• Title, Summary, Keyword: biological activity

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Characterization of Rajath Bhasma and Evaluation of Its Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos and Its Antimicrobial Activity

  • Kalimuthu, Kalishwaralal;Kim, Ji Min;Subburaman, Chandramohan;Kwon, Woo Young;Hwang, Sung Hyun;Jeong, Sehan;Jo, Min Geun;Kim, Hyung Joo;Park, Ki Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.920-925
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    • 2020
  • In India, nanotechnology has been used in therapeutic applications for several millennia. One example of a traditional nanomedicine is Rajath Bhasma (also called calcined silver ash), which is used as an antimicrobial and for the treatment of various ailments and conditions such as memory loss, eye diseases, and dehydration. In this study, we aimed to characterize the physical composition and morphology of Rajath Bhasma and its suitability for use as a non-toxic antimicrobial agent. First, Rajath Bhasma was physically characterized via i) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze the surface functional groups, ii) scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to observe the morphology and elemental composition, and iii) X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline phases. Thereafter, functional characterization was performed through toxicity screening using zebrafish embryos and through antimicrobial activity assessment against gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Rajath Bhasma was found to harbor alkene, hydroxyl, aldehyde, and amide functional groups originating from biological components on its surface. The main component of Rajath Bhasma is silver, with particle size of 170-210 nm, and existing in the form of spherical aggregates with pure crystalline silver structures. Furthermore, Rajath Bhasma did not exert toxic effects on zebrafish embryos at concentrations below 5 ㎍/ml and exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The present results indicate that Rajath Bhasma is a potentially effective antimicrobial agent without toxicity when used at concentrations below 5 ㎍/ml.

Antifungal Activity and Inhibitory Modes of Volatile Vapours of Essential Oils

  • Chee, Hee-Youn;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.102-104
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    • 2004
  • Antifungal activities of volatile vapours of essential oils were investigated. Volatile vapours of test essential oils except Cedar-wood and Pachouri showed inhibitory activity against test fungi. Volatile vapours of Birch essential oils exhibited fungistatic activity against dermatophytic filamentous fungi while others did fungicidal activity. Spores of dermatophytic filamentous fungi are more susceptible to volatile vapours of essential oils than mycelia.

Flavonoids and Stilbenes as Repellents against the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis

  • Singh, Inder Pal;Etoh, Hideo;Asai, Eiko;Kikuchi, Kojiro;Ina, Kazuo;Koyasu, Katsuya;Terada, Yukimasa
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1997
  • We studied the attachment-repelling activity of flavonoids, stilbenes, and their glycosides against the blue mussel Mytilus edulis galloprouincialis. Molecular mechanics calculations have shown that the most stable conformations of potent repellents 29 and 32 were the same. On the basis of these results, structure-activity relationships of these compounds are discussed.

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Synthesis and biological activity of 6'-phenylgriseofulvin as analogs of antibiotic griseofulvin (항진균성항생물질 griseofulvin 유도체인 6'-phenylgriseofulvin의 합성과 항균활성)

  • Ko, Byoung-Seob;Oritani, Takayuki;Yamashita, Kyohei
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.395-398
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    • 1992
  • In order to study the influence of a 6'-methyl group in ring C of griseofulvin ${\underline{(1)}}$ on the fungicidal activity, 6'-methyl group was replaced with a larger phenyl group as $({\pm})-6'-phenylgriseofulvin$ ${\underline{(3)}}$, $({\pm})-6'-epiphenylgriseofulvin$ ${\underline{(4)}}$, synthesized by a Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Their biological activities were examined against Botrytis allii (IFO 9430) and B. cinerea (AHU 9573). $({\pm})-6'-Phenylgriseofulvin $ ${\underline{(3)}}$ showed high activity in $25\;{\mu}g/disc$.

