentration of the influent was increased stepwise from 600 to 4800 mg/l, the nitrate- and nitrite-nitrogen concentration of the effluent, biofilm thickness and biofilm dry density were measured to study the effects of media on the denitrification efficiency. The biofilm thickness increased with the substrate loading rate, and the biofilm dry density decreased with the increase of the biofilm thickness. At the influent nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 2400 mg/l, the removal efficiency in the FBBR with GAC was 88%, while that in the FBBR with sand was 99.6%. The biofilm in the FBBR with GAC was so thick, 754.9 $\mu$m, as to increase the mass transfer resistance, compared to that, 143.7 $\mu$m, in the FBBR with sand. The maximum specific denitrification rate in the FBBR with GAC was 15.0 kg-N/m$^3\cdot$ day, while that in the FBBR with sand was 18.0 kg-N/m$^3\cdot$ day. The biomass concentration in the FBBR with sand exhibited the high value 37 kg/m$^3$.

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Pollutant Removal in Variable HRT Using the Aerobic Biofilm (호기성 생물막을 이용한 HRT 변화에 따른 오염물질 제거)

  • Ahn, Kwang-Ho;Ko, Kwang-Baik;Kim, I-Tae;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1495-1501
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    • 2012
  • In this study, an experiment was conducted on influent water with low concentrations of organic matter, such as river water or secondary treatment water of a sewage treatment plant, according to HRT changes by using aerobic biofilm. In the biofilm process, as the biofilm increases in thickness, the inner membrane can be low in oxygen transfer rate and become anaerobic conditions, while the detachment of biomass from biofilm occurs. To overcome these limitations in the detachment of microorganisms in biofilm, the yarn, which was made from poly propylene(PP), was weaved and manufactured into a tube. Then, a test was carried out by injecting air so that the interior of the biofilm could create aerobic conditions. The results of the experiment showed that the removal efficiency of $TCOD_{cr}$ reached 66.1~81.2% by HRT 2hr, and 50.9 ~61.8% after HRT 1 hr. The removal efficiency of $SCOD_{cr}$ was 45.9 to 55.1% by HRT 1hr, and 26.1% in HRT 0.5hr, showing the highest removal efficiency in HRT 1hr. The SS removal efficiency was at 81.8 to 94.6%, and the effluent SS concentration was very low, indicating less than 2.2 mg/L in all HRT's. As a result, the $SCOD_{cr}$ and $NH_4{^+}$-N that were removed per specific surface area and attached to microbial biofilm showed the highest efficiency in HRT 1hr with 8.37 $gSCOD_{cr}/m^2{\cdot}d$, 2.93 $gNH_4{^+}-N/m^2{\cdot}d$. From the result of reviewing the characteristics of biofilm growth, microorganisms were found to be attached, and increased by 36 days. Later, they decreased in number through detachment, but showed a tendency to increase again 41 days later due to microbial reproduction.

Community characteristics of early biofilms formed on water distribution pipe materials (수도관 재질에 형성된 초기 생물막 형성 미생물의 군집 특성)

  • Kim, Yeong-Kwan;Park, Sung-Gu;Lee, Dong-Hun;Choi, Sung-Chan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.767-777
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    • 2012
  • Annular Biofilm Reactor (ABR) equipped with coupons of three different pipe materials (STS 304, PVC, PE) was used to generate drinking water biofilm samples. The level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) during the sample generation period was $37.3{\mu}g/L$, and this level did not seem to be low enough to limit the formation of biofilm in this study. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses determined T-RF profile as early as 3 h of exposure on PVC coupons. Average surface roughness ($R_a$) measured by atomic force microscopic analyses was 125.7 nm for PVC, and this value was higher than for STS (71.6 nm) and PE (74.0 nm). However, biofilm formation was faster on STS (6 h) than on PE (12 h), which indicated that surface roughness might not be the only factor that controlled the initiation of biofilm development. Upon detection of the T-RF peaks, richness (S) and diversity indices such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (1/D) demonstrated a rather slow increase until 48 h followed by rapid increase regardless of the pipe materials. Differences of microbial community structures among the biofilm samples were determined based on the cluster analysis using Jaccard coefficients (Sj). Biofilm communities could be divided into two distinct groups according to the exposure time regardless of the pipe materials. First group contained a young (< 48 h) biofilm samples (10 out of 11) but second group contained a mature (${\geq}$ 48 h) samples (11 out of 14). Results suggested that, due to the complexity of biofilm, the targeting of the first group of cluster was crucial for optimizing the management of drinking water distribution systems and controlling microbial growth.

Inhibition of nicotine-induced Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by salts solutions intended for mouthrinses

  • Balhaddad, Abdulrahman A.;Melo, Mary Anne S.;Gregory, Richard L.
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.4.1-4.10
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. Materials and Methods: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0-32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. Results: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.

Comparison of microtensile bond strength on non-carious cervical lesions according to biofilm removal method (생체막 제거 방법에 따른 비우식성 치경부 병소의 미세인장강도 비교)

  • Sung, Kun-Hwa;Min, Jeong-Bum;Park, Tae-Young
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.58 no.11
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    • pp.683-689
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    • 2020
  • Dentin surface of non-carious lesion is usually attached with oral biofilm. The biofilm should be removed before application of restorative material, because it may reduce the bond strength of adhesive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength, when the biofilm was removed with brush or bur. Twenty extracted human third molars were sectioned horizontally to obtain dentin surface. Specimen were divided randomly into four group. Biofilm formation was performed in three group, except for Group 1 (negative control). Biofilm was removed as follows: Group 3, using ICB brush; Group 4, using lowspeed round bur #2. Group 2 (positive control) was not removed Biofilm. And in all four groups, the adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr) was applied to etched dentin surface, and resin composite was built up in three 1mm increments. After 24 hour storage in distilled water, the teeth were perpendicularly sectioned to obtain beams (1 × 1 mm2). Microtensile bond strength was measured and the data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the highest microtensile bond strength (p<0.05), Group 3 showed no significant improvements when compared to Group 1. Group 2 showed lowest microtensile bond strength (p<0.05). When restoring a non-carious cervical lesion, it is essential to remove the biofilm present on the dentin surface. In addition, in the method of removing the biofilm, both the brush removal method and the bur removal method were effective.

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Inhibitory Effect of Transition Metal Gallium [Ga(NO3)3] on Biofilm Formation by Fish Pathogens (전이금속 갈륨(Ga(NO3)3)을 이용한 biofilm을 형성하는 어류질병세균의 억제)

  • Kim, Dong-Hwi;Dharaneedharan, Subramanian;Jang, Young-Hwan;Heo, Moon-Soo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.535-539
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    • 2016
  • The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus parauberis (Sp), Streptococcus iniae (Si), and Edwardsiella tarda (Et) in flounder fish farms in Jeju Island and their management by gallium treatment was studied. Sp, Si, and Et were found to exhibit a low rate of cell growth and high biofilm formation. Hence, in the present study, cell growth and biofilm formation were measured spectrophotometrically 72 h after the addition of different concentrations of gallium (2, 4, or 8 mg/ml). In addition, cell death was measured by resazurin and propidium iodide staining assays. The results showed that bacterial cell death increased and biofilm formation decreased with an increasing concentration of gallium. Hence, the present study signifies that the use of gallium against bacterial pathogens could be useful for disease management in flounder farms.