• 제목, 요약, 키워드: cholesterol oxide products

검색결과 5건 처리시간 0.043초

염장조건이 굴비 가공 중 콜레스테롤 및 콜레스테롤 산화물 생성에 미치는 영향 (The Effect of Salting Conditions on Formation of Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxides During Gulbi Processing and Storage)

  • 강민정;박선영;신정혜;최덕주;조현소;이수정;성낙주
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.251-255
    • /
    • 2008
  • 굴비 가공 중 식염농도가 콜레스테롤 산화에 미치는 영향을 분석하고자 염장시간을 5시간과 5일로 달리하여 건조 저장한 후 콜레스테롤 및 그 산화물의 함량을 분석하였다. 생 시료의 콜레스테롤 함량은 $133.4{\pm}5.20\;mg/100\;g$으로 정량되었으나 천일염으로 염장 후 콜레스테롤 함량은 5시간 염장하였을 때 $130.3{\pm}2.95\;mg/100\;g$, 5일간 염장한 시료에서 $87.2{\pm}3.49\;mg/100\;g$으로 염장시간에 따른 콜레스테롤의 감소가 현저하였으며 저장기간 동안 콜레스테롤의 함량은 점차 감소하였다. 7-ketocholesterol은 5시간 및 5일간 염장 후 각각 $75.2{\pm}2.70\;{\mu}g/100\;g$$82.4{\pm}3.30\;{\mu}g/100\;g$으로 정량되었다. 5시간 염장시료는 건조 2일까지는 7-ketocholesterol의 함량에 유의차가 없었으나 건조 5일에 급격히 증가하였고, 저장기간 동안에도 점차 증가하였다. $7{\alpha}$$7{\beta}-hydroxycholesterol$은 생 시료에서는 전혀 검출되지 않았으나 가공과정을 거치면서 점차 증가하였는데 $7{\alpha}-hydroxycholesterol$의 함량은 저장 21일 후는 5시간 염장한 시료($658.1{\pm}6.20\;{\mu}g/100\;g$)에서 5일간 염장한 시료($539.6{\pm}6.17\;{\mu}g/100\;g$)보다 $118.5\;{\mu}g/100g$ 더 많이 생성되었다. $7{\beta}-hydroxycholesterol$도 염장 및 저장 기간에 따라 그 함량이 증가하였으며 5일간 염장한 시료에서는 저장 7일과 14일 사이에 증가폭이 가장 컸다.

Octacosanol과 박과식물 추출물을 주성분으로 하는 혼합물의 지구력 증진 효과 (Effect on Endurance Improving of Mixture of the Extracts of Watermelon and Octacosanol)

  • 임현우;김성규;이민원
    • 약학회지
    • /
    • v.49 no.6
    • /
    • pp.465-470
    • /
    • 2005
  • Octacosanol is known to enhance endurance activities, control cholesterol in body and improve the function of cardiopulmonary. Citrulline, which is main compound of watermelon, is known to improve angiectasia through stimulating production of nitric oxide. To improve endurance activity swimming test on rats was carried out using four samples such as 1$\%$ octacosanol, citrulline, the extracts of barks of watermelon and products, mixture of 1$\%$ octacosanol and the extracts of barks of watermelon (6 : 4). Biochemical assays on the liver and serum of tested rats were also performed using commercial analysis kits. In result, it was shown that swimming time of III group increased by 26$\%$ and that of V group was increased by 22$\%$ at the swimming test. As a result of biological assays on the liver and serum of tested rats it was possible to confirm stability of toxicity When compared with creatine kinase of control group (549.11$\pm$39.15 U/l) citrulline (644.11 $\pm$50.67 U/l) and products group (646.00$\pm$46.99 U/l) were largely increased. When compared with inorganic phosphate of control group (12.01$\pm$0.75 mg/이), citrulline (13.03$\pm$0.94 mg/dl) and products group (12.90$\pm$0.55 mg/dl) showed similar results. Also, when compared with lactic acid and glucose of control group (152.91 $\pm$ 13.45, 103.00$\pm$ 8.69 mg/dl), citrulline (125.53$\pm$15.54, 83.75$\pm$7.29 mg/dl) and products group (135.26$\pm$11.50, 78.57$\pm$9.79 mg/dl) were largely decreased. As these test results, it was determined that 1$\%$ octacosanol and extracts of barks of watermelon had some effect of improving endurance activity. Futhermore, it was thought that it could be used as source of functional food.

