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Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students

  • Rose, Angela M.;Williams, Rachel A.;Rengers, Brooke;Kennel, Julie A.;Gunther, Carolyn
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. RESULTS: Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females (P < 0.001). Adjusted for gender, calcium intakes were most strongly (and positively) correlated with associating milk with specific eating occasions and availability (i.e., storing calcium-rich foods in one's dorm or apartment) (both P < 0.001). Other correlates of calcium intake included: positive-viewing milk as healthy (P = 0.039), having family members who drink milk) (P = 0.039), and taking calcium supplements (P = 0.056); and negative-parent rules concerning milk (P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

Manufacturing of Calcium Binding Peptide using Sericin Hydrolysate and Its Bioavailability in Calcium Deficient Rat (실크 세리신 단백질 가수분해물을 이용한 유기 칼슘제의 제조 및 칼슘 결핍 쥐에서의 생체 이용률)

  • Cho, Hye-Jin;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Jung, Eun-Young;Suh, Hyung-Joo
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.680-686
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    • 2010
  • Silk sericin protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes in order to examine the effectiveness of the hydrolysates in binding calcium. The amino acid nitrogen content of hydrolysates from Flavourzyme was higher than that for other enzymes, and its calcium binding capacity showed a dose-dependent increase. We examined the effects of calcium binding peptide from sericin hydolysates on the bioavailability of Ca-deficient rats. Three-week-old male rats were fed an Ca-deficient diet for three weeks. Rats were divided into four groups (DD: non-treated group on calcium deficient diet; DD+MC: milk-calcium treated group; DD+OC: organic calcium made using sericin hydolysates; and DD+IC: inorganic calcium ($CaCl_2$). After oral administration of calcium supplements for one week, the calcium content of the serum and liver were significantly higher in DD+OC ($101.7{\mu}g$/mL and $49.3{\mu}g$/mL) and DD+MC ($83.6{\mu}g$/mL and $42.8{\mu}g$/mL) than DD ($86.3{\mu}g$/mL and $43.4{\mu}g$/mL). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content in the treated groups was significantly lower than DD, but no significant difference among groups was shown. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels did not show any significant difference between groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly reduced compared to the DD group. In conclusion, binding calcium to peptides from sericin hydrolysates seems to improve its bioavailability, and to hasten the cure of calcium deficiency in experimental rats.

A Case of Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis Accompanied by Vitamin D Deficient Rickets (비타민 D 결핍성 구루병에 동반된 근위 신 세뇨관성 산증 1례)

  • Kwon Seung-Yeon;Choi Youn-Jung;Kim Kee-Hyuck
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2006
  • In the clinical state of vitamin D deficiency, it is possible that associated phosphate depletion, parathyroid hormone excess, and hypocalcemia may all depress the proximal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate, in addition to abnormal skeletal modeling or remodeling, Although nutritional rickets is considered a rare disease in developed countries nowadays, cases of vitamin D deficient rickets caused by various unhealthy lifestyles such as insufficient exposure to sunlight, breast feeding infants without giving vitamin D supplements, unbalanced vegetarian diets of breast feeding mothers, low-birth weight, and maternal deficiency of vitamin D or calcium are increasing. Here, we present the case of an 8 month old girl, who was completely breastfed without any weaning diet or infant vitamin supplements. She visited our emergency room with hypocalcemic seizure and subsequently was diagnosed with vitamin D deficient rickets accompanied by overt bone changes and proximal renal lobular acidosis. After intravenous(IV) and oral calcium replacement therapy(IV calcium gluconate injection 1 mEq/kg/day for 6 days, 2 mEq/kg/day for 4 days followed by oral calcium gluconate administration 4 g/day for 3 days) with vitamin D supplement(Alfacalcidol 0.5 mcg/day) during admission, serum calcium level was normalized with clinical improvement. Oral sodium bicarbonate(0.6 g/day) was administered from the $2^{nd}$ hospital day for 2 weeks, which normalized the serum bicarbonate(measured by $tCO_2$) level. Calcium and vitamin D replacement were continued for 2 weeks and 3 months each. After discontinuing medications, follow up laboratory findings showed good maintenance of serum calcium, alkaline phosphate and bicarbonate levels with complete improvement of bone X-ray findings.