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Brassinosteroid-like Activity of Monoglyceride Analogues (Monoglyceride 관련물질의 Brassinosteroid-like 생물활성)

  • Park, Jong-Dae;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.357-360
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    • 1997
  • The biological activity of monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides and free fatty acids were investigated by the rice inclination test that is specific bioassay for brassinosteroids. The experimental results revealed that some diglycerides, triglycerides and free fatty acids as well as monoglycerides showed positive response. ${\alpha}-Monoolein$ and diolein as active principles showed higher activity than indole-3-acetic acid at the same concentration. From the results, it can be confirmed that the active principles are related to olein which especially have a high activity.

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Stimulation of Tissue Transglutaminase Activity by Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Type B

  • Moon, Yu-Seok;Gi-Hyeok;Rhee, Sang-Dal;Jung, Hyun-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2003
  • Recombinant light chain of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B stimulated transglutaminase activity in a dose dependent manner, Compared to native toxin, recombinant light chain showed av greater stimulatory effect on transglutaminase activity. Zn-chelating agents, inhibiting the proteolytic activity of the clostridial toxins, did not interfere with this stimulation. These results suggest that the light chain plays a major stimulatory role, which is not due to its metallopeptidase activity, but is possibly due to specific interaction with transglutaminase. More importantly, this report provides a new insight into the intracellular action of C. botulinum neurotoxins.

Measurement of Biological Activity in Pilot Scale Dyeing Wastewater Process by Using Respirometer (호흡률 측정기를 이용한 파일럿 스케일 염색폐수처리 장치에서의 생물학적 활성 측정)

  • Jeon Hyun Hee;Choi Kwang Keun;Yoon In Jun;Lee Jin Won
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.390-393
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    • 2004
  • Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was used as an indicator of microbial activity. In this study OUR at dyeing wastewater in the pilot plant was monitored to examine biological activity. Correlation between inlet COD concentration and maximum OUR showed that maximum OUR was proportional to inlet COD concentration. Changes in the OUR values reflected the changing waste load in the reactor. Consequently, OUR can be used to estimate biological activity of inlet COD concentration. This study showed that biodegradable COD at dyeing wastewater could be calculated from OUR and yield coefficient. Non-biodegradable COD was able to be calculated from a difference between initial COD concentration and biodegradable COD.

Comparison of Urushiol Composition and Biological Activity between Fresh Sap and Fire Distilled Sap of Lacquer Tree (생칠과 화칠의 우루시올 조성 및 생리활성 비교)

  • 김명조
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 1998
  • For the comparison of the urushiol composition and biological acitivity between the fresh sap and fire distilled sap of lacquer tree(Rhus vernicifera), we analysed the urushiol composition by HPLC and EI-MS, and investigated the antioxidative , antimicrobial and anticancer acitivities according to solvent fractionations. There was no difference in the urushiol composition between fresh and fire distilled saps of lacquer tree. The hexane frqctionsof two saps showed a strong DPPH radical scaverging activity (RC50 : 7.0-7.5$\mu\textrm{g}$). They also showed a strong antifungal activity onthe spore germination of Cladosporium herbarum(MIC : 8$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml), whereas they have no or low activity against the bacteria(BAcillus subtilis , Escherichia coli). In addition , hexane and butanol fractions of two saps showed a strong inhibitory activity against cultured tumour cell lines (GI50 : 0.35, 12.29$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) in vitro. These results confirm that the fresh sap and fire distilled sap might have the similar urushiol compositions and biological activities.

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Cyclic Peptides as Therapeutic Agents and Biochemical Tools

  • Joo, Sang-Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2012
  • There are many cyclic peptides with diverse biological activities, such as antibacterial activity, immunosuppressive activity, and anti-tumor activity, and so on. Encouraged by natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, efforts have been made to develop cyclic peptides with both genetic and synthetic methods. The genetic methods include phage display, intein-based cyclic peptides, and mRNA display. The synthetic methods involve individual synthesis, parallel synthesis, as well as split-and-pool synthesis. Recent development of cyclic peptide library based on split-and-pool synthesis allows on-bead screening, in-solution screening, and microarray screening of cyclic peptides for biological activity. Cyclic peptides will be useful as receptor agonist/antagonist, RNA binding molecule, enzyme inhibitor and so on, and more cyclic peptides will emerge as therapeutic agents and biochemical tools.