• Title, Summary, Keyword: biofilm

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Graphene Oxide Incorporated Antifouling Thin Film Composite Membrane for Application in Desalination and Clean Energy Harvesting Processes (해수담수화와 청정 에너지 하베스팅을 위한 산화 그래핀 결합 합성 폴리머 방오 멤브레인)

  • Lee, Daewon;Patel, Rajkumar
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.16-34
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    • 2021
  • Water supplies are decreasing in comparison to increasing clean water demands. Using nanofiltration is one of the most effective and economical methods to meet the need for clean water. Common methods for desalination are reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. However, pristine membranes lack the essential features which are, stability, economic efficiency, antibacterial and antifouling performances. To enhance the properties of the pristine membranes, graphene oxide (GO) is a promising and widely researched material for thin film composites (TFC) membrane due to their characteristics that help improve the hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties. Modification of the membrane can be done on different layers. The thin film composite membranes are composed of three different layers, the top filtering active thin polyamide (PA) layer, supporting porous layer, and supporting fabric. Forward osmosis (FO) process is yet another energy efficient desalination process, but its efficiency is affected due to biofouling. Incorporation of GO enhance antibacterial properties leading to reduction of biofilm formation on the membrane surface. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is an excellent process to generate clean energy from sea water and the biofouling of membrane is reduced by introduction of GO into the active layer of the TFC membrane. Different modifications on the membranes are being researched, each modification with its own advantages and disadvantages. In this review, modifications of nanofiltration membranes and their composites, characterization, and performances are discussed.

The Microalgal Attachment and its Growth on the Artificial Surfaces Immersed in Seawater: I. Attachment and Micro-succession (해수에 잠긴 인공기질 표면에서 미세조류의 부착과 성장: I. 부착 및 천이)

  • Shim, Jae-Hyung;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Cho, Byung-Cheol;Kim, Woong-Seo
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.249-260
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    • 1998
  • To understand the attachment of micro algae and their subsequent growths on artificial surfaces immersed in seawater, the relationship between attachment of diatoms on the immersed artificial substrates and species pool in the surrounding water was investigated. We used acryl slides for the study of diatom attachment and examined the surrounding water samples collected in Incheon Harbour from July 1995 to February 1997. Variations of species composition and abundances by exposure time in seawater were investigated during the early phase of biofilm formation on various substrates, e.g. glass, acryl, titanium, copper and antifouling paint-treated slides. Immigration rates of diatoms to acryl slides during spring and winter were significantly correlated with the abundance of benthic diatoms in surrounding water ($r^2$=0.78, p<0.01, n=42), suggesting that immigration rates were affected by variations of benthic diatom abundances in surrounding water. Immigration coefficient of monoraphid diatoms was 5 times higher than that of biraphid diatoms, but relative abundance of monoraphid diatoms was 3 times lower than that of biraphid diatoms on acryl slides in spring. In winter, immigration coefficient and relative abundance of centric diatoms were higher compared to other raphe forms. These results suggest that the attachment of diatoms seems to be caused by the abundance and immigration coefficients of benthic diatoms in surrounding water. Pennate diatoms predominantly attached to all artificial surfaces throughout all experimental periods. Interestingly, centric diatoms predominantly attached to all artificial surfaces in winter. Hantzschia virgata, Licmophora abbreviata and Melosira nummuloides appeared dominantly on antifouling paint-treated slides, probably being tolerant of the antifouling paint. During incubations, the abundance of attached diatoms increased exponentially on glass, titanium and acryl slides with exposure time. The maximum abundance was highest on glass slide, followed by acryl, titanium, copper and antifouling paint-treated slides. The growth rates of attached diatom community on all artificial surfaces were higher at temperature of $24-25^{\circ}C$ than that of $2-3^{\circ}C$. The growth rate of attached diatoms on glass slide was generally higher compared to other slides during the study period. Dominant morphotypes of observed species with exposure time in seawater were prostrate form Amphora coffeaeformis, fan shape Synedra tabulata, stalk type Licmophora paradoxa and chain type M. nummuloides. A micro-succession in the attached microalgal community was observed. The composition of dominant species seems to be the result of species-specific response to gradually limited space with development of microalgal film.

