• Title/Summary/Keyword: c-Fos

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Panax ginseng exerts antidepressant-like effects by suppressing neuroinflammatory response and upregulating nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 signaling in the amygdala

  • Choi, Jong Hee;Lee, Min Jung;Jang, Minhee;Kim, Hak-Jae;Lee, Sanghyun;Lee, Sang Won;Kim, Young Ock;Cho, Ik-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2018
  • Background: Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects. Methods: Here, we examined the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of P. ginseng extract (PGE) in a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression model in mice. Results: Oral administration of PGE for 14 d decreased immobility (depression-like behaviors) time in forced swim and tail suspended tests after CRS induction, which corresponded with attenuation of the levels of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone, as well as attenuated c-Fos expression in the amygdala. PGE enhanced messenger RNA expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor but ameliorated microglial activation and neuroinflammation (the level of messenger RNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the amygdala of mice after CRS induction. Interestingly, 14-d treatment with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and $N_{\omega}$-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, attenuated depression-like behaviors after CRS induction. Additionally, PGE inhibited the upregulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 pathways. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest that PGE exerts antidepressant-like effect of CRS-induced depression by antineuroinflammatory and antioxidant (nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 activation) activities by inhibiting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis mechanism. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of components of P. ginseng as an alternative treatment of depression, including clinical trial evaluation.

Effect of Frutus gardeniae herbal acupuncture on the rat model of ankle sprain pain (치자(梔子) 약침(藥鍼)이 백서(白鼠) 모델 족과 염좌(捻挫) 통증(痛症)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Koo, Sung-Tae;Cho, Myoung-Soo;Park, Sung-Sub;Kim, Young-Tae;Park, Kwi-Jong;Kim, Kyoung-Sik;Sohn, In-Cheul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 2005
  • Objective : Frutus gardeniae, seed of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis is one of the crude drugs used for the treatment of inflammatory condition in oriental medicine. Methodes : The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory effect of Frutus gardeniae extract (FGE) on a rat model of ankle sprain pain, and the relations between FGE-induced effect and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord. As a chronic pain model, ankle sprain pain model was used to test the effect of FCE injection applied to acupuncture point. After the induction of ankle sprain, rats subsequently showed a reduced stepping force of the affected limb for at least the next 4 days. The reduced stepping force of the limb was presumably due to a painful knee. FGE dissolved in normal saline was injected several acupoints. Results : After the treatment, behavioral tests measuring stepping force were periodically conducted during the next 8 hours. FGE produced significant improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the ankle sprain lasting at least 4 hours. FGE produced the improvement of stepping force of the affected hindlimb in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FGE injection showed inhibitory effect on the paw edema induced by ankle sprain. Both NO production and iNOS, COX-2 protein expression increased by ankle sprain were suppressed by FGE. FGE on combination with electroacupuncture (EA) produced more powerful and longer lasting improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the ankle sprain than either FGE or EA did. The present study suggest that FGE produces a potent analgesic effect on the ankle sprain pain model of the rat and that FGE-induced analgesia modulate endogenous NO through the suppression of iNOS/COX-2 protein expression.

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Effect of Daebangpungtang herbal acupuncture on the carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats (대방풍탕(大防風湯) 약침(藥鍼)이 Carrageenan으로 유도한 관절염에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Koo, Sung-Tae;Hwang, Jae-Ho;Song, Mun-Yeong;Park, Yu-Ri;Sohn, In-Cheul;Kim, Kyoung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.83-104
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : DaeBangPungTang(DBPT) is one of the prescriptions used for the treatment of knee arthritis in oriental medicine. The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effect of DBPT on a rat model of carrageenan-induced arthritis, and the relations between DBPT-induced analgesia and endogenous nitric oxide(NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord. Methods : Carrageenan-induced arthritis rat model was used to test the effect of DBPT as a chronic pain model. After the induction of arthritis, rats subsequently showed a reduced stepping force of the affected limb for at least tile next 4 days. The reduced stepping force of the limb was presumably due to a painful knee, since oral infection of indomethacin produced temporary improvement of weight bearing. DBPT dissolved in normal saline was minted several acupoints. After the treatment, behavioral tests measuring stepping force were periodically conducted during the next 12 hours. Results : DBPT produced significant improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis lasting at least 9 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was equivalent to that obtained after an oral injection of 3mg/kg of indomethacin and this improvement of stepping force was interpreted as an analgesic effect. DBPT produced the improvement of stepping force of the affected hindlimb in a dose-dependent manner. Both NO production and iNOS, COX-2 protein expression increased by arthritis were suppressed by DBPT. DBPT on combination with electroacupuncture (EA) produced more powerful and longer lasting improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis than either DBPT or EA did. Conclusion : The present study suggest that DBPT produces a potent analgesic effect on the chronic hee arthritis pain model in the rat and that DBPT-induced analgesia modulate endogenous NO through the suppression of iNOS/COX-2 protein expression.

