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Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Vitamins and Minerals According to Consumption of Dietary Supplements in Korean Adults and the Elderly: Report Based on 2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (우리나라 성인 및 노인의 식이보충제 복용에 따른 비타민 및 무기질 영양상태 평가: 2017 국민건강영양조사 자료)

  • Kim, Ji-Myung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the intake of vitamins and minerals from dietary supplements (DSs) in Korean adults and elderly. Methods: Data for this study was generated from the 2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We analyzed 4,204 individuals aged 19 years and older (2,579 users and 1,625 non-users). The survey included 24-h recall questions on food and DS intakes, as well as questions on DS use over the past year. The nutrient DSs evaluated were calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. Total nutrient intakes were obtained by combining nutrient intakes of foods and DSs consumed by each subject. Results: Most micronutrient intakes from food (except for thiamin) in adult users, and the four micronutrient intakes (iron, vitamin A, vitamin B2 and vitamin C) in elderly users, were significantly higher than values obtained in non-users. For total intake of nutrients and DSs, both adult and elderly users had a significantly higher intake than non-users. While proportions below Estimated Average Requirements for all micronutrients by adding respective DSs in users were significantly reduced in adults and elderly as compared to non-users, the proportions of above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for calcium and vitamin A in adults, and vitamin A in elderly, were significantly increased. In the total subjects examined, consumption of DSs was associated with lower odds ratios of undernutrition of micronutrients, and with higher odds ratios of overnutrition of calcium, iron, and vitamin A, as compared to non-users of DSs. Conclusions: Although DSs consumption by adults and the elderly improves the micronutrient status, it also increases the risk of excessive intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on the Growth of Preschool Children in China

  • Han, Junhua;Yang, Yuexin;Shao, Xiaoping;He, Mei;Bian, Lihua;Wang, Zhu
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the growth of preschool children in China. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 156 growth retarded preschool children who were randomly assigned to the following five groups : supplemental control (S-control; n=28); zinc supplementation (+Zn; 3.5mg Zn/day, n=34); zinc and calcium supplementation (+ZnCa; 3.5mg Zn + 250mg Ca/day, n=37); zinc, calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+ZnCaVA; 3.5mgZn + 250mgCa + 200gVA/day, n=28); and calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+CaVA; 250mgCa + 200gVA/day, n=29). Another 34 children of normal height were selected as a normal control (N-control). Supplementation continued for twelve months. After supplementation, the height gains in the +Zn group (7.84cm per year) and the +ZnCa group (7.70 cm per year) were significantly higher than that in the S-control group (6.74 cm per year, P<0.05). The weight gain in the +ZnCaVA group (2.55kg per year) and the +CaVA group (2.57 kg per year) was also significantly higher than that in the S-control group (2.19 kg per year, P<0.05). The average number of days of illness in each group taking supplements was lower than that in the S-control group (13 days per year compared with 23 days per year). No significant differences in bone maturity were observed between the groups. In conclusion, in this study Zinc and Zinc + Calcium supplementation improved the height gain, and vitamin A improved the weight gain, in growth retarded preschool children, but these supplements did not affect the maturity of bone. Micronutrient supplementation also lowered the morbidity of these children.

An Investigation of the Health Foods and Supplements Intake and Its Associated Factors in MiddleㆍOld Aged Adults Living in Seoul and Gyeong-Ki Area

