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Nutritional State and Dietary Behavior of the Free-Living Elderly Women (서울지역 여자 노인의 영양실태와 식생활 형태 - 노인대학을 중심으로 -)

  • Chang, Nam-Soo;Kim, Ji-Myung;Kim, Eun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 1999
  • The issue of health and nutritional wellbeing becomes one of the utmost concerns for the welfare of the elderly in a society of increased aging populations. This study was conducted to assess nutritional state and to identify possible dietary factors that might influence health and nutritional state of the free living elderly women. Two hundred sixty two elderly women, aged 60-90 who are actively participating in a continuing education program for the elderly in Seoul area, were interviewed using a dietary habit questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Anthropometric measurements such as heights, weights, body mass index, and tricep skinfolds and dental status were significantly different between the two age groups, <75 and ${\geq}$ 75 years of age. Sixty eight percent of the subjects were using nutritional supplements regularly, in the descending order of vitamin-mineral supplements(40%), botanicals(27.6%), tonic drinks(16%), and health foods(13.2%). For hot beverages, our study subjects drank coffee (33.6%) and green tea (17.9%) frequently, followed by doongulae, job's tears, citron and kyulmyung tea. With regard to micronutrients, vitamin C intake was found to be lower in the group aged over 75 compared to that below 75 (p<0.05). Calcium intake was significantly higher among the elderly with good dental status followed by the groups with gingivitis, denture, and missed teeth with poor chewing abilities (p<0.05). The amount of personal spending money was found to be a significant contributing factor (p<0.05) to the energy and nutrient intake in an individual. The results of the present study can be applied to the identification of the possible factors that might intervene the aging process, to the planning of the nutrition education program, and to the development of health food products for the promotion of health and nutrition of the elderly women.

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Nutritional Status of Korean Toddlers: From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2009 (한국 유아의 영양 섭취 현황: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사를 바탕으로)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Sun-Gun;Kim, Shin-Hye;Song, Yoon-Ju;Chung, Ju-Young;Park, Mi-Jung
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the feeding patterns, use of dietary supplements, and nutrient intake of Korean toddlers. Methods: We used data for 930 toddlers who participated in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2009. Feeding patterns and use of dietary supplements were assessed using standardized questionnaires, and nutrition intake was assessed using the 24 hr recall method. Results: In 2007~2009, 48.7% of toddlers used dietary supplements. Most parents (95.4%) initiated a regime of dietary supplements for their children following the advice of friends or relatives. Only 0.4% of parents followed the advice given by their doctors for dietary supplements use. In the survey of nutrient intake for toddlers, the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake was 53.9% for subjects aged 1 year, 55.2% for 2 years and 65.6% for subjects aged 3 years. The prevalence of inadequate iron intake was 52.0% for subjects aged 1 year, 48.7% for 2 years and 48.4% for subjects aged 3 years. In the survey performed on feeding patterns of toddlers during the infant period, mixed feeding accounted for 57.4%, breast feeding for 32.2%,and formula feeding for 10.4%. Sixty-five percent of toddlers began weaning between 4 and 6 months. Conclusions: This study indicated that a number of toddlers were at risk of inadequate calcium and iron intake. The role of professionals in counseling for qualified dietary intake and dietary supplement use is therefore necessary for Korean toddlers.

A Strategy for Safe Addition of Selected Micronutrients to Foods for Children (어린이를 위한 일반식품에의 일부 미량영양소 임의영양 강화 안전 수준 평가)

  • Oh, Se-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 2009
  • For children, voluntary addition of micronutrients to foods must be done without health risk to any of them. This study examined safe maximum levels of vitamin A and C, and calcium for children based on nutrient intake data from the 2001-2002 and 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in Korea, while using the safe strategy for addition of micronutrients to foods suggested by EU. For the respective 2001-2002 and 2005 NHANES data proportions of potentially fortifiable energy intake ranged 0.36-0.40 and 0.31-0.34 and the $95^{th}$ percentile intake of energy were 2,325-3,296 kcal and 2,286-3,814 kcal depending upon age groups. Ninety-fifth percentile intake levels of vitamin A were over or close to UL, even without considering supplement intake for some age groups, which suggest that vitamin A fortification to foods required further consideration. For calcium, 12-14 year old children were the most sensitive group for excessive intake and nutrient fortification to foods. In these children, maximum levels for fortification were 242-290 mg and 484-580 mg with 0.135 and 0.068 proportions of fortified food (PFF) assumed, respectively, without considering calcium intake from supplements. With consideration of calcium intake from both diet and supplement, the maximum levels for fortification were 20-36% of those without supplement intake. The maximum fortification levels of vitamin C were the lowest in 3-5 year old children, showing 77-187 mg and 68-164 mg with and without supplement intake, respectively. These results suggest that the model used for risk assessment in this study can be used to help risk managers to set maximum levels for safe addition of micronutrients to foods.