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Analgesic Effects of Moxi-tar Pharmacopuncture on the Carrageenan-induced Arthritic Rats (Carrageenan 유도 관절염에 대한 구진(灸津) 약침(藥鍼)의 진통작용)

  • Koo, Sung-Tae;Shin, Jong-Keun;Choi, Yun-Young;Song, Jung-Bang;Kim, Jae-Hyo;Kim, Kyoung-Sik;Sohn, In-Chul
    • The Journal of Traditional Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.113-127
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study was produced to examine the effects of moxibustion that had been played important role to traditional oriental medical treatment on disease. Recently, it was reported that moxi-tar which is generated in the process of moxibustion as burning combustibles decreased nitric oxide(NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) generation in cellular experiments. Methods: Carrageenan-induced arthritis rat model was used to test the effect of moxi-tar as a chronic pain model. Diluted moxi-tar was single injected in several acupoints or combined with electroacupuncture (l ms, 2 Hz, and 2 mA) into contralateral ST36 acupoint for 30 min to assess the synergic effects. After the treatment, behavioral tests measuring stepping force were periodically conducted during the next 12 hours. Endogenous NO and iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord were examined on a rat model of carrageenan-induced arthritis. Results : After the induction of arthritis, rats subsequently showed a reduced stepping force of the affected limb for at least the next 4 days. The reduced stepping force of the limb was presumably due to a painful knee, since oral injection of indomethacin produced temporary improvement of weight bearing. Maxi-tar produced significant improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis lasting at least 9 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was equivalent to that obtained after an oral injection of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin and this improvement of stepping force was interpreted as an analgesic effect. Maxi-tar produced the improvement of stepping force of the affected hindlimb in a dose-dependent manner. Both NO production and iNOS, COX-2 protein expression increased by arthritis were suppressed by maxi-tar. Moxi-tar on combination with electroacupuncture (EA) produced more powerful and longer lasting improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis than either moxi-tar or EA did. Conclusion : The present study suggest that maxi-tar produces a potent analgesic effect on the chronic knee arthritis pain model in the rat and that moxi-tar-induced analgesia modulate endogenous NO through the suppression of iNOS/COX-2 protein expression.

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Effect of moxi-tar herbal acupuncture on the carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats (구진(灸津) 약침(藥鍼)이 Carrageenan으로 유도한 관절염에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Koo, Sung-Tae;Shin, Jong-Keun;Choi, Yun-Young;Song, Jung-Bang;Kim, Jae-Hyo;Kim, Kyoung-Sik;Sohn, In-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.67-85
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    • 2006
  • Obiecnves : The purpose of this study was to examine the analgesic effect of moxi-tar on a rat model of carrageenan-induced arthritis and the relations between moxi-tar-induced analgesia and endogenous NO and iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord. Methods : Carrageenan-induced arthritis rat model was used to test the effect of moxi-tar as a chronic pain model. After the induction of arthritis, rats subsequently showed a reduced stepping force of the affected limb for at least the next 4 days. The reduced stepping force of the limb was presumably due to a painful knee, since oral injection of indomethacin produced temporary improvement of weight bearing. Moxi-tar dissolved in ethyl alcohol was injected several acupoints. After the treatment, behavioral tests measuring stepping force were periodically conducted during the next 12 hours. Results : Moxi-tar produced significant improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis lasting at least 9 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was equivalent to that obtained after an oral injection of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin and this improvement of stepping force was interpreted as an analgesic effect. Moxi-tar produced the improvement of stepping force of the affected hindlimb in a dose-dependent manner. Both NO production and iNOS, COX-2 protein expression increased by arthritis were suppressed by moxi-tar. moxi-tar on combination with electroacupuncture (EA) produced more powerful and longer lasting improvement of stepping force of the hindlimb affected by the arthritis than either moxi-tar or EA did. Conclusion : The present study suggest that moxi-tar produces a potent analgesic effect on the chronic knee arthritis pain model in the rat and that moxi-tar-induced analgesia modulate endogenous NO through the suppression of iNOS/COX-2 protein expression.