전자선 조사와 저장기간이 우육의 콜레스테롤 산화물질에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Electron-Beam Irradiation and Storage on Cholesterol Oxides Products of Beef Meat)

  • 이정일;민중석;김일석;박구부;이무하
    • 한국식품과학회지
    • /
    • v.30 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1312-1320
    • /
    • 1998
  • 실험재료는 시중에서 판매되는 우육(등심) 부위를 이용하였으며, 생육 시료의 함기포장과 진공포장은 폴리에틸렌 필름을 이용하였고, 전자선 조사(0, 1, 2, kGy)를 실시한 후 $2{\sim}4^{\circ}C$의 냉장실에서 보관하면서 저장기간 별(0, 7, 14일) 실험에 사용하였다. 가열 시료는 oven에서 육 내부가 $70^{\circ}C$가 될 때까지 가열한 다음 함기 포장과 진공포장을 즉시 실시한 후 생육 시료와 같은 조건으로 전자선 조사를 실시한 다음 $2{\sim}4^{\circ}C$의 냉장실에서 보관하면서 생육 시료와 같은 저장기간별 콜레스테롤 산화물의 발생 종류와 발생량을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 가열하지 않은 우육 등심의 함기 포장에서는 $7{\alpha}-hydroxycholesterol,\;{\beta}-epoxide,\;7{\beta}-hydroxycholesterol$, 7-ketocholesterol이 $0.5{\mu}g/g$ 이상 발생하였으며, 전 저장기간 동안 cholestanetriol과 ${\alpha}-epoxide$은 극소량($0.5\;{\mu}g/g$ 이하)발생하였다. 가열하지 않은 우육 등심의 진공포장에서는 전 저장기간 동안 $7{\alpha}-hydroxycholesterol$, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol과 ${\alpha}-epoxide$은 극소량$(0.5\;{\mu}g/g$ 이하) 발생하였다. 우육 등심을 가열한 후 함기포장에서는 전 저장기간 동안 cholestanetriol과 ${\alpha}-epoxide$은 극소량$(0.5\;{\mu}g/g$ 이하)였지만, $7{\alpha}-hydroxycholesterol\;(1.53{\sim}26.81),\;{\beta}-epoxide\;(1.07{\sim}5.23),\;7{\beta}-hydroxycholesterol\;(40.64{\sim}101.30)$, 7-ketocholesterol $(7.16{\sim}33.91)$. 모든 결과에서 처리구에 따른 콜레스테롤 산화물의 전체 발생량은 조사 수준이 증가할수록 유의적으로 증가하였으며(P<0.05), 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 전체 발생량이 유의적으로 증가하였다(P<0.05).

  • PDF

가열방법 및 온도가 전자선 조사한 한우 steak의 지질산화에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Cooking Method and Temperature on the Lipid Oxidation of Electron-Beam Irradiated Hanwoo Steak.)

  • 박태선;신택순;이정일;박구부
    • 생명과학회지
    • /
    • v.15 no.5
    • /
    • pp.840-846
    • /
    • 2005
  • 본 연구는 식품의 안전성에 대한 관심이 고조되면서 위생적인 식육생산을 위한 방법으로 전자선을 조사하여 이화학적 특성 및 지방산화에 미치는 영향을 조사하고자 실시하였다. 공시재료는 한우암소 지육중 육질등급 1+판정(근내지방도 No.7. 육색 No.4, 성숙도 No.1, 조직감 No.1)을 받은 지육($280\∼300kg$) 6두를 구매하였다. 구매한 원료지육을 1차 수도물로 고압수세하고 2차 $ 50\% $에틸알콜로 소독한 후 발골 정형하여 실험재료로 사용하였다. 모든 처리에서 가열온도가 높아갈수록 포화지방산의 함량이 높아갔다. PBS는 가열온도에 따른 지방산패에서 전자선 비조사구와 조사구 모두 가열온도가 높을수록 높은 지방산 패도를 나타내 었고(P<0.05), OBS 또한 malonsldehyde양이 증가하였다(p<0.05). 가열온도별로는 $ 60^{\circ}C $에 비하여 $ 80^{\circ}C $가 비조사구와 3, 6 kCy 조사구는 약 2배정도의 MA량이 생성되었다(p<0.05). OBS가 PBS보다 많은 양의 malonaldehyde가 생성되었으며, 전자선 조사 수준의 차이에는 수준에 따라 비조사구와 약간의 차이만 나타내었다. 전자선조사수준과 가열온도가 증가함에 따라 콜레스테롤 산화물의 발생량이 증가하였으며, 또한 가열방법 중 PBS가 OBS에 비하여 산화의 정도가 유의적으로 증가하였다(p<0.05).