  • Shin, Jeong-Min;Lee, Min-June;Kim, Jung-Hyun
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.223-234
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study was to investigate intake of health foods and supplements and its associated factors in middle and old-aged adults in order to contribute to health promotion of Korean population by providing a guide for proper use of health foods and supplements. About 69% of the subjects reported that they were currently taking health foods and supplements or had experiences of having them in the past, whereas 31.2 % reported they had never taken them. The most commonly used type of health foods and supplements was vitamin C as reported by 41.8% followed by others such as lactobacillus products, multi-vitamins, tonic medicine and cardiotonic drug, artificially processed Ginseng foods, vitamin B complex, enzyme supplement, calcium, aloe, apricot extract products, chitosan products, loyal honey, squalene, refined fish oil and iron products. The major reason for taking health foods and supplements was 'to protect the weak constitution' with 155 (42.1%) responses, and the motive for the intake was the suggestion from family-relatives with 235 (63.9%) responses, and the place of purchase was pharmacy with 140 (38.0%) responses, the average monthly expense was 20,000-40,000 won with 140 (26.2%) responses, and effects after the intake was 'so and so' with 180 (33.6%) responses as the highest. More health foods and supplements were consumed as age and education were statistically significantly increased (p<0.05). For health and lifestyle and the intake of health foods and supplements, perceived health status, the presence of illness, and the presence of health management were statistically significant (p<0.05). Male subjects than female subjects and the 30s than the 405 and 50s were appeared to have poorer dietary behaviors (p<0.05). For the health locus of control and the intake of health foods and supplements, the health locus of control score was 22.82 for consumers and 22.79 for non-consumers, showing no significant difference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find out major factors that affect the intake of health foods and supplements, in which gender, education, smoking, perceived health status, the presence of illness, and health management were significant to the intake of health foods and supplements. It is shown that subjects with perception and attitude of 'health foods and supplements are useful in health maintenance and disease prevention' and 'the information and variety for health foods and supplements are great' have higher probability of taking health foods and supplements.

Effects of Calcium/Vitamin D Intake and Taekkyeon Exercise on the Elderly's Frailty (칼슘/비타민D 섭취와 택견운동이 노인 허약에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Kwang Ok
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of taking calcium/vitamin D supplements and performing Taekkyeon exercises on the frailty of the elderly targeting a vulnerable senior social group. Methods: A total of 124 people aged 65 and older consisting of 60 persons in the experimental group, and 64 persons in the control group participated in this study, and this study is a non-equivalent control group pre/post-test design quasi-experimental study. This study analyzed the homogeneity between the experimental group and the control group using a chi-square test and t-test while analyzing the difference in the degree of frailty and bone density with the practice of Taekkyeon and a calcium agent using t-test and GEE. Results: The study results showed that the frailty and bone density of the experimental group significantly improved. Conclusion: Through this study, it was confirmed that calcium/vitamin D intake and Taekkyeon exercises were an effective intervention which strengthened the elderly's physical condition.

Nutrition of Calcium and Phosphorus in Poultry Diets (닭에 대한 칼슘과 인의 영양)

  • 한인규;오상집
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 1981
  • Calcium and phosphorus are not only indispensable for the bone formation and body fluids equilibrium but also are major components of egg shell. It is nutritionally important, therefore, to investigate the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and to search for optimum requirement of calcium and phosphorus and the availability of various sources of calcium an4 phosphorus by poultry. An attempt was made to review the nutrition of calcium and phosphorus in poultry diets. 1, Calcium and phosphorus have great interrelationship with vitamin D in their metabolisms. 2. Most of the plant-origin phosphorus are existing in phytic form and it leads to low availability when used in poultry rations, although calcium and phosphorus present in animal-origin or mineral supplements are highly available in general. 3. Calcium and phosphorus requirement from existing information indicated that 1.0% calcium and 0.7% phosphorus for broiler and egg-type chicks, and 3.5% calcium and 0.4% phosphorus for laying hen. 4. It has been recommended that calcium and phosphorus level should be increased when the feed intake was decreased or when the egg Production rate was higher or when the hens are old. 5. Mono-, ci-, tri-, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, bone meal, limestone and oyster shell u the most readily available among various sources of calcium phosphorus supplements. Soft rock phosphate, deflourinated phosphate and gypsum are somewhat inferior to the previous ones in bioavailability. 6. The effect of particle size of calcium supplements on egg shell quality and egg production rate is not yet clearly defined but recent works showed that oyster shell is more available when it was coarse and limestone is more available when it was fine in panicle. size. 7. Present data indicated that mixed feeding of oyster shell and limestone is superior to the single feeding of each on laying performance. 8. Significant interaction between phosphorus and sodium was observed, that is, excessive sodium decreased egg production in layer and body weight growth in broiler in the low phosphorus diets but increased them in the high phosphorus diets.

