• Title, Summary, Keyword: biological activity

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Chemical Synthesis and Orientation Disruption Bioassay of Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molests (Busck) (복숭아순나방(Grapholita molests) 성페로몬 합성과 유인력 교란생물검정)

  • Kim, Yong-Gyun;Bae, Sung-Woo;Bae, Soo-Il;Yoon, Hyang-Mi;Hong, Yong-Pyo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2006
  • Three sex pheromone components (cis-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z12Ac), trans-8-dodecenyl acetate (E12Ac), cis-8-dodecenol (Z12OH)) of the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, were chemically synthesized. Especially to increase the composition of cis-stereoisomer, a triple bond intermediate was hydrogenated at $-20^{\circ}C$ with catalytic $Pd/BaSO_{4}$. The resulting product consisted of the acetates with a stereoisomer ratio in 92:8 (Z:E). The biological activity of the synthesized pheromone compounds was analyzed both in male responses and orientation disruption. The indoor pheromone effect was determined by male flight behavior showing wing movement in response to lure. Different mixtures of the synthetic pheromone components were prepared by mixing acetate and alcohol components in 100:0, 99:1, and 90:10 (g/g) and tested with a comparison of a standard commercial pheromone lure. The highest pheromone effect was observed in only acetate mixture (100:0) and the effect was reduced with the addition of the alcohol component. This indoor pheromone effect could be observed in field monitoring trial, in which 100:0 mixture showed the highest trap catches. Orientation disruption assay was conducted indoor by using a cage, in which the center had a commercial lure on sticky plate and the four candidates were placed at 6 cm away from the central lure on each of four directions. Test males were released to the arena during overnight (12 h) and then the caught males on the sticky plate were counted. The synthesized pheromone as well as the commercial pheromone showed 100% orientation disruption. However, the orientation disruption effect was reduced with decrease in the number of the surrounding disrupting pheromone baits. These results clearly suggest that the synthesized sex pheromone of G. molesta is biologically active and can be used for field mating disruption.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Purpurogallin Carboxylic Acid, An Oxidation Product of Gallic Acid in Fermented Tea (발효차중의 미량 성분인 gallic acid 산화물 purpurogallin carboxylic acid의 항염증 효과)

  • Jhoo, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.707-711
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of the current study was to isolate a purpurogallin derivative as an oxidation product from gallic acid, in an effort to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Purpurogallin derivative is known to be the one of the oxidation products of gallic acid. This compound has been identified as a minor chemical component in fermented tea products. It has been previously demonstrated that theaflavins, the oxidation products of catechins found in fermented tea products, exert profound antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the biological activities of a minor chemical component in fermented teas have yet to be evaluated. Purpurogallin carboxylic acid (PCA) was identified as a major oxidation product of gallic acid from a peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide oxidation model system. The identity of the PCA was verified by $^{1}H$ NMR, $^{13}C$ NMR and MS techniques. PCA treatment significantly suppressed the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. According to the nitrite assay, PCA 100, 75, and $50{\mu}g/mL$ treatment dose-dependently inhibited NO production by 57.6, 41.5, and 21.8%, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Moreover, IL-6 production was inhibited to a significant degree with PCA treatment of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$ at 43.1 and 23.9%, respectively. PCA treatment also significantly suppressed $PGE_2$ production at levels of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$. These results showed that PCA exerts inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators.

Effects of Mulberry-Leaf Powder Tofu Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles, Ca, Ca/P Ratio and Pb Status in Middle-Aged Women (뽕잎분말 첨가두부 섭취가 비만 중년여성의 혈청 지질, 칼슘, 칼슘/인 비율 및 납 수준변화에 미친 영향)

  • Kim, A.J.;Kim, M.H.;Chung, Kun-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mulberry-leaf powder Tofu (MPT) on serum lipids profiles, Ca levels, Ca/P ratio and Pb levels in 30 middle aged obese women living in the Choongnam area. 100 g/day MPT was consumed for 4 weeks. The nutrient contents per 100 g MPT were 86.71 kcal (energy), 8.98 g protein, 0.53 mg fiber, 211.33 mg Ca and 1.59 g fat. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall dietary intakes, serum levels of protein, albumin, glucose, Ca and Pb, lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol), and the Ca/P ratio were analyzed before and after consumption of MPT. After consumption of MPT, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements, the levels of serum protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, lipase activity, HTR (HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol), CRF (cardiac risk factor), Ca, Ca/P ratio and Pb. There were decreases in the levels of serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, AI (atherogenic index) and LHR (LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol). Significantly increased dietary intakes of plant protein, total Ca, and plant Ca were observed.