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The Microalgal Attachment and its Growth on the Artificial Surfaces Immersed in Seawater: II. Chlorophyll a and Primary Productivity (해수에 잠긴 인공기질 표면에서 미세조류의 부착과 성장: II. 엽록소와 일차생산력)

  • Shim, Jae-Hyung;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Cho, Byung-Cheol;Kim, Woong-Seo;Pae, Se-Jin
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 1999
  • To understand the growth of attached microalgae to the immersed artificial surfaces in seawater with exposure time, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration and abundance of attached microalgae to glass slides, and primary productivity and chl a concentration on coverglasses were investigated in Incheon Harbour in May, June 1996 and January-February 1997. Chl a concentrations of microalgae and abundances of diatoms attached to glass slides reached 62.5 mg chl a $m^{-2}$ and $144{\times}10^3$ cells $cm^{-2}$, respectively, during the study period. Chl a concentrations increased with exposure time, and they were significantly correlated with the abundances of attached diatoms ($r^2=0.79$, p<0.001). The chl a concentrations of attached micro algae on coverglass reached the maximum values of 31.1 mg chl a $m^{-2}$ and 65.4 mg chl a $m^{-2}$, and then decreased in May, June 1996. But in January-February 1997, the chl a concentration increased continuously up to 98.9 mg chl a $m^{-2}$. The primary productivity reached the maximum values of 63.1 mgC $m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$, 347.0 mgC $m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ and 78.3 mgC $m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$, respectively, in May, June and January-February. The primary productivity in May and June varied in accordance with chl a concentrations. But in January-February, the primary productivity decreased from 26 days of exposure while chl a concentration continued to increase. Two cases that primary productivity decreased abruptly seemed to be caused by decrement of chl a and light specific $P^B$ (chl a specific primary productivity) (May and June) and by decrement of light specific $P^B$ due to photoinhibition (January-February). The results of present study indicated that chl a concentrations and the primary productivity of microalgae attached to artifical surfaces immersed in seawater would expedite analysis of dynamics of biomass and physiological status of attached microalgae during biofilm formations.

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Estimation of Terminal Sire Effect on Swine Growth and Meat Quality Traits (돼지 성장 및 육질 형질에 영향하는 종료웅돈의 효과)

  • Kim, H.S.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.Y.;Iim, H.T.;Yang, H.S.;Lee, J.I.;Joo, Y.K.;Do, C.H.;Joo, S.T.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2007
  • A submerged biofilm sequencing batch reactor (SBSBR) process, which liquor was internally circulated through sandfilter, was designed, and performances in swine wastewater treatment was evaluated under a condition of no external carbon source addition. Denitrification of NOx-N with loading rate in vertical and slope type of sandfilter was 19% and 3.8%, respectively, showing approximately 5 times difference, and so vertical type sandfilter was chosen for the combination with SBSBR. When the process was operated under 15 days HRT, 105L/hr.m3 of internal circulation rate and 54g/m3.d of NH4-N loading rate, treatment efficiencies of STOC, NH4-N and TN (as NH4-N plus NOx-N) was 75%, 97% and 85%, respectively. By conducting internal circulation through sandfilter, removal performances of TN were enhanced by 14%, and the elevation of nitrogen removal was mainly attributed to occurrence of denitrification in sandfilter. Also, approximately 57% of phosphorus was removed with the conduction of internal circulation through sandfilter, meanwhile phosphorus concentration in final effluent rather increased when the internal circulation was not performed. Therefore, It was quite sure that the continuous internal circulation of liquor through sandfilter could contribute to enhancement of biological nutrient removal. Under 60g/m3.d of NH4-N loading rate, the NH4-N level in final effluent was relatively low and constant(below 20mg/L) and over 80% of nitrogen removal was maintained in spite of loading rate increase up to 100g/m3.d. However, the treatment efficiency of nitrogen was deteriorated with further increase of loading rate. Based on this result, an optimum loading rate of nitrogen for the process would be 100g/m3.d.