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Classification of gallstones using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and photography

  • Ha, Byeong Jo;Park, Sangsoo
    • Biomaterials Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2018
  • Background: Gallstones have conventionally been classified by gross inspection into 4 categories: cholesterol gallstones, black pigment (calcium bilirubinate) gallstones, brown gallstones, and mixed gallstones that contain both cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate. Classification using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy supplements gross inspection; however, the issue of ambiguity in gallstone classification has not been fully addressed to date. Methods: Twenty-six gallstones obtained after surgical gallbladder removal were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and digital photography, and classified into 6 gallstone groups according to characteristic FT-IR absorption bands. Results: FT-IR spectra of nine gallstones matched well with that of pure cholesterol, and the gallstones were thus classified as cholesterol stones. Twelve gallstones were classified as calcium bilirubinate stones as they showed characteristic absorption bands of calcium bilirubinate. However, the FT-IR spectra of these gallstones always showed a broad absorption band of bound water at $3600-2400\;cm^{-1}$. The other five gallstones were classified as mixed stones with combinations of cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate. Conclusion: FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful and convenient method for gallstone classification. Nevertheless, one should take serious note of the superposition of FT-IR absorption bands of different chemical components of gallstones including that of bound water.

Effect of Anchovy Treated with Ethanol, Citric Acid and Dietary Calcium Supplements on Calcium Metabolism in Rats (주정과 구연산 및 식이성 칼슘소재를 처리한 멸치분말이 흰쥐의 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Hae-Jin;Jung, Eun-Bong;Seong, Ki-Seung;Han, Chan-Kyu;Jo, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.860-865
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and citric acid-treated anchovy, caseino-phosphopeptides (CPPs), calcium lactate, and calcium phosphate as dietary calcium supplements on calcium metabolism in rats for 5 weeks. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to five treatments with 15 heads of SD male rats (mean body wt. of 100 g) in each group. The experimental diets were as follows; dried large anchovy powder (C) as control, ethanol+citric acid group (EC), ethanol+citric acid+cpps group (ECC), calcium lactate group (CL) and calcium phosphate group (CP), which were formulated with commercial semi-purified Chow diet, while maintaining the same level of calcium in all diets (1%) groups. The weight gain of EC group was significantly higher than ECC, CL and CP groups (p<0.05), food efficiency (FER) was not different. In vitro and in vivo calcium absorption rates of ECC group treated with citric acid and CPPs were 20.4 and 28.4%, respectively, and the highest among the experimental groups (p<0.05). The blood glucose levels of CL group (105.7 mg/dL) was significantly higher than control group (98.5 mg/dL). In terms of serum lipids, total-cholesterol concentration of EC group (75.1 mg/dL) was significantly higher than CP group (65.6 mg/dL) and triglyceride concentration of CP group (33.5 mg/dL) was the lowest (p<0.05). ALP activity and 057 level were not different among experimental groups. The serum calcium concentration of control group (C) was the lowest among groups (p<0.05). The femur weight of CP group was the lowest (p<0.05) and the femur length of ECC group is the longest (P<0.05). The bone density of CP group $(0.1116\;g/cm^2)$ was the lowest while ECC group $(0.1149\;g/cm^2)$ was the highest, and the bone density was increased by added CPPs. These data demonstrated that ECC group significantly increased in vitro and in vivo calcium absorption rate, serum Ca level, and the length and bone density of femur.