Protective Effect of Isoflavone, Genistein from Soybean on Singlet Oxygen Induced Photohemolysis of Human Erythrocytes ($^1O_2$으로 유도된 사람 적혈구의 광용혈에 있어서 대두의 아이소플라본인 제니스테인의 보호작용)

  • Park, Soo-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.510-518
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    • 2003
  • Protective effects of natural components including genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) from Glycine max MERRILL on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were investigated. Genistein $(10{\sim}100\;{\mu}m)$ suppressed photohemolysis in a concentration-dependent manner, and was more effective than the lipid peroxidation chain blocker, ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (Vit. E). Glycoside of genistein, genistin, the water-soluble antioxidant, L-ascorbate, and the iron chelator, myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid dodecasodium salt (sodium phytate) did not exhibit protective effect against photohemolysis. L-Ascorbate and sodium phytate stimulated photohemolysis at high concentration $(500\;{\mu}m)$. ${\alpha}$-Carotene 3,3'-diol (lutein), a singlet oxygen $(^1O_2)$ quencher, exhibited pronounced protective effect, an indication that $^1O_2$ is important in photohemolysis sensitized by rose-bengal. Reactive oxygen scavenging activities $(OSC_{50})$ of natural antioxidants including genistein on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay were in the order of sodium phytate > L-ascorbate > ${\alpha}$-tocopherol > genistein > genistin. $OSC_{50}$ value of genistein, genistin, ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, L-ascorbate, and sodium phytate were 41.0, 109.0, 9.0, 5.2, and $0.56{\mu}m$ respectively. The order of free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity $(FSC_{50})$ was L-ascorbate > ${\alpha}$-tocopherol > genistein > genistin. These results indicate that genistein can function as an antioxidant in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to solar UV radiation by scavenging $^1O_2$ and other ROS, and to protect cellular membranes against ROS.

Transfer, Cryopreservation and Production of Bovine Embryos Cultured in Serum-Free System (Serum-Free Medium에서 배양한 한우 배의 내동성과 이식)

  • Im, Y.-J.;Kim, J.-H.;Song, H.-B.;Jung, Y.-G.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.133-145
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    • 2004
  • Serum-contain is commoly used for the production of in vitro-derived bovine embryos. However, were biological activity of serum varies from lot to lot, time consuming to choose better serum with good quality and risks of virus, bacteria and mycoplasma infection. This study established serum-free culture systems of in vitro embryo development to efficiently obtain a large number of blastocysts from ovaries of Hanwoo and oocytes maturation, cell number, tlerance of cryopreservation. Secondly, serum-contain medium is suspected of contributing to the large calf size, dystocia, cersarean sections, calf mortality and confirmed these blastocysts are high quality in terms of cyotolerance, high rates of pregancy and normal birth. For these reasons, Culture media (IVMD101 and IVD101) designed specifically for the preimplantation bovine embryo are rather simplistic, being based on salt solutions with additional energy substrates and growth factors. An improved serum-free medium (IVMD101) was developed for bovine oocytes maturation in vitro. Proportions of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage cultured in both IVD101(32.4%) and IVD101(34.5%) serum-free media were higher than in TCM199+10% FBS(12.4%) serumcontaining medium. Futhermore, the cell numbers per blastosyst obtained in the serum-free media were superior to those of blastocysts developed in serum-supplemented medium. Also, cell numbers of blastocysts obtained in the serum-free media were similar with blastocysts derived in vivo. Survival rate blastocysts after 24 hr incubation after thawing, the blastocysts cultured in both IVD101(94.5%) and IVD101(95.8%) serum-free media were higher than in TCM199+10% FBS (52.5%) serum-containing medium. After 72 hr incubation after thawing, hatching rates of blastocysts developed in IVD101(78.4%) and IVMD101(83.7%) were sighnificantly higher than that developed in the serum-supplemented medium(32.0%). The pregnancy rates almost not different between fresh blastocysts(38.2%) and frozen blastocysts(34.9%). The results suggested that the improved serum-free media(IVMD101 and IVD101) offer several advantages over culture in serum-cotaining medium, including increased rates of blastocyst formation and high cel numbers. Additionally, the survival and hatching rates of embryos product in serum-free media after post-thaw culture were superior to those of embryos produced in the serum-containg medium and useful for the production of high quality bovine embryos for cryo-preservation. These improved serum-free media are beneficial not only for the study of the mechanisms of early embryogenesis but also for mass production of good quality embryos for embryo transfer, cloning and transgenesis.