A Study on the removal of nitrogen by combined nitrification and autotrophic denitrification (질산화와 무기영양 독립탈질화의 연계처리에 의한 질소제거에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Gee-Bong;Jeong, Da-Young;Woo, Mi-Hee;Kim, So-Yeon;Kim, Bio
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2008
  • Removal of nitrogen compound under nitrification related with denitrification by biofilm which developed on the porous media was investigated. With the investigation of $NH_4-N$ nitrification and autotrophic denitrification supplied with sulfur media as electron donor, conclusions were retrieved as follows. When $F/M_N$ ratio of $NH_4-N$ was increased from $0.0062-0.034gNH_4-N/g\;MLVSS{\cdot}day$ by the change of influent concentration and HRT the nitrification rate decreased as the increase of loading rate. Also under the same conditions of $F/M_N$ ratio, the alkalinity consumption rate of operation was higher at 8 hours of HRT than at 6 hours of HRT. Accordingly the influent loading rate variation by detention time with influent flow influenced more on the nitrification efficiency than the influent loading rate variation by the influent concentration did. Denitrification rate with various EBCT(Empty Bed Contact Time) showed average 25% at 8.4hrs of EBCT but sharply decreased average 5% at 4.6hrs of EBCT, so the operation would be more effective at above 8.4hrs of EBCT. Also denitrification rate was known to be adversely increased as $NO_3-N$ loading rate per unit volume of sulfur-media was decreased within the range of $0.5{\sim}2.0kgNO_3-N/m^3{\cdot}day$.

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Effects of Flushing in Dental Unit Waterlines on the Bacterial Contamination Level (치과용 유니트 수관 물 빼기(Flushing)가 세균 오염도 감소에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hye Young;Lee, Si Young
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.659-665
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    • 2015
  • A wide variety of methods have been used to control Dental Unit Waterline (DUWL) contamination. Among the methods, flushing is mainly used because it is simple and easy to use. Generally, flushing of DUWL for 20 or 30 sec before using high speed handpieces or scalers is recommended. However, the appropriateness of flushing time was not investigated thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to check the effective time of flushing for decreasing bacterial contamination. Seven dental unit chairs were randomly selected in student clinical simulation laboratory for this experiment. DUWLs were continuously flushed and water samples were collected at an interval of 30 seconds for 15 minutes. From five dental unit chairs, water samples were collected every 10 seconds for 1 minute. Bacterial levels in water samples were examined by the culture method on R2A plates. After 10 second flushing of DUWLs, the number of bacteria significantly reduced and decreased continuously up to 40 seconds. However, even after the water was flushed for 15 minutes, the bacterial contamination level was not reduced below recommended bacteria level, 200 CFU/ml. In addition to flushing, the periodic chemical disinfection is required to control the DUWL water to the recommended level.

Characteristics of Biodegradation of Geosmin using BAC Attached Bacteria in Batch Bioreactor (정수처리용 생물활성탄(BAC) 부착 박테리아를 이용한 회분식 반응기에서의 Geosmin 생분해 특성)

  • Son, Hee-Jong;Jung, Chul-Woo;Choi, Young-Ik;Jang, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.699-705
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    • 2010
  • In this study, three different biological activated carbons (BACs) were prepared from activated carbons made of each coal (F400, Calgon), coconut (Samchully) and wood(Pica, Picabiol) which were run for two and half years in the pilot plant. The attached bio-film microorganisms in and on the BACs were isolated and identified. The results showed that nine different bacteria species (Chryseomonas luteola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Spingomonas paucimobilis, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Spirillum spp., and Pasteurella haemolytica) were isolated and identified, the dominant species was Pseudomonas sp. that had occupied 56.5%. More specifically, it was observed that the populations of the microorganisms deceased in the order: Pasteurella haemolytica (18.9%) > Chryseomonas luteola (4.0%) > Agrobacterium radiobacter (3.5%) > Aeromonas hydrophila (2.0%) in and on the BACs. After isolating of 9 species of biofilm microorganisms, the growth curve for the biomass was investigated. During 24~96 hours, the biomass has the highest concentration, and activity of the biomass was the best to uptake geosmin as carbon resources. The operation temperatures for investigating the biodegradation of geosmin were set at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$. Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium radiobacter and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia played a maior role in removing the target compound as geosmin. However, geosmin was not biodegraded well by Chryseomonas luteola, Spingomonas paucimobilis, and Spirillum spp.. It is also interesting to evaluate kinetics of biodegradability of geosmin. The first-order rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ were $0.00006{\sim}0.0002\;hr^{-1}$ and $0.0043{\sim}0.0046\;hr^{-1}$ respectively. Higher water temperature produced better geosmin removal rates. When concentrations of geosmin increased from 10 to 10,000 ng/L, the rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin increased from 0.0003 to $0.0882\;hr^{-1}$. As described earlier, higher geosmin concentration in the reactor produced higher rate constant.