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Effects of Feeding Different Protein Supplements on Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance and Calcium and Phosphorus Utilization in Sheep

  • Viswanathan, T.V.;Fontenot, J.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 2009
  • Two metabolism trials were conducted with 24 wether lambs to investigate the effects of feeding crab meal and other protein supplements on N utilization, digestibility and Ca and P balance in sheep. The lambs (avg. BW, 25 kg) were randomly allotted to eight diets in each of two trials. The supplements were: i) none, negative control (NC); ii) soybean meal (SBM), control; iii) supplement based on industrial byproducts of both plant and animal origin (IPA); iv) experimental supplement based on byproducts of animal origin (ESA); v) hydrolyzed supplement No 4. (HESA); vi) commercial supplement based on animal protein (CS), $Pro-Lak^{(R)}$ vii) crab meal (CM); and viii) urea (U). The supplements supplied 33% of the total dietary N (CP, 9.8%; DM basis). Lambs fed the NC diet had lower (p<0.05) DM and OM digestibility. Lower (p<0.05) apparent absorption of N was recorded for the lambs fed the HESA and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had lower Ca absorption compared to SBM. Highest (p<0.05) P absorption was observed for lambs fed CS and CM and lowest for U and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had higher (p<0.05) total VFA concentration (65.7 ${\mu}mol/ml$), compared to those fed ESA, CS, and NC diets (47.3, 49.8, and 49.5 ${\mu}mol/ml$, respectively). Highest (p<0.05) ruminal $NH_3$ N (29.6 mg/dl) was observed in lambs fed the U diet, while those fed the NC diet had the lowest (p<0.05) average value (7.66 mg/dl). Lambs fed the U diet had the highest (p<0.05) blood urea N (10.67 mg/dl). The present study showed that N utilization of diets supplemented with experimental supplements based on feather meal and blood meal; commercial supplement based on animal protein, $Prolak^{(R)}$ supplement based on plant protein and blood meal; and crab meal are comparable with that of soybean meal.

The Effects of Iron Supplements and Cereal Intake on the Iron Nutritional Status in Children in Social Welfare Institutions (액상철분제제 및 시리얼보충이 사회복지시설 아동의 철분영양상태에 미친 영향 비교)

  • Chang, Young-Eun;Chung, Hae-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.362-370
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    • 2007
  • The study was designed to assess the effect of iron and cereal supplementation on children's iron nutritional status in social welfare institutions. Dietary survey was carried out methods of food weighing and record by interview (n=74). A nutritional intervention study was carried out through supplementing iron supplements and cereal for 4 weeks in 4-12 years old children. Children received daily 40 mg elemental Fe as iron protein succinylate (n=23) and 3.6 mg elemental Fe as 100 g cereal (n=24), respectively. Blood samples were drawn before and after supplementation. Nutrients which children's intake was less than two-thirds of the RDA were vitamin A, vitamin B-1, vitamin B-2, calcium and iron. The mean daily intake of iron was 5.1 mg for male and 4.9 mg for female, and 52.3% for male and 45.4% for female of Korean RDA. The proportion of children with iron depletion assessed by TIBC (> 360 ${\mu}g$/dl) and serum ferritin (< 20 ng/ml) were 56.6% and 58.7%, respectively. The proportion of children with the iron deficient erythropoiesis assessed by serum iron (< 70 ${\mu}g$/dl), Hb (< 12 g/dl), Hct (< 36%) were 76.0%, 58.7%, 64.0%, respectively. After iron supplements treatment, Hb (p<0.001), Hct(p<0.001), serum iron (p<0.001), transferrin saturation (p<0.001) and serum ferritin (p<0.Ol) increase significantly and only TIBC decreased slightly. After cereal supplementation, in anemic children, Hct (p<0.001), serum iron (p<0.001) and transferrin saturation (p<0.001) were significantly increased. The effect of iron supplements and cereal supplementation in children with iron deficient erythropoiesis were more effective to improve the iron nutritional status than children with iron depletion. It was concluded that cereal supplementation program in anemic children was also effective to improve iron nutritional status.

The Effect of Chicory Fructan Fiber on Calcium Absorption and Bone Metabolism in Korean Postmenopausal Women

  • Kim, Yun-Young;Jang, Ki-Hyo;Lee, Eun-Young;Yunhi Cho;Kang, Soon-Ah;Ha, Woel-Kyu;Ryowon Choue
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chicory fructan fiber supplementation on bone mineral density, apparent absorption of minerals and serum parameters related to bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy Korean postmenopausal women participated in the study. 1be participants were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blind parallel design and took one of the supplements for 3 months; either a placebo of 8g maltodextrins/sucrose mixture (control group) or 8g chicory fructan fiber (fructan group). During the 3-month experimental period no differences were found in bone mineral density (BMD) between the two groups. Apparent calcium absorption significantly increased by 42% in the fructan group, while that of the control group decreased by 29% as compared to the values at baseline. Urinary calcium excretion was not significantly different between the group;;. After 3 months, the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly lower in the fructan group than in the control group and deoxypyridinolin showed a trend toward a slight reduction. In conclusion, intake of chicory fructan fiber with a regular increases apparent calcium absorption in postmenopausal women.