Comparative Gene-Expression Analysis of Periodontal Ligament and Dental Pulp in the Human Permanent Teeth (사람 영구치에서 치주인대 및 치수 조직의 유전자 발현에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Suk Woo;Jeon, Mijeong;Lee, Hyo-Seol;Song, Je Seon;Son, Heung-Kyu;Choi, Hyung-Jun;Jung, Han-Sung;Moon, Seok-Jun;Park, Wonse;Kim, Seong-Oh
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.166-175
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    • 2016
  • There is no genetic activity information with the functions of dental pulp and periodontal ligament in human. The purpose of this study was to identify the gene-expression profiles of, and the molecular biological differences between periodontal ligament and dental pulp obtained from human permanent teeth. cDNA microarray analysis identified 347 genes with a fourfold or greater difference in expression level between the two tissue types 83 and 264, of which were more plentiful in periodontal ligament and dental pulp, respectively. Periodontal ligament exhibited strong expression of genes related to collagen synthesis (FAP), collagen degradation (MMP3, MMP9, and MMP13), and bone development and remodeling (SSP1, BMP3, ACP5, CTSK, and PTHLH). Pulp exhibited strong expression of genes associated with calcium ions (CALB1, SCIN, and CDH12) and the mineralization and formation of enamel and dentin (SPARC/SPOCK3, PHEX, AMBN, and DSPP). Among these genes, SPP1, SPARC/SPOCK3, AMBN, and DSPP were well known in dental research. However, the other genes are the newly found and it may help to find a good source of regenerative therapy if further study is performed.

Effects of Onion Flesh and Peel on Chemical Components, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities (양파 육질 및 껍질의 화학성분과 항산화 및 항암 활성 비교)

  • Jang, Joo-Ri;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1604
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    • 2009
  • In order to determine chemical components of onion flesh and peel, general nutrients, vitamin C, and total flavonoids were measured. Onion peel showed less moisture (14.3%) and no vitamin C compared to onion flesh. Onion peel contained more amounts of total flavonoids compared to onion flesh. In addition, the inhibitory effects of solvent extracts from onion flesh and peel on $H_2O_$-induced oxidative stress and growth of cancer cell lines (AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma and HT-29 human colon cancer cells) were investigated. Acetone with methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from onion flesh and peel appeared to significantly reduce the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.05) and a greater antioxidant effect was observed in onion peel. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed a higher protective activity against oxidative stress in both flesh and peel and there was no effect in the water and hexane fractions. The growth of cancer cells exposed to medium containing extracts and fractions from onion flesh and peel was inhibited dose-dependently. The growth of AGS was inhibited more in both flesh and peel compared to HT-29, and onion peel was more effective than onion flesh. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed the greatest effect on growth inhibition in both flesh and peel. $IC_{50}$ values of 85% aq. methanol fraction from onion flesh and peel on AGS were 0.04 and 0.03 mg/ml, respectively, while those on HT-29 were 0.23 and 0.04 mg/ml. From our results, 85% aq. methanol fraction had an inhibitory effect against oxidative stress and growth of cancer cells, suggesting that it may contain biological active compounds.

A Study on the Reactions of Diamines with 2,5-Dimethoxytetrahydrofuran and 1,3-Acetonedicarboxylic Acid (1,3-Acetonedicarboxylic acid와 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran에 의한 diamine들의 반응에 관한 연구)