Sesquiterpenoids Bioconversion Analysis by Wood Rot Fungi

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Ryu, Sun-Hwa;Choi, In-Gyu;Kim, Myungkil
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.19-20
    • /
    • 2016
  • Sesquiterpenoids are defined as $C_{15}$ compounds derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), and their complex structures are found in the tissue of many diverse plants (Degenhardt et al. 2009). FPP's long chain length and additional double bond enables its conversion to a huge range of mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic structures. A number of cyclic sesquiterpenes with alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone derivatives have key biological and medicinal properties (Fraga 1999). Fungi, such as the wood-rotting Polyporus brumalis, are excellent sources of pharmaceutically interesting natural products such as sesquiterpenoids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthesis of P. brumalis sesquiterpenoids on modified medium. Fungal suspensions of 11 white rot species were inoculated in modified medium containing $C_6H_{12}O_6$, $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ for 20 days. Cultivation was stopped by solvent extraction via separation of the mycelium. The metabolites were identified as follows: propionic acid (1), mevalonic acid lactone (2), ${\beta}$-eudesmane (3), and ${\beta}$-eudesmol (4), respectively (Figure 1). The main peaks of ${\beta}$-eudesmane and ${\beta}$-eudesmol, which were indicative of sesquiterpene structures, were consistently detected for 5, 7, 12, and 15 days These results demonstrated the existence of terpene metabolism in the mycelium of P. brumalis. Polyporus spp. are known to generate flavor components such as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate; 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyl benzoic acid; 3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenol; and 3-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl phenol in submerged cultures (Hoffmann and Esser 1978). Drimanes of sesquiterpenes were reported as metabolites from P. arcularius and shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Fleck et al. 1996). The main metabolites of P. brumalis, ${\beta}$-Eudesmol and ${\beta}$-eudesmane, were categorized as eudesmane-type sesquiterpene structures. The eudesmane skeleton could be biosynthesized from FPP-derived IPP, and approximately 1,000 structures have been identified in plants as essential oils. The biosynthesis of eudesmol from P. brumalis may thus be an important tool for the production of useful natural compounds as presumed from its identified potent bioactivity in plants. Essential oils comprising eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids have been previously and extensively researched (Wu et al. 2006). ${\beta}$-Eudesmol is a well-known and important eudesmane alcohol with an anticholinergic effect in the vascular endothelium (Tsuneki et al. 2005). Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that ${\beta}$-eudesmol acts as a channel blocker for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and it can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (Seo et al. 2011). Variation of nutrients was conducted to determine an optimum condition for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by P. brumalis. Genes encoding terpene synthases, which are crucial to the terpene synthesis pathway, generally respond to environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and available nutrients (Hoffmeister and Keller 2007, Yu and Keller 2005). Calvo et al. described the effect of major nutrients, carbon and nitrogen, on the synthesis of secondary metabolites (Calvo et al. 2002). P. brumalis did not prefer to synthesize sesquiterpenes under all growth conditions. Results of differences in metabolites observed in P. brumalis grown in PDB and modified medium highlighted the potential effect inorganic sources such as $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ on sesquiterpene synthesis. ${\beta}$-eudesmol was apparent during cultivation except for when P. brumalis was grown on $MgSO_4$-free medium. These results demonstrated that $MgSO_4$ can specifically control the biosynthesis of ${\beta}$-eudesmol. Magnesium has been reported as a cofactor that binds to sesquiterpene synthase (Agger et al. 2008). Specifically, the $Mg^{2+}$ ions bind to two conserved metal-binding motifs. These metal ions complex to the substrate pyrophosphate, thereby promoting the ionization of the leaving groups of FPP and resulting in the generation of a highly reactive allylic cation. Effect of magnesium source on the sesquiterpene biosynthesis was also identified via analysis of the concentration of total carbohydrates. Our current study offered further insight that fungal sesquiterpene biosynthesis can be controlled by nutrients. To profile the metabolites of P. brumalis, the cultures were extracted based on the growth curve. Despite metabolites produced during mycelia growth, there was difficulty in detecting significant changes in metabolite production, especially those at low concentrations. These compounds may be of interest in understanding their synthetic mechanisms in P. brumalis. The synthesis of terpene compounds began during the growth phase at day 9. Sesquiterpene synthesis occurred after growth was complete. At day 9, drimenol, farnesol, and mevalonic lactone (or mevalonic acid lactone) were identified. Mevalonic acid lactone is the precursor of the mevalonic pathway, and particularly, it is a precursor for a number of biologically important lipids, including cholesterol hormones (Buckley et al. 2002). Farnesol is the precursor of sesquiterpenoids. Drimenol compounds, bi-cyclic-sesquiterpene alcohols, can be synthesized from trans-trans farnesol via cyclization and rearrangement (Polovinka et al. 1994). They have also been identified in the basidiomycota Lentinus lepideus as secondary metabolites. After 12 days in the growth phase, ${\beta}$-elemene caryophyllene, ${\delta}$-cadiene, and eudesmane were detected with ${\beta}$-eudesmol. The data showed the synthesis of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with bi-cyclic structures. These compounds can be synthesized from FPP by cyclization. Cyclic terpenoids are synthesized through the formation of a carbon skeleton from linear precursors by terpene cyclase, which is followed by chemical modification by oxidation, reduction, methylation, etc. Sesquiterpene cyclase is a key branch-point enzyme that catalyzes the complex intermolecular cyclization of the linear prenyl diphosphate into cyclic hydrocarbons (Toyomasu et al. 2007). After 20 days in stationary phase, the oxygenated structures eudesmol, elemol, and caryophyllene oxide were detected. Thus, after growth, sesquiterpenes were identified. Per these results, we showed that terpene metabolism in wood-rotting fungi occurs in the stationary phase. We also showed that such metabolism can be controlled by magnesium supplementation in the growth medium. In conclusion, we identified P. brumalis as a wood-rotting fungus that can produce sesquiterpenes. To mechanistically understand eudesmane-type sesquiterpene biosynthesis in P. brumalis, further research into the genes regulating the dynamics of such biosynthesis is warranted.

  • PDF