Influence of Caecectomy on the Bioavailability of Minerals from Vegetable Protein Supplements in Adult Roosters

  • Vasan, P.;Dutta, Narayan;Mandal, A.B.;Sharma, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1178-1182
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    • 2008
  • The present study was designed to assess the influence of caeca on the availability of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper from soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, sesame, fish and meat cum bone meal in adult roosters. The excretion of endogenous origin minerals viz., copper, magnesium, manganese and calcium was significantly (p<0.001) higher in caecectomized than in normal roosters. The difference in the endogenous excretion was 50; 60.45; 40.35 and 29.63 per cent for copper, magnesium, manganese and calcium, respectively, in caecectomized roosters. The caeca played a pivotal role in the reabsorption of endogenous origin calcium, magnesium, manganese and copper. The mechanism of phosphorus absorption by the caecal epithelium was negligible. The caecectomized roosters underestimated the bioavailability of copper in sunflower meal and manganese in almost all the test feedstuffs. The present investigation revealed that the caeca played a critical role in the absorption of minerals from vegetable protein feedstuffs which escape digestion and absorption in the small and large intestinal segments.

Biological Availability of Various Sources of Ca and P Supplements in Young Chicks (병아리에서 인산칼슘 첨가제의 생물학적 이용성)

  • 이재호;지규만
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.219-227
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate biological availability of Ca and P in 4 different sources of tricalcium phosphate in young chicks. One hundred and twenty five-day-old male Single Comb White Leghorn chicks (10 treatments$\times$3replication$\times$4chicks) were used in trial 1 and 2, respectively, for 12 days of feeding period. Trial I was to evaluate the availability of phosphorus in the supplements, Standard purified diets were prepared to supply 0.07, 0.14 and 0.21%P using a mixture (1 : 1) of NaH$_2$PO$_4$ and KH$_2$PO$_4$ as the reference Phosphorus sources. Bone breaking strength of the tibia determeined by an Instron instrument appeared inadequate to be used as a criterion due to very high variations of the measurement within a treatment. Thus, tibia bone ash content was utilized as a criterion to evaluate th biological avilability of phosphorus in the supplements. The levels of the biological availability of the four different sources of dicalcium phoshate were 77.1, 91.0, 96.4 and 95.5%, respectively, and those of the three tricalcium phosphate sources were 94.1, 95.0 and 99.5% , respectively. Trial 2 was to determeine the levels of Ca biologically available in the supplements. Standard purified diets were made to supply 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% Ca using CaCo$_3$ as the reference calcium source. When bone ash content was utilized as a criterion for the availability, the levels of calcium biologically available to the chicks were 78.3, 234.1, 87.6 and 244.5%, respectively, for the 4 different sources of dicalcium phosphate and 99.5, 84.0 and 101.5% , respectively, for the 3 different sources of tricalcium phosphate. The observation that two calcium sources appeared to be utilized with an unusual efficiency can hardly be explained at this moment. When they were revaluated on the basis of body weight gain, the availabilities of the four sources of dicalcium phosphate were 89.2, 58.2, 104.1 and 103.1% and of the three tricalcium phosphate were 112.6, 106.0 and 96.3% , respectively.

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MINERAL NUTRITION OF GRAZING SHEEP IN NORTHERN CHINA I. MACRO-MINERALS IN PASTURE, FEED SUPPLEMENTS AND SHEEP

  • Masters, D.G.;Purser, D.B.;Yu, S.X.;Wang, Z.S.;Yang, R.Z.;Liu, N.;Lu, D.X.;Wu, L.H.;Ren, J.K.;Li, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1993
  • This study determined the macro-mineral levels in plants and sheep, at different times during the year, at three farms in northern China. Samples of plants, animal tissues and faeces were collected at 5 to 8 times during the year from each site. They were analysed for calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. Sodium concentrations in plants were below those recommended for optimum animal production at all sites for all or part of the year (0.01-1.66 g/kg DM). Low concentrations of sodium in faeces were measured and signs of sodium deficiency (soil ingestion) were observed on one farm. There were seasonal trends in other mineral levels in plants and animals. Plants were lowest in potassium (2.3-13.4 g/kg DM), magnesium (1.28-4.82 g/kg DM) and phosphorus (0.24-1.62 g/kg DM) in winter and spring. However, high levels of these elements were supplied in the feed supplements used at this time of the year. During the periods of rapid pasture growth, in summer and autumn, supplements of feed and salt are often not provide even though pasture concentrations of phosphorus and sodium are low. It may be at these times that sheep will be most susceptible to deficiencies of these elements.