  • Jung Dai-Il;Song Ju-Hyun;Lee Do-Hun;Lee Yong-Gyun;Choi Soon-Kyu;Park Yu-Mi;Hahn Jung-Tai
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 2006
  • In order to synthesize novel anticonvulsants, we researched that the reactions of diamines with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran and 1,3-acetonedicarboxylic acid. The reaction of ethylenediamine with 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran and 1,3-acetonedicarboxylic acid afforded 8-(2-pyrrol-1-yl-ethyl)-8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-one (yield; 5.0%) and 1,2-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan3-onyl)ethane (yield; 17.0%). In case of 1,3-diaminopropane, 8-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-one(yield; 6.0%) and 1,3-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-onyl)propane (yield; 21.0%) were obtained. In case of 1,8-diaminooctane, 8-(8-pyrrol-1-yl-octyl)-8-aza-bicyclo-[3,2,1]octan-3-one (yield; 2.6 %) and 1,8-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-onyl)octane (yield; 24.9%) were obtained. In diaminobenzene reactions, synthetic yields of 8-aza-bicyclo-[3,2,1]octan-3-one derivatives were higher than those of pyrrole derivatives because re actions were done under room temperature. The longer the carbon chain of diaminoalkane is, the more reactive N atom is due to more electron donating effect, and the less steric hindrance around the carbon gave the higher chemical yields. The reaction of p-phenylenediamine as a diaminobenzene with 2,5-dimethoxyte-trahydrofuran and 1,3-acetonedicarboxylic acid produced p-dipyrrolylbenzene (yield; 4.0%), 8-(4-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl)-8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-one (yield; 12.0%), and 1,4-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-onyl)benzene (yield; 59.0%). In case of m-phenylenediamine, 8-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl)-8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-one(yield; 2.0%) and 1,3-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,1]octan-3-onyl)benzene (yield ; 28.0%) were obtained. But, synthesis of 1,2-di-(8-aza-bicyclo[3,2,l]octan-3-onyl)benzene by treatment of o-phenylenediamine was not successful, presumably due to the steric hindrance of 8-aza-bicyclo-[3,2,1]octan-3-one rings.

Effect of Extraction Conditions on in vitro Antioxidant Activities of Root Bark Extract from Ulmus pumila L. (추출조건에 따른 유근피 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Jae-Min;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Seo, Kyu-Eun;Kim, Ye-Seul;Jung, Tae-Dong;Kim, Young-Hyun;Kim, Dan-Bi;Shin, Gi-Hae;Oh, Ji-Won;Lee, Jong Seok;Lee, Jin-Ha;Kim, Jong-Yae;Lee, Dae-Won;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.8
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    • pp.1172-1179
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated optimal extraction conditions for application of Ulmus pumila L. as a natural antioxidant. U. pumila L. was extracted using ethanol (EtOH) at various concentrations (0, 40, and 80%) and extraction times (1, 2, and 3 h) at $70^{\circ}C$ and then evaluated for extraction yield, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activities [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC)]. Antioxidant activities were correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Of the solvent conditions, 80% EtOH extracts for 3 h at $70^{\circ}C$ showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents with strong antioxidant activities, although there were no significant time effects on DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power. However, ORAC values of all EtOH extracts remarkably increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, 80% EtOH extract for 3 h exhibited strong antioxidant effects on HDF and 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of U. pumila L., may due to phenolic and flavonoid contents, and extraction conditions were 80% EtOH for 3 h at $70^{\circ}C$. This extract could be a good source for natural antioxidants.

Protective Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Elaeagnus umbellata Leaves on α-MSH-induced Melanin Production in B16-F0 Cells and UVB-induced Damage in CCD-986sk Cells (보리수나무 잎 에탄올 추출물이 α-MSH 유도 B16-F0 세포의 멜라닌 생성 및 UVB 유도성 CCD-986sk 세포 손상에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Se-Ho;Jhee, Kwang-Hwan;Yang, Seun-Ah
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 2019
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an ethanol extract of Elaeagnus umbellata leaves (EUL-EE) on skin-related biological activities. Previously, we have reported that gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in EUL-EE through quantitative analysis and that EUL-EE had an inhibitory effect against the proliferation of liver cancer HepG2 cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EUL-EE on melanin production and tyrosinase activity in ${\alpha}$-melanocyte-stimulated hormone-stimulated B16-F0 cells were determined to assess the effects of EUL-EE on skin whitening. The anti-wrinkle effect using UVB-irradiated CCD-986sk cells was examined by the expression of type I procollagen and metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 release. The EUL-EE significantly decreased intracellular melanin production (33.0% inhibition at $100{\mu}g/ml$) when compared with untreated B16-F0 cells. Tyrosinase activities in the stimulated B16-F0 cells were also decreased by EUL-EE (47.8% inhibition at $100{\mu}g/ml$). The EUL-EE also dose-dependently increased the production of type I procollagen (up to 1.74-fold at $250{\mu}g/ml$) in CCD-986sk cells when compared with UVB-irradiated controls. EUL-EE showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to $500{\mu}g/ml$. In addition, EUL-EE at $10-500{\mu}g/ml$ inhibited the release of MMP-1 to the medium from UVB-irradiated CCD-986sk cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that EUL-EE has high potential for use as inner beauty and cosmetic materials due to its whitening and anti-wrinkle effects.