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Comparative Study of Therapeutic Effect of Needle-free Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture (BVA) into Zusanli (ST36) in the Rat Formalin Test (포르말린으로 유도된 통증 유발 쥐에서 무침주입기를 이용한 봉독약침의 진통효과)

  • Jeong, In-Jae;Hahm, Dae-Hyun;Jung, Wu-Byung;Han, Ji-Hee;Chae, Youn-Byoung;Lim, Hyoung-Soo;Lee, Hye-Jung;Kang, Sung-Keel;Kim, Jang-Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2006
  • Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture (BVA) simultaneously exerts pharmacological effects of biologically active compounds, existed in the whole bee venom, and medicinal effect of the stimulation of acupuncture points. BVA has been considered as a promising therapeutic method for treating various chronic diseases, mainly accompanying severe pain and inflammation. As a painless injection device, jet injectors have been commercially marketed for various clinical applications including insulin injection and vaccination. Among them, a pressure-driven jet injector system could be used for intradermal delivery of a variety of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of the BVA using a needle-free injector (Biojector $2000^{\circledR}$, Bioject Inc., OR, USA), compared to the conventional BV aqua-acupuncture using a typical syringe. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with bee venom $(0.08mg/kg,\;50{\mu}l)$ using Biojector $2000^{\circledR}$ (BVA-B) or a syringe (BVA-5) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint, 30 minutes before plantar injection of 2% formalin. It was found that BVA-B-, or BVA-5-treated rats, compared to controls, exhibited significantly less licking behavior during the late phase in the rat formalin test, when compared to controls. During early phase, however, those effects were not significant but substantial. The analgesic effect of BVA-B was also compatible with that of the conventional BVA-5. In the immunohistochemical studies, BVA-B significantly suppressed the expression of formalin-evoked c-fos, a biomarker of neuronal activity, in the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These results indicated that BVA-B waseffective in the modulation of pain in the rat formalin test, compared to BVA-5. Taken together, the needle-free jet injector system could be substituted for the conventional aqua- acupuncture with the advantage of little pain.

Mechanisms for Anti-wrinkle Activities from Fractions of Black Chokeberries (블랙초크베리 분획물로부터의 주름억제 효과에 대한 작용기전)

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Kim, Eun-Hee;Lee, Jae-Bong;Do, Eun-Ju;Kim, Sang-Jin;Kim, Se-Hyeon;Park, Jeong-Yeol;Lee, Jin-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2016
  • Black chokeberries (scientific name Aronia melanocarpa) have been reported to have major effects due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer capabilities. In this study, we investigated the anti- wrinkle effects of A. melanocarpa, including collagenase inhibition effects and their molecular biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and activator protein (AP)-1 expression and/or phosphorylation. In collagenase inhibition activity, the ethyl acetate fraction of black chokeberry (AE) was 77.2% at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which was a significant result compared to that of Epigallocatechin gallate (positive control, 83.9% in 500 μg/ml). In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, the AE produced 78% of ROS in 10 μg/ml and 70% of ROS in 75 μg/ml, which was a much lower percentage than the ROS production of H2O2-induced CCRF S-180II cells. In the MTT assay, cell viability was increased dose-dependently with AE in H2O2-induced cells. In protein expression by western blot assay, the AE suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of MMPs (MMP-1, -3, -9), MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38), and AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and expressed the pro-collagen type I in H2O2-induced cells. These results suggest that black chokeberries have anti-wrinkle and collagen-production effects, and they may be used in applications for material development in the functional food and cosmetic industries.

Cell study on the Magnesium ion implanted surface with PSII (PSII를 이용한 마그네슘 이온 주입 임플란트에 대한 MC3T3-E1 골모양 세포 반응 연구)

  • Shin, Hyeong-Joo;Kim, Dae-Gon;Park, Chan-Jin;Cho, Lee-Ra;Lee, Hee-Su;Cha, Min-Sang
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.361-374
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    • 2009
  • For successful osteogenesis around the implants, interaction between implant surface and surrounding tissue is important. Biomechanical bonding and biochemical bonding are considered to influence the response of adherent cells. But the focus has shifted surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast like cell responses of magnesium (Mg) ion implanted titanium surface produced using a plasma source ion implantation method. Commercially pure titanium disc was used as substrates. The discs were prepared to produce four different surface, A: Machine turned surface, B: Mg implanted surface, C: sandblasted surface, D: sandblasted and Mg implanted surface. MC3T3 El osteoblastic like cells were cultured on the disc specimens. Cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix were evaluated. The cell adhesion morphology was evaluated by SEM. RT PCR assay was used for assessment of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. ALP activity was measured for cell differentiation. The results of this study were as follows: 1. SEM showed that cell on Mg ion groups was more proliferative than that of non Mg ion groups. On the machine turned surface, cell showed some degree of contact guidance in aligning with the machining grooves. 2. In RT PCR analysis, osteonectin and c-fos mRNA were more expressed on sandblasted and Mg ion implanted group. 3. ALP activity was not significantly different among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: It might indicate Mg ion implanted titanium surface induce better bone response than non Mg ion groups.