Milk-alkali syndrome secondary to the intake of calcium supplements (칼슘 제제 복용 후 발생한 우유알칼리증후군)

  • Lee, In Hee;Noh, Sin Young;Kang, Gun Woo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.48-51
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    • 2016
  • Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), a triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure, is associated with ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali. MAS is the third most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospital, after primary hyperparathyroidism and malignant neoplasm. MAS is not often reported in the Korean literature. We describe MAS secondary to intake of calcium citrate for the treatment of osteoporosis with thoracic spine compression fracture. A 70-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of general weakness and lethargy. He was found with acute kidney injury (serum creatinine, 4.6 mg/dL), hypercalcemia (total calcium, 14.8 mg/dL), and alkalosis. Laboratory evaluation excluded both hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Mental status and serum calcium level was normalized within a week after proper hydration and intravenous administration of furosemide. However, he developed aspiration pneumonia, pseudomembranous colitis, and sepsis with multi-organ failure. Despite intensive treatment including inotropics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy, he expired with no signs of renal recovery on the 28th hospital day.

Nutrient Supplement Use, Nutritional Knowledge and Nutrient Intakes of Athletes (운동선수들의 영양보충제 복용실태, 영양지식과 영양소 섭취상태)

  • 우순임;조성숙;김경원;김정현
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.94-106
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    • 1998
  • Nutrient supplements are often used by athletes as ergogenic aids. This study was done to investigate the use of nutrient supplements, nutritional knowledge and nutrient intakes of athletes. Subjects of this survey consisted of 195 national team athletes. The prevalence of nutrient supplement use among all subjects was 30.3%, and the frequency of use, by decreasing order, was weight lifting, taekwondo and badminton athletes. Sport drinks were the type of nutrition supplement used most frequently and vitamin C was the second one. Major reasons for nutrient supplement use were to improve training performance and to recover from fatigue, to supplement fluid and to control weight. The average score of nutritional knowledge was $19.9\pm{2.5}$ for nutrient supplement users, and $19.8\pm{3.6}$ for nutrient supplement nonusers. Intakes of protein, calcium and niacin of the user were higher than those of the nonuser. This information provided by this study can help sport nutritionists identify nutrient supplement most often consumed by national elite athletes and can aid counselors as they guide athletes towards more healthful nutrition practices.

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The cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium intake and metabolic syndrome among men and women aged 40 or older in rural areas of Korea

  • Shin, Song Kyoung;Kim, Mi Kyung;Lee, Young-Hoon;Shin, Dong Hoon;Shin, Min-Ho;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Choi, Bo Youl
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.328-335
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that dietary calcium may protect against metabolic abnormalities, but there is little evidence of this effect in Asians, who have relatively low calcium intake. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women aged 40 years and over. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 6,375 subjects aged 40 years and over and were recruited between January 2005 and February 2010 from the baseline study of the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study in Rural Communities (MRCohort). A food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. RESULTS: Calcium intake was related inversely to metabolic syndrome in women (P-value = 0.0091), but not in men (P = 0.1842). Among metabolic components, high waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.0426) and high blood glucose (P = 0.0027) in women and hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0017) in men were inversely correlated with calcium intake. Excluding those who used calcium or multinutrient supplements did not attenuate the relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Dietary calcium intake from foods may be inversely related to metabolic syndrome, WC, and blood glucose among women in rural areas of Korea.

The Suppressive Effects of Calcium Compounds against Botrytis cinerea in Paprika (파프리카 양액재배에서 발생하는 잿빛곰팡이병 방제에 대한 칼슘제제의 효과)

  • Yoon, Cheol-Soo;Yeoung, Young-Rog;Kim, Byung-Sup
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1072-1077
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    • 2010
  • Plant diseases including gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea are often reduced when calcium compounds are used as alternative materials in paprika. However, much less information is available about the effects of calcium compounds on controlling of $B.$ $cinerea$. Seven calcium compounds such as calcium sulfate dihydrate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydride were evaluated for their effectiveness against $B.$ $cinerea$ on potato dextrose agar medium. The pH of selected calcium compounds was higher (pH 8.2-10) than that of the control (pH 6.6). Calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, calcium hydride, and calcium hydroxide among seven calcium compounds were more effectively inhibited the growth of $B.$ $cinerea$ than other calcium compounds. In the case of spraying the spore suspension on paprika applied with the selected four calcium compounds and supplied with the selected calcium supplements in a hydroponic culture system, the paprika treated with calcium compounds showed less severity of disease than those untreated plants. On the basis of our results, we propose that the suppressive effects of calcium compounds on $B.$ $cinerea$ in paprika resulted from the supply of calcium and a certain degree of salt stress.