Adhesion Characteristics and the High Pressure Resistance of Biofilm Bacteria in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process (역삼투 해수담수화 공정 내 바이오필름 형성 미생물의 부착 및 고압내성 특성)

  • Jung, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Jin-Wook;Kim, Sung-Youn;Kim, In-S.
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2009
  • Biofouling in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process causes many problems such as flux decline, biodegradation of membrane, increased cleaning time, and increased energy consumption and operational cost. Therefore biofouling is considered as the most critical problem in system operation. To control biofouling in early stage, detection of the most problematic bacteria causing biofouling is required. In this study, six model bacteria were chosen; Bacillus sp., Flavobacterium sp., Mycobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhodobacter sp. based on report in the literature and phylogenetic analysis of seawater intake and fouled RO membrane. The adhesion to RO membrane, the high pressure resistance, and the hydrophobicity of the six model bacteria were examined to find out their fouling potential. Rhodobacter sp. and Mycobacterium sp. were found to attach very well to RO membrane surface compared to others used in this study. The test of hydrophobicity revealed that the bacteria which have high hydrophobicity or similar contact angle with RO membrane ($63^{\circ}$ of contact angle) easily attached to RO membrane surface. P. aeruginosa which is highly hydrophilic ($23.07^{\circ}$ of contact angle) showed the least adhesion characteristic among six model bacteria. After applying a pressure of 800 psi to the sample, Rhodobacter sp. was found to show the highest reduction rate; with 59-73% of the cells removed from the membrane under pressure. P. fluorescens on the other hand analyzed as the most pressure resistant bacteria among six model bacteria. The difference between reduction rates using direct counting and plate counting indicates that the viability of each model bacteria was affected significantly from the high pressure. Most cells subjected to high pressure were unable to form colonies even thought they maintained their structural integrity.

The Removal of Organics and Nitrogen with Step Feed Ratio Change into the Anoxic and Anaerobic reactor in Advanced Sewage Treatment process Using Nonsurface-modified and Surface-modified Media Biofilm (비개질/개질 생물막을 이용한 오수고도처리공정에서 혐기조와 무산소조의 원수 분배율에 따른 유기물 및 질소 제거)

  • Seon, Yong-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2005
  • This study was accomplished using attached $A^2/O$ process that contains nonsurface-modified and surface-modified polyethylene media inside the Anaerobic/Anoxic, Oxic tank, respectively. We could make the hydrophobic polyethylene media have hydrophilic characteristics by radiating ion beam on the surface of the media. The objectives of this study is to investigate the removal efficiencies of the organics and nitrogen when the step feed ratio of raw wastewater into anaerobic and anoxic tank is changed. In this case, we assumed that the denitrification rate can be improved because the nitrifiers in anoxic tank can perform denitrification using RBDCOD instead of artificial carbon sources (for example, methanol, etc.). The wastewater injection rate into anaerobic/anoxic tank was set up by the ratio of 10 : 0, 9 : 1, 8 : 2, 6 : 4, and the results of BOD removal efficiency showed similar trends with $93.3\%,\;92.6\%,\;92.4\%\;and\;91.6\%$, respectively. But the BOD removal efficiency (utilization of the organics) in the anoxic tank was in the order of 9 : 1 $(84.8\%)$, 10 : 0 $(77.0\%)$, 8 : 2 $(75.3\%)$, and 6 : 4 $(61.1\%)$. The T-N removal efficiency was most high when the ratio is 9 : 1 $(67.4\%)$, and other conditions, 10 : 0, 8 : 2, 6 : 4, showed $61.3(\%),\;60.7\%,\;55.5\%$, respectively; the ratio 6 : 4 was found to be lowest T-N removal efficiency, lower than the ratio 9 : 1 by $12\%$. Though the nitrification rate of the ratio 10 : 0, 9 : 1, and 8 : 2 showed similar levels, the ratio 6 : 4 showed considerable inhibition of nitrification, ammonia was the great portion of the effluent T-N. The advantages of this process is that this process is cost-saving, and non-toxic methods than injecting the artificial carbon source.