Vitamins and minerals for women: recent programs and intervention trials

  • Greiner, Ted
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2011
  • Women's nutrition has received little attention in nutrition programming, even though clinical trials and intervention trials have suggested that dietary improvement or supplementation with several nutrients may improve their health, especially in low-income settings, the main focus of this paper. Most attention so far has focused on how improvements in maternal nutrition can improve health outcomes for infants and young children. Adequate vitamin D and calcium nutrition throughout life may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, and calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preeclampsia and low birth weight. To reduce neural tube defects, additional folic acid and possibly vitamin $B_{12}$ need to be provided to non-deficient women before they know they are pregnant. This is best achieved by fortifying a staple food. It is unclear whether maternal vitamin A supplementation will lead to improved health outcomes for mother or child. Iron, iodine and zinc supplementation are widely needed for deficient women. Multimicronutrient supplementation (MMS) in place of the more common iron-folate supplements given in pregnancy in low-income countries may slightly increase birth weight, but its impact on neonatal mortality and other outcomes is unclear. More sustainable alternative approaches deserve greater research attention.

Development of Cell Entrapment Technology for the Improvement of Bifidobacterium Viability (Bifidobacterium의 생존력 증대를 위한 세포포집기술개발)

  • Park, Hui-Gyeong;Bae, Gi-Seong;Heo, Tae-Ryeon
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.389-395
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    • 1999
  • Bifidobcterium spp. can provide human being with several beneficial physiological. Therefor, there has been a considerable interest in products Bifidobcterium spp. dietary supplements or as starter cultures for probiotic products that may assint in the improvement of health on the human. But indusrial applications have been limited because Bifidobcterium spp. are sensitive to acidic pH due to organic acid produced by themselves and various conditions. The objective of this study was to establish new method for improvement of Bifidobcterium viability by entrapment im calcium alginate beads. We have a plan to select the most suitable polymer through the comparison with acid tolerance oxygen tolerance and theological properties of polymer. Increase of the viable number of Bifidobcterium induced increasing acid tolerance and oxygen tolernce trough the development of entrapment technique. The 4%, 3030mm diameter) sodium alginate beads led to the best survivability under acid condition. Especially, addition of 6% mannitol, 6% glycerol or 6% sorbitol to the sodium alginate helped a beneficial effect on viability against acid, bile salt, hydrogen peroxide and cold strage. The number of viability of entrapeede cells by retreatment was 96 fold higher than non-entrapeed cells after 5 hours of storage under pH 3 acidic condition. These experimental data clearly demonstrate that a whole cell immobilization by entrapment in calcium alginate beads is an important survival mechanism enable to withstand environmental stresses as the acidic condition, hydrogen peroxide toxicity and frozen state.

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Effects of Dietary Supplemental Lincomycin and Food Waste on Performance and Blood Components of Broiler Chicks (린코마이신과 남은 음식물의 첨가.급여가 육계의 생산성 및 혈액의 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • 박재홍;김은성;김상호;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.267-277
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    • 2000
  • These studies were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplemental lincomycin at different food waste supplements on performance and blood components of broiler chicks. Diets were based corn, soybean meal and contained 3,100㎉/kg ME, 21% CP for the rest two weeks. Three levels of dietary lincomycin(LM ; 0, 2.2, 4.4 mg/kg) and food waste(FW : 0, 7.5, 15%) were added for both experiments. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio(FCR) were measured for five weeks. Blood components, liver weight and abdominal fat ratio to body weight were examined at the end of experiment. Metabolizable energy of food waste used in formulating diet prior to feeding trials were measured 2,504(Expt 1) and 2,734㎉/kg(Expt 2), respectively. In Expt 1, weight gain of birds fed 4.4mg/kg LM was significantly higher than that of no LM treatment(P〈0.05). It also tended to increase in 7.5% food waste treatment compared to that of control but was not significantly different. FCR of chicks fed 2.2mg/kg LM supplement was significantly improved compared to that of other treatments. However, chicks fed food waste supplements had higher FCR than control as a dietary FW level increased(P〈0.05). There were no significance in blood components of all treatments. Liver to body weight ratio of birds fed 7.5% FW supplements decreased significantly(P〈0.05), but was no consistency in LM treatments. In Expt 2, weight gain of chicks fed 15% FW was not significantly different from the control and 7.5% FW. It tended to increase as dietary supplemental LM increased. It also increased in no LM treatment with 15% FW compared to that of control. However, the birds fed 2.2mg/kg LM with 15% FW exhibited higher weight gain than dther treatments. As FW supplement increased, the feed intake increased significantly(P〈0.05). There were no significance in blood components except serum calcium. Weights of liver were not affected by dietary FW or LM. The results of these experiments indicated that chicks fed 4.4mg/kg LM supplements maximized growth rate of all treatments and improved FCR in 2.2mg/kg LM.

