• Title/Summary/Keyword: biotype

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Development of Roundup Ready Bentgrass for the Control of Poa annua (새포아풀 방제를 위한 Roundup Ready Bentgrass의 개발)

  • Christians, Nick E.;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2006
  • Annual bluegrass(Poa annua L.) is a problem weed that is very difficult to control on golf courses. There are some reasons that make Poa annua such a difficult weed to be controled. One of these reasons is this plant's ability to reproduce its seed even under stressful conditions. Another reason is its adaptation to low mowing heights. Above all things, the greatest competitive advantage of Poa annua is its genetic diversity. Generally, Poa annua is a bunch type and annual type cool-season grass, but some types act as weak perennials and have stolons. There has been much research on controlling annual bluegrass in golf course turf with chemical and cultural techniques. This research has been conducted for more than 85 years. There has been some progress in controlling some types of Poa annua, but these methods have not been successful on every biotype. Among all of the techniques, Roundup ready creeping bentgrass has the most promise of controlling the diverse types of Poa annua. Roundup ready bentgrass is capable of tolerating the effects of Roundup(glyphosate) while it kills other plants including Poa annua. By using this new technology, we can make Poa annua free greens, tees, and fairways.

Varietal Resistance of Rice to the BPH Biotypes 1, 2, 3 and their Hybrid Progenies, Nilaparvata lugens $St{\aa}l$ (I) (벼멸구 생태형(生態型)의 교잡종(交雜種)에 대(對)한 수도품종(水稻品種)의 저항성(抵抗性)에 관(關)하여(I))

  • Kim, Jeong-Wha;Youn, Sang-Won
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 1987
  • This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of three different rice cultivars to the BPH biotypes 1, 2, 3 and their hybrid progenies, Nilaparvata lugens STAL. The rice cultivars tested were Chucheongbyeo, Cheongcheongbyeo and Milyang 63. The following characteristics of hybrid progenies were compared with these of their parents: Seedling response, Host preference, feeding amount, Esterase polymorphism of the brown rice. According to the responses of rice seedlings to the three BPH biotypes and their crosses progenies nymph, Chucheongbyeo was shown highly susceptible to their nymphs. The Cheongcheongbyeo was susceptible to the biotypes 2 and the Milyang 63 was susceptible to the biotype 3. The Cheongchengbyeo and the Milyang 63 were moderate to the biotypes 2(female)${\times}$3(male) and 3(female)${\times}$2(male). The preference in feeding and oviposition of three BPH biotypes and their hybrid progenies to Chucheongbyeo were shown higher than to another cultivars. The two preference were not only shown highly in Cheongcheongbyeo by the biotypes 2,2(female)${\times}$3(male) and 3(female)${\times}$2(male) but also in Milyang 63 by the biotypes 3,2(female)${\times}$3(male) and 3(femlae)${\times}$2(male). The feeding amount of female adult was much on three BPH biotypes and their hybrid progenies in Chucheongbyeo and on the biotypes 2 and 3(female)${\times}$2(male) in Cheongcheongbyeo, On the biotypes 3 and 3(female)${\times}$2(male) in Milyang 63 were as same as the above. The esterase bands of Est ${\alpha}-1,\;{\beta}-4,\;{\beta}-5\;and\;{\beta}-I$ were detected on brown rice of all the tested cultivars. The bands of Est ${\beta}-2\;and\;{\alpha}-I$ were detected on Cheongcheongbyeo (Bph 1 gene for resistance) and Milyang 63 (bph 2 gene for resistance). The Est ${\beta}-3\;and\;{\beta}-1$ of esterase bands were detected on Chucheongbyeo.

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Response of the Resistant Biotype of Echinochloa oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors, and Effect of Alternative Herbicides (ACCase 및 ALS 저해 제초제들에 대한 저항성 강피의 반응과 대체약제들의 효과)

  • Park, Tae-Seon;Ku, Bon-Il;Kang, Sin-Koo;Choi, Min-Kyu;Park, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Kyong-Bo;Ko, Jae-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2010
  • Cyhalofop-butyl and penoxsulam, known for respective acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, have been widely using as a post-emergence foliar application for many years in wet-seeded rice field in Korea. Since 2009, control of Echinochloa oryzoides with cyhalofop-butyl and penoxsulam was no longer satisfactory. Greenhouse and experiment in rice field were conducted to confirm E. oryzoides resistance to ACCase and ALS inhibitors and to compare herbicide treatments for control of the resistant E. oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors. Three resistant E. oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors accessions were tested for levels of resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and penoxsulam, base on survival rate. Iksan and Kimje accessions were not any affected to the survival by treatment with recommended doses of two herbicides tested. Buan accession displayed an intermediate response of 62 and 72% survival at recommended doses of cyhalofop-butyl and penoxsulam, respectively. Survival rates to herbicides mixed with ACCase and ALS inhibitors at 3.5 leaf stage of E. oryzoides was over 80%. Benzobicyclon+fentrazamide+bensulfuron SC, benzobicyclon+mefenacet+bensulfuron SC, benzobicyclone +cafenstrole+pyrazosulfuron-ethyl GR controlled effectively by 2 leaf stage of resistant E. oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors. In the field experiment, single treatment of benzobicyclon+ fentrazamide+bensulfuron SC and benzobicyclon+mefenacet+bensulfuron SC failed to control E. oryzoides, but squential treatment of benzobicyclon+thiobencarb SE and benzobicyclon+ mefenacet+ bensulfuron SC controlled effectively it in rice infant seedling culture with machine. Our results suggest that resistant E. oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors had not developed multiple resistance to herbicides with different modes of action. In particular, cafenstrole, fentrazamide, mefenacet were effective control measures.