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A Survey on the Consumption of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements as Health Functional Foods and Related Factors by Korean Adolescents (한국 일부 청소년의 건강기능식품용 비타민·무기질 보충제 섭취 실태 및 관련 요인 조사)

  • Lee, Hyun Sook;Han, Ji Hye;Kim, Sun Hyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.415-423
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the consumption prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplements as health functional foods (VM-HFF) and to examine the factors associated with VM-HFF consumption behaviors in adolescents. A total of 1,407 adolescents attending middle or high schools from various cities and rural communities in Korea participated in this study. The prevalence of VM-HFF consumption was 41.7%, with boys showing a higher consumption than girls (p<0.01). VM-HFF consumption was higher in families with higher socioeconomic status and for families with parents that exhibited higher concerns about their child's health, growth, and nutritional intake (p<0.001). Most consumers of VM-HFF consumed HFFs 'when healthy' (50.1%), and acquired nutritional information from 'their families & relatives' (50.9%). Most consumers responded that VM-HFF was 'a little effective' (54.3%), followed by 'no obvious effects' (37.1%), and 'very effective' (7.4%). The effectiveness of consuming VM-HFF was mainly for 'fatigue recovery' (39.0%) and 'health improvement' (28.2%). Most consumers purchased HFFs at 'pharmacies & oriental medicine clinics' (53.8%) and at 'health functional food stores' (18.8%). Most consumers 'occasionally' (51.1%) or 'seldom' (27.3%) checked nutrition facts when purchasing, with 58.9% of consumers understanding the nutritional label for 'the most part', but only 8.7% of them understanding it 'very well'. Among the VM-HFF, consumers preferred calcium- and vitamin C-supplements. Consumers' mini-dietary assessment scores were higher than those of non-consumers. The results above showed that VM-HFF consumption was widely spread among adolescents, but few consumers checked and understood the nutrition label when they purchased VM-HFF, and were highly dependent on the advice and information from non-professional nutritionists, such as families & relatives. Therefore, it is necessary to educate adolescents to help them read nutrition labels and select the proper VM-HFF.

Determination of calcium and phosphorus utilization in various hatchery by-products for broiler chickens

  • Choi, Hyeon Seok;Park, Geun Hyeon;Kim, Jong Hyuk;Ji, Sang Yun;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 2019
  • The objective of the current study was to determine calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) utilization in 4 different hatchery by-products (HBPs) for broiler chickens. The four different HBPs included infertile eggs (IFE), unhatched eggs (UHE), low grade and dead chicks (LDC), and a mixture (MIX) of 55% IFE, 10% UHE, and 10% LDC with 25% hatched eggshells. A total of sixty four 50-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. Two birds were placed together in one metabolic cage. Additional 16 birds were used to measure the endogenous losses of Ca and P. A forcefeeding procedure (i.e., crop intubation) was used to measure the apparent and true total tract retention (ATTR and TTTR, respectively) of Ca and P in the 4 HBPs. The results showed that the TTTR of Ca in the UHE was less (p < 0.05) than that in the IFE, LDC, and MIX. The amounts of available Ca in the MIX were greater (p < 0.05) than those in the IFE and UHE, which were greater (p < 0.05) than those in the LDC. The TTTR of P was not different among the 4 HBPs. However, the amounts of available P in the LDC were greater (p < 0.05) than those in the IFE and UHE, which were greater (p < 0.05) than those in the MIX. In conclusion, HBPs contain high amounts of available Ca and P because of high concentrations of total Ca and P with a high utilization rate. Therefore, the use of HBPs in broiler diets can reduce costs on Ca and P supplements.

Current Status and Prospect of Antiobesity Functional Agents

  • Do Myoung-Sool
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2004
  • The obese population has been increasing over the world wide and obesity became a socioeconomic problems. It is become more serious by the accumulation of the knowledge that the obesity is related directly or indirectly with several diseases like, diabetes, hypertension, etc. With these reasons, many functional food or agents for the purpose of weight loss have been developed. However, most of these remedies are unproven and some have produced even dangerous side effects due to the ephedrine alkaloids contained in Ma-Hang. Because of these reasons, they banned using of these agents in US and regards the antiobesity functional agents as drugs in Europe. Several functional agents are known for weight loss activities like, HCA, L-canitine, CLA, chitosan, calcium supplements and capsaicin containing red pepper, kimchi and kochujang. We describe here about the function, efficacy and mechanism of these antiobesity functional agents. Furthermore, the trial of the mixture of weight loss related herbal ingredients for safe multifunctional antiobesity functional agents are discussed here, as well.

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Effects of Nutritional Supplementation of Nutritional Status of Cancer Patients (영양보충제의 급여가 암환자의 영양소 섭취 및 영양 상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 이은화
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 1997
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional supplements for cancer patients, the study was performed in 30 cncer patients, receiving chemotherapy. Patients were randomly divided into two groups -15 patients for the nutritionally supplemented group and 15 patients for the control group. Patients of the supplemented group were nutritionally supported with a commercial product for 9 weeks. Nutritional status of the patients was detrmined by dietary intake data, anthropometric measurements and hematological analysis at the beginning and after 3, 6 and 9 weeks of supplemental priod. Mean daily intake levels of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and asorbic acid for the supplemented group were significantly higher than those of control group. Significant increase in mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm fat area were observed in supplemented group during the study period. However, the changes of body weight, body mass index and arm muscle area were not significantly increased. Serum transferrin level improved slightly by nutritioal support, but serum albumin levle did not change significantly. There data show that nutritional status of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy can be improved by utritional supplementation for 9